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John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and 1st Earl of Waterford KG (1384/1387 Blakemere, Shropshire – 17 July 1453 Castillon, France), known as "Old Talbot" was an important English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, as well as the only Lancastrian Constable of France.
He was descended from Richard Talbot, a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battledsen in Bedfordshire. The Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy. Hugh Talbot, probably Richard's son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153. This Richard (d. 1175) is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He also held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot (d. 1231) obtained a fresh charter in 1190. Gilbert's grandson Gilbert (d. 1274) married Gwenlynn Mechyll, daughter and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms. Their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed the Barons' Letter, 1301, held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346) was summoned to Parliament, which is considered evidence of his baronial status - see Baron Talbot. Gilbert's son Richard married Elizabeth Comyn, bringing with her the inheritance of Goodrich Castle in Herefordshire.
John Talbot was second son of Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot, by Ankaret le Strange, 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere. His younger brother Richard became Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland and one of the most influential Irish statesmen of his time.
His father died in 1396 when Talbot was just nine years old, and so it was Ankaret's second husband, Thomas Neville, Lord Furnival, who became the major influence in his early life. The marriage also gave the opportunity of a title for her second son as Neville had no sons with the title going through his eldest daughter Maud. who would become John's 1st wife.
Talbot was married before 12 March 1407 to Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall, daughter and heiress of Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby. He was summoned to Parliament in her right from 1409.
The couple are thought to have four children:
- Thomas Talbot (19 June 1416 Finglas, Ireland - 10 August 1416)
- John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (c. 1417 – 11 July 1460)
- Sir Christopher Talbot (1419–10 August 1443),
- Lady Joan Talbot (c 1422), married James Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley.
In 1421 by the death of his niece he acquired the Baronies of Talbot and Strange. His first wife, Maud died on 31 May 1422. It has been suggested as an indirect result of giving birth to daughter Joan, although due to a lack of evidence of her life before her marriage to Lord Berkeley has even led to a theory that she was actually Talbot's daughter-in-law through marriage to Sir Christopher Talbot.
On 6 September 1425, he married Lady Margaret Beauchamp, eldest daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley in the chapel at Warwick Castle. They had five children:
- John Talbot, 1st Viscount Lisle (1426 – 17 July 1453)
- Sir Louis Talbot (c 1429-1458)
- Sir Humphrey Talbot (before 1434 – c. 1492)
- Lady Eleanor Talbot (c February/March 1436 - 30 June 1468) married to Sir Thomas Butler and mistress to King Edward IV.
- Lady Elizabeth Talbot (c December 1442/January 1443). She married John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk.
Talbot is known to have had at least one illegitimate child, Henry. He may have served in France with his father as it is known that a bastard son of the Earl of Shrewsbury was captured by the Dauphin on 14 August 1443.
From 1404 to 1413 he served with his elder brother Gilbert in the Welsh war or the rebellion of Owain Glyndwr. Then for five years from February 1414 he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, where he did some fighting. He had a dispute with the Earl of Ormond and Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn over the inheritance for the honour of Wexford which he held. Complaints were made against him both for harsh government in Ireland and for violence in Herefordshire.
The dispute with the Earl of Ormond escalated into a long-running feud between Shrewsbury and his brother, the Archbishop of Dublin, on the one hand and the Butler family on the other and their allies the Berkeleys. The feud reached its height in the 1440s, and in the end just about every senior official in Ireland had taken sides in the quarrel; both sides were reprimanded by the Privy Council for weakening English rule in Ireland. Friendly relations were finally achieved by the marriage of Shrewsbury's son and heir to Ormond's daughter.
From 1420 to 1424 he served in France, apart from a brief return at the end of the first year to organise the festivities of celebrating the coronation of Catherine of France, the bride of Henry V.
He returned to France in May 1421 and took part in the Battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424 earning him the Order of the Garter.
In 1425, he was lieutenant again for a short time in Ireland; he served again in 1446-7.
So far his career was that of a turbulent Marcher Lord, employed in posts where a rough hand was useful. In 1427 he went again to France, where he fought alongside the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick with distinction in Maine and at the Siege of Orléans. He fought at the Battle of Patay on 18 June 1429 where he was captured and held prisoner for four years.
He was released in exchange for the French leader Jean Poton de Xaintrailles and returned to England in May 1433. He stayed until July when he returned to France under the Earl of Somerset.
Talbot was a daring and aggressive soldier, perhaps the most audacious captain of the age. He and his forces were ever ready to retake a town and to meet a French advance. His trademark was rapid aggressive attacks. He was rewarded by being appointed governor and lieutenant general in France and Normandy and, in 1434, the Duke of Bedford made him Count of Clermont.
