About Hermerich, King of the Suevi
Hermeric (Ermenrich, Hermerich, Hermanarici, Hermerico) (c.360-441). He was King of the Suevi in Galicia. The Suevi were a coalition of Germanic tribes, probably organized around the clan of the Semnoni. Tacitus says, "The Semnones give themselves out to be the most ancient and renowned branch of the Suevi." [Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, ￼De Origine et situ Germanorum￼, 38 (c98).] Although their ethnogenesis is unknown, their royal family probably claimed descent from Irmin, one of the three sons of Mannus the ancestor of mankind, who was son of the earth-born god Tuisto.
According to St. Isidore of Seville (died 636) in his ￼Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum￼, "In the era 446 (408), the Suevi under their ruler Hermeric entered Spain together with the Alani and the Vandals and occupied all of Galicia with the Vandals. But when the Vandals crossed into Africa, the Suevi alone obtained Galicia; Hermeric was their ruler in Spain for thirty-two years. The Galicians had their own kingdom in part of the province. Hermeric plundered them with continuous ravaging and finally, overcome by an illness, he made peace with them. He then gave his son Recchila royal power in place of himself. He was sent with a large part of the army and after beginning a war crushed Andevotus, the commander of the Roman soldiers, together with many troops at the river Genil in the province of Baetica after seizing great quantities of his gold and silver. Then he besieged Merida and after entering and occupying it, joined it to his kingdom. But his father Hermeric was afflicted with a long illness for seven years and died."
From another source: "The Svebians (Suevi, Swabians) were a primarily pastoralist Germanic tribe from the Elbe basin, related to (and perhaps encompassing) the Marcomanni, Quadi and Langobardi. During their long stay in the region, they had absorbed elements of Latin and Celtic culture.
"Pushed out by the Huns, some 30,000 Svebians joined the Vandals and the Alans in the great invasion of the Roman Empire in 406 and arrived in the Iberian peninsula in 409. In the subsequent partition of territories between the invading tribes, the Svebians received perhaps the poorest lot -- a small kingdom in the mountainous region of Galicia (northwestern Spain). Yet those very mountains shielded them from the Visigothic-Roman onslaught of 415 which virtually exterminated their Vandal and Alan comrades. The Svebians availed themselves of the opportunity to expand their kingdom further south, adding nearly half of Portugal. They established their capital at the Roman ecclesiastical city of Bracara Augusta (Braga).
"The Kingdom of the Suevi was perhaps the first Germanic kingdom recognized by Rome. Under Rechila (r. 428-448) and Rechiar (r. 448-456), the Suevi set up feudal institutions, a process furthered along by Rechiar's conversion to Catholic Christianity in 449. The Suevi can thus be said to have set up the first "Medieval" kingdom in Europe.
"During the 450s, the Svebians had ventured unwisely over their borders, prompting a massive Visigothic-Roman response in 456. The Suevi armies were destroyed at the Battle of Urbicus River and their kingdom laid to waste. The Visigothic depredations prompted the powerful Roman general Ricimer, himself a Svebian, to engineer a coup back in Rome. The Visigoths were forced to abandon their campaign and return to Gaul to deal, but left behind one of their own, Aioulf, as governor.
"In 457, the ambitious Aioulf decided to declare himself independent king of the Svebi. But he was assassinated soon after and the Svebian kingdom fell into chaos and confusion as Svebi, Visigothic and Romano-Hispanic pretenders climbed over each other to claim the kingdom as their own. The situation dragged itself out, prompting repeated interventions by the Visigothic king Theodoric II. Finally, in 465, Visigothic armies imposed law and order and placed Remisund on the Svebian throne. The Suevi were reduced to vassalage and forcibly converted to Arian Christianity.
"But chaos returned after the death of Theodoric II in 466. The Svebians and Romano-Hispanics joined forces and launched an assault on the Visigothic-Roman citadels of Coimbra, Lisbon and Orense. The Visigoths fought back and drove the Suevi back up to Galicia.
"The kingdom miraculously survived this third onslaught, but the Roman Empire evaporated soon after and the Visigoths decided to stay on and settle in Hispania permanently. With their old enemies now powerful neighbors, the Svebians reconciled themselves to a tranquil and obscure existence, more-or-less in vassalage to the Visigoths, more-or-less at war with them.
"The Byzantine invasion of Hispania put the Visigoths on the defensive and gave the Svebians more breathing room. Arriving with them was the Pannonian missionary, Saint Martin of Dume, who, in 550, converted the Sevebian king Carriac back to Catholic Christianity. This signaled the final phase of assimilation of the Suevi into Romano-Hispanic culture. Monasteries were set up and the kingdom reorganized along diocesan administrative lines. The old Roman bishops of Braga and Coimbra were revived and elevated to become virtually co-rulers of the Svebian kingdom. Much to the chagrin of the Arian Visigoths, these bishops became beacons for Romano-Hispanic resistance throughout Visigothia.
"In 572, under the pretence of restoring the borders of the old Roman bishoprics, King Miro of the Svebians invaded northern Spain and brought the Asturias and Cantabria under Svebian protection. The Visigoths launched another massive invasion of Svebia, but the Svebians capitalized on a Visigothic civil war and avoided complete defeat. A tenuous peace was negotiated in 576.
"The death of Miro in 583 was followed by a succession crisis. In 585, King Leogivild of the Visigoths used this as an excuse to finally annex the moribund Svebian kingdom.