In January 1436, he led a small force including Kyriell and routed La Hire and Xaintrailles at Ry near Rouen. The following year at Crotoy, after a daring passage of the Somme, he put a numerous Burgundian force to flight. In December 1439, following a surprise flank attack on their camp, he dispersed the 6000 strong army of the Constable Richemont, and the following year he retook Harfleur. In 1441, he pursued the French army four times over the Seine and Oise rivers in an unavailing attempt to bring it to battle.
Around February 1442, Talbot returned to England to request urgent reinforcements for the Duke of York in Normandy. In March, under king's orders, ships were requisitioned for this purpose with Talbot himself responsible for assembling ships from the Port of London and from Sandwich.
On Whit Sunday, 20 May, Henry VI awarded him the title of Comes Salopie, translated as Earl of Shropshire but despite this he popularly became Earl of Shrewsbury. Just five days later, with the requested re-inforcements, Talbot returned to France where in June they mustered at Harfleur. During that time, he met his six-old year daughter Eleanor for the first time and almost certainly left the newly created Countess Margaret pregnant with another child.
In June 1443, Talbot again returned to England on behalf of the Duke of York to plead for reinforcements, but this time the English Council refused, instead sending a separate force under Shrewsbury's brother-in-law, Edmund Beaufort. His son, Sir Christoper stayed in England where shortly afterwards he was murdered with a lance at the age of 23 by one of his own men, Griffin Vachan of Treflidian on 10 August at "Cawce, County Salop" (Caus Castle).
He was appointed in 1445 by Henry VI (as king of France) as Constable of France. Taken hostage at Rouen in 1449 he promised never to wear armour against the French King again, and he was true to his word. However, though he did not personally fight, he continued to command English forces against the French. He was defeated and killed in 1453 at the Battle of Castillon near Bordeaux, which effectively ended English rule in the duchy of Aquitaine, a principal cause of the Hundred Years' War. His heart was buried in the doorway of St Alkmund's Church, Whitchurch, Shropshire.
The victorious French generals raised a monument to Talbot on the field called Notre Dame de Talbot and a French Chronicler paid him handsome tribute:
- "Such was the end of this famous and renowned English leader who for so long had been one of the most formidable thorns in the side of the French, who regarded him with terror and dismay" - Matthew d'Escourcy
Although Talbot is generally remembered as a great soldier, some have raised doubts as to his generalship. In particular, charges of rashness have been raised against him. Speed and aggression were key elements in granting success in medieval war, and Talbot's numerical inferiority necessitated surprise. Furthermore, he was often in the position of trying to force battle on unwilling opponents. At his defeat at Patay in 1429 he was advised not to fight there by Sir John Fastolf, who was subsequently blamed for the debacle, but the French, inspired by Joan of Arc, showed unprecedented fighting spirit - usually they approached an English position with trepidation. The charge of rashness is perhaps more justifiable at Castillon where Talbot, misled by false reports of a French retreat, attacked their entrenched camp frontally - facing wheel to wheel artillery.
He is portrayed heroically in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 1: "Valiant Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Created, for his rare success in arms". Talbot's failures are all blamed on Fastolf and feuding factions in the English court. Thomas Nashe, commenting on the play in his booklet Pierce Penniless, stated that Talbot's example was inspiring Englishman anew, two centuries after his death,
- How would it have joyed brave Talbot, the terror of the French, to think that after he had lain two hundred years in his tomb, he should triumph again on the stage, and have his bones new embalmed with the tears of ten thousand spectators at least (at several times) who in the tragedian that represents his person imagine they behold him fresh bleeding. I will defend it against any collian or clubfisted usurer of them all, there is no immortality can be given a man on earth like unto plays.
John Talbot is shown as a featured character in Koei's video game Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War, appearing as the left-arm of Edward, the Black Prince, in which he assists the former and the respective flag of England throughout his many portrayals.
Talbot appears as one of the primary antagonists in the PSP game Jeanne d'Arc.
- Sir John Talbot, 4th Earl Shrewsbury, Wexford, Waterford, 7th Lord Talbot, Count of Clermont1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15
- M, #11080, b. circa 1392, d. 17 July 1453
- Father Sir Richard Talbot, 4th Lord Talbot, Baron de Blackmere16,17,18 b. c 1361, d. 8 Sep 1396
- Mother Ankaret le Strange16,17,18 b. c 1361, d. 1 Jun 1413
- Sir John Talbot, 4th Earl Shrewsbury, Wexford, Waterford, 7th Lord Talbot, Count of Clermont was born circa 1392 at of Eccleswall in Linton and Wormelow, Herefordshire, England; Age 30 in 1422.2,5,14 He married Maud Neville, daughter of Sir Thomas Neville, Lord Furnival, Treasurer of England, Keeper of Annandale, Keeper of the Castles of Berwick-on-Tweed, Alnwick, & Warkworth, Constable of Lochmaben Castle and Joan Furnivall, before 8 March 1407; They had 3 sons (Sir John, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Furnival; Thomas; & Sir Christopher).19,2,20,5,6,11,14 Sir John Talbot, 4th Earl Shrewsbury, Wexford, Waterford, 7th Lord Talbot, Count of Clermont married Margaret Beauchamp, daughter of Sir Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, Earl of Albemarle & Worcester, Lord Abergavenny, Sheriff of Worcestershire and Elizabeth Berkeley, on 6 September 1425 at Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; They had 3 sons (Sir John, 1st Viscount Lisle; Sir Humphrey; & Sir Lewis) and 3 daughters (Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Grey, 3rd Viscount Lisle; Eleanor, wife of Sir Thomas Boteler; & Joan, wife of Sir James, 6th Lord Berkeley, & Edmund Hungerford, Esq.).21,2,3,4,5,8,9,10,12,13,14 Sir John Talbot, 4th Earl Shrewsbury, Wexford, Waterford, 7th Lord Talbot, Count of Clermont died on 17 July 1453 at Battle of Castillon on the Dordogne, France; Buried at St. Alkmund's, Whitchurch, Shropshire. By a mistress or mistresses, he also had an illegitimate son (Henry) & an illegitimate daughter (Katherine, wife of Nicholas Eyton).2,5,14
- Family 1 Maud Neville b. c 1392, d. 13 Dec 1423
- Sir Christopher Talbot2 d. 10 Jul 1460
- Katherine Talbot+22 b. c 1413
- Sir John Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Furnival, Lord High Treasurer & Chief Butler of England, Chancellor of Ireland, Chief Justice of Chester+23,5,14 b. 12 Dec 1413, d. 10 Jul 1460
- Family 2 Margaret Beauchamp b. 1404, d. 14 Jun 1467
- Elizabeth Talbot+2,4,5,7,12,14,15
- Sir Humphrey Talbot d. 1492
- Sir Lewis Talbot2
- Joan Talbot24,2,25,5,10,14 d. a 26 May 1474
- Sir John Talbot, Lord, Baron & 1st Viscount Lisle+2,5,14 b. c 1426, d. 17 Jul 1453
- Eleanor Talbot26,2,27,5,8,13,14 b. c 1428, d. 30 Jun 1468
- 1.[S2874] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Paget, Vol. II, p. 405.
- 2.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 704.
- 3.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 149.
- 4.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 215.
- 5.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 169-170.
- 6.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 259.
- 7.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 415-416.
- 8.[S6] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 231.
- 9.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 301.
- 10.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 336-337.
- 11.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 53.
- 12.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 195.
- 13.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 88-89.
- 14.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 121-122.
- 15.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 464.
- 16.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 702-704.
- 17.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 166-167.
- 18.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 117-118.
- 19.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. XI, p. 702.
- 20.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 737.
- 21.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. VIII, p. 55.
- 22.[S61] Unknown author, Family Group Sheets, Family History Archives, SLC.
- 23.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 704-705.
- 24.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 100.
- 25.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 181.
- 26.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. XII/1, p. 421.
- 27.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 140.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p369.htm#i11080
- General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury1
- M, #107601, b. circa 1390, d. 20 July 1453
- Last Edited=12 Mar 2009
- General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury was born circa 1390. He was the son of Richard Talbot, 4th Lord Talbot and Ankaret Lestrange. He married Maud de Neville, Baroness Furnival, daughter of Thomas de Neville, 5th Lord Furnival and Joan de Furnevalle, 5th Baroness Furnival, before 12 March 1406/7.2 He married, secondly, Lady Margaret Beauchamp, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley, on 6 September 1425.3,4 He died on 20 July 1453 at near Chastillon, killed in action, along with the 'Bastard of Orleans'.