"The conversion of the Visigoths to Catholic Christianity in 589 and the elevation of the bishopric of Toledo as the supreme see of Hispania put an end to any hope for a Svebian revival. All remnants of Svebian culture disappeared completely."
Hermeric (Ermenrich, Hermerich, Hermanarici, Hermerico) (c.360-441). He is said to come from Moravia and Upper Hungary / Danube, crossed the Rhine 406 and ravaged Gaul . Under his rule, the Suevi in 409 left in Galicia settled and founded the kingdom of the Suevi 411. He was the Suevic King of Galicia from perhaps as early as 406 and certainly no later than 419 until his retirement in 438. He was a pagan and an enemy of the Roman Empire throughout his life. He is given a reign of thirty two years in most manuscripts of Isidore of Seville's Historia Suevorum, but fourteen years in one manuscript.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hermeric (died 441) was the Suevic King of Galicia from perhaps as early as 406 and certainly no later than 419 until his retirement in 438. He was a pagan and an enemy of the Roman Empire throughout his life. He is given a reign of thirty two years in most manuscripts of Isidore of Seville's Historia Suevorum, but fourteen years in one manuscript.
Hermeric led the Suevi across the frozen Rhine along with the Vandals and Alans in December 409. They crossed Gaul and the Pyrenees and settled in the Hispania. While Theodore Mommsen believed the Suevi were foederati and Ernst Stein seconded the notion by believing they had made an agreement with the Roman usurper Magnus Maximus whereby they received the western half of Iberia, there is no primary evidence for any alliance between the Suevi and Rome. In 411 (according to Ludwig Schmidt) or 417 (according to Felix Dahn), Hermeric made a treaty with the Roman emperor Honorius, but in fact the only event of note in 411 was the division of Iberia sorte (by lot) between the barbarian peoples. The east of the province of Gallaecia with its capital of Braga (Bracara Augusta) fell to the Suevi, while the west of the province went to the populous Hasdingi.
Between 416 and 418, the Visigoths under Wallia made war on Hermeric on behalf of Rome. In 419, after a personal dispute between Hermeric and the Vandal king Gunderic, the Vandals attacked the Suevi and trapped Hermeric in the Nervasian (Erbasian) Mountains before the Roman general Asterius intervened and the Vandals retreated. Thereafter, until the Vandals left Iberia for Africa in 429, Hermeric remained peaceful, but in 430 he began to raid Gallaecia. In 431 a Gallaecian named Hydatius went to Flavius Aëtius to plead for help against the Suevi, but Aëtius delayed until 432 the sending of the legate Censorius. According to Hydatius' Chronicle of contemporary events, the Gallaecian plebs in the better-fortified strongpoints defeated Hermeric and his men, inflicting heavy casualties and taking many prisoners, which forced the Sueves to release the Gallaecian families they had taken captive (430).
In 435, "on episcopal intervention", possibly Hydatius', Hermeric made peace with the Gallaecians. In that same year, Hermeric negotiated through the Catholic bishop Symphosius directly with the Western Roman Emperor. In 437, Censorius made a second expedition accompanied by Fretimund.
After seven years of illness, Hermeric was forced to retire from the kingship in 438 and pass it on to his son Rechila. The story, recorded in Isidore, that Hermeric sent Rechila to Baetica to defeat Andevotus, Romanae militiae dux, is false, as there is no contemporary evidence that Hermeric retained any authority after his abdication. There appears to have been no principle of elective monarchy among the Suevi and the successes of their raids may have accounted for the contentment of their people. Hermeric's royal line lasted until 456.
In 429, there appeared briefly a Suevic military leader named Heremigarius operating in Lusitania who may have been a joint monarch with Hermeric, but there is no primary source to prove it.
1. ^ Thompson, 217. He was first mentioned by Hydatius in 419, it being Isidore who makes him king from 406.
2. ^ a b Thompson, 129 and 306n32.
3. ^ a b c d Thompson, 153–154.
4. ^ a b c d Thompson, 165.
5. ^ Thompson, 178.
6. ^ a b Thompson, 179 and 301n94.
7. ^ Thompson, 120.
Source / Forrás:
Ermenrich (auch Hermerich, Hermanarici, span. und port. Hermerico; * um 360; † 441) war der erste König der Sueben im Gebiet der ehemaligen römischen Provinz Gallaecia, das im Nordwesten der iberischen Halbinsel lag. Er regierte in der Zeit von 409 bis 438.
Er stammt angeblich aus Mähren und Oberungarn/Donau, überschritt 406 den Rhein (siehe Rheinübergang von 406) und verwüstete Gallien. Unter seiner Herrschaft ließen sich die Sueben im Jahr 409 in Galicien nieder und gründeten 411 das Reich der Sueben. Er war seit 438 wegen Krankheit regierungsunfähig.
Ermenrich war der Vater von König Rechila der Sueben (Quaden) (* um 400; † August 448) und Fürst Hunimund (Donau-Sueben) „Filius Hermanarici“ (* um 395; † nach 469 in „Suavia“). Rechila eroberte Baetica und Sevilla.
Durchbricht 406 den Limes, verwüstet Gallien und gründet das Reich der Sueben.
Roi des Suèves
Hermerich, King of the Suevi的年谱
Probably Bracara (Present Braga), Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia (within present Portuguese Braga District and Spanish Gallicia), Hispaniae (Present Spain and Portugal)