- As a result of his marriage, General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury was styled as 6th Baron Furnivalle before 12 March 1406/7. He gained the title of 1st Earl of Shrewsbury in 1442.1
- Child of General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury
- 1.unknown Talbot+5
- Children of General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Maud de Neville, Baroness Furnival
- 1.Sir Christopher Talbot d. 10 Jul 1460
- 2.Lady Joan Talbot6
- 3.John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury+ b. c 1413, d. 11 Jul 1460
- Children of General John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Lady Margaret Beauchamp
- 1.Sir Humphrey Talbot d. c 1492
- 2.Sir Lewis Talbot
- 3.Elizabeth Talbot+1
- 4.John Talbot, 1st Viscount Lisle+ b. c 1426, d. 17 Jul 1453
- 1.[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 139. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- 2.[S8] BP1999 volume 1, page 14. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
- 3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 131. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- 4.[S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 347. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
- 5.[S37] BP2003. [S37]
- 6.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 132.
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10761.htm#i107601
- John TALBOT (1º E. Shrewsbury)
- Born: 1384
- Acceded: 20 May 1442
- Died: 17 Jul 1453, Castillon, Dordogne, France
- Buried: St. Alkmund's, Whitchurch, Salop
- Notes: Knight of the Garter. Lord Talbot 1421. Lord Furnivall, Lord Strange of Blackmere, Earl of Salop, Created Earl of Waterford 17 Jul 1446. Marshal of France, Fought in the French wars under Henry V. Taken prisoner by Joan of Arc. Killed in battle at Chastillon, near Bordeaux in 1453.
- Father: Richard TALBOT (4º B. Talbot)
- Mother: Ankaret STRANGE (B. Strange of Blackmere)
- Married 1: Maud NEVILLE (B. Strange/C. Shrewsbury) 12 Mar 1406
- 1. John TALBOT (2º E. Shrewsbury)
- 2. Christopher TALBOT (Sir Knight)
- 3. Joan TALBOT
- 4. Thomas TALBOT (d. before his father, Bourdeaux)
- Married 2: Margaret BEAUCHAMP (b. 1404 - d. 14 Jun 1467) (dau. of Richard Beauchamp 13º E. Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley) 6 Sep 1425
- 5. John TALBOT (1° B. Lisle)
- 6. Humphrey TALBOT (Sir Knight)
- 7. Lewis TALBOT of Penyard (Sir Knight)
- 8. Joan TALBOT
- 9. Elizabeth TALBOT
- 10. Eleanor TALBOT
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOT.htm#John TALBOT (1º E. Shrewsbury)
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 55
- Talbot, John (1388?-1453) by James Tait
- TALBOT, JOHN, first Earl of Shrewsbury (1388?–1453), was second son of Richard Talbot of Goodrich Castle in the march of Wales, fourth baron Talbot [see Talbot, Richard de, second Baron Talbot], by Ankaret, sole heir (1383) of the last lord Strange of Blackmere, close to Whitchurch in Shropshire, in whose right he had been summoned to parliament during his father's lifetime as Lord Talbot of Blackmere. A younger brother, Richard [q. v.], who became archbishop of Dublin, is separately noticed. Talbot's elder brother, Gilbert, the fifth baron (b. 1383?), commanded with some success against Glendower, was made justice of Chester and knight of the Garter, and under Henry V captain-general of the marches of Normandy; he died before Rouen in 1419. On the death two years later (13 Dec. 1421) of his only child Ankaret, her uncle John succeeded to the family honours. The year of Talbot's birth seems uncertain, but he cannot, as often stated, have been eighty years old when he fell at Castillon (Beaumont, v. 264). He is described as thirty years of age on succeeding to the barony in 1421 (Dugdale, i. 328), but, if so, he held a Welsh command before he was fifteen, and sat in the House of Lords (jure uxoris) before he was twenty (Wylie, iii. 111; Complete Peerage, vii. 136). This would point to a date not later than 1388 (cf. Hunter, Hallamshire, p. 62).
- He married apparently before October 1404 (Wylie, iii. 111) his mother's stepdaughter, Maud Neville (b. 1391?), only child of Thomas Neville, by his first wife, Joan Furnivall, in whose right he held the barony of Furnivall. Maud brought her husband the great fee of Hallamshire, with its centre at Sheffield, and in her right he was summoned to parliament from 1409 to 1421 as Lord Furnivall or Lord Talbot of Hallamshire. On his niece's death in 1421 he succeeded to the baronies of Talbot (of Goodrich) and Strange of Blackmere, and to the Irish honour of Wexford, inherited through his ancestress Joan de Valence.
- Talbot was deputy constable of Montgomery Castle for his father-in-law from December 1404, succeeding to the post on Furnivall's death in March 1407, and taking part in the siege of Aberystwith in the same year (Wylie, u.s.). Two years later he helped his elder brother to capture Harlech (ib. iii. 265; Tyler, i. 241). During the Lollard panic, shortly after the accession of Henry V, Talbot was imprisoned in the Tower (16 Nov. 1413). But the conjecture that he was a sympathiser with his old companion-in-arms Oldcastle seems hardly consistent with his being commissioned shortly after to inquire into the conduct of the Shropshire Lollards (Dugdale, i. 328; Doyle, iii. 309). Henry soon released him, and made him (February 1414) lieutenant of Ireland. Landing at Dalkey on 10 Nov., Talbot lost no time in invading and overawing Leix, and fortified the bridge of Athenry (Gilbert, p. 305). He brought some of the septs to submission and captured Donat Macmurrogh. Apparently popular at first with the Anglo-Irish, complaints of the misgovernment of his officers were made to the king in 1417, and he ran heavily into debt (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 219; Marleburrough, p. 28). Janico Dartas, a former squire of Richard II, accused him of withholding certain Irish revenues for which he held a royal grant (Rot. Parl. iv. 161; Gesta Henrici V, p. 126).
- Called away to the French war in 1419, leaving his brother Richard as deputy, Talbot was present at the siege of Melun in 1420, and that of Meaux in 1421 (ib. pp. 144, 279). Shortly after Henry VI's accession a long-standing quarrel with his powerful Irish kinsman, the Earl of Ormonde, reached a climax; the English in Ireland were divided into armed Ormonde and Talbot factions; each charged the other with paying blackmail to the Irish. Talbot denounced his adversary to the royal council, but with the consent of parliament the process was stopped (October 1423) on the ground of the consanguinity of both parties to the king and the ‘scandals and inconveniences’ which might result in both countries (Gilbert, p. 311; Rot. Parl. iv. 199). In the same parliament the commons petitioned the crown for redress of the grievances of certain inhabitants of Herefordshire who had been carried off, with their goods, to Goodrich Castle by Talbot and others and held to ransom. Talbot had to find surety to keep the peace, and a judicial inquiry was promised (ib. iv. 254, cf. p. 275).
- Ormonde was not the only peer with whom Talbot had a quarrel. He carried on a fierce dispute for parliamentary precedence with his kinsman, Lord Grey of Ruthin. Both were descendants of the earls of Pembroke, and both called themselves lords of Wexford, of which Talbot was in actual possession (ib. iv. 312; Complete Peerage, iv. 180).
- On the death of the Earl of March in January 1425 Talbot, who fought at Verneuil and was given the Garter in 1424, again became royal lieutenant in Ireland. He surprised and held to ransom a number of northern chiefs who had come to Trim for an interview with March, and obtained a promise from the O'Connors and O'Byrnes not to prey on the Anglo-Irish any longer. He gave place to Ormonde in the same year (Gilbert, p. 320).
- In March 1427 Talbot accompanied the regent Bedford to France, and helped the Earl of Warwick to take (8 May) Pontorson on the Breton border, of which he was made captain (Cosneau, pp. 134, 148). He joined the force which laid siege to Montargis, and was driven off (September) by La Hire and Dunois (ib. p. 145). Capturing Laval in Maine in March 1428, he soon after recovered Le Mans, which La Hire had surprised, and Bedford made him (December) governor of Anjou and Maine and captain of Falaise (Ramsay, i. 380). At the siege of Orleans Talbot was posted in the Bastille St. Loup (east of the town), stormed on 4 May 1429. His fame was already so widely spread that Joan of Arc seems to have thought at first that he commanded the besiegers (ib. i. 292; Procès, iii. 4–5). When they raised the siege and retired on Meung and Beaugency, Talbot proceeded to Janville to meet Sir John Fastolf [q. v.], who was bringing reinforcements from Paris ((Cosneau, p. 170). Fastolf, hearing of the fall of Jargeau and siege of Beaugency, proposed to retreat; but Talbot swore that he would attempt to save the latter town if he had to go alone. Finding the French on the alert, they fell back to Meung (17 June), and the news which reached them next morning of the evacuation of Beaugency and advance of the French caused them to retreat northwards towards Patay and Janville. The enemy came up with them some two or three miles south of Patay. La Hire's impetuous charge threw the English into hopeless confusion before they could be drawn up in battle array. Talbot made some stand, but was surrounded and captured by the archers of Pothon de Saintrailles (ib. p. 171; Ramsay, i. 397). In the parliament of the following September there was talk of Talbot's great services and the ‘unreasonable and importable’ ransom demanded, and the crown expressed an intention of contributing ‘right notably’ if an exchange could not be effected (Rot. Parl. iv. 338). A public subscription seems to have been started (Hunter, p. 63). But he did not recover his freedom until July 1433, when he was exchanged for Saintrailles himself, who had been taken in 1431 (Fœdera, x. 553; cf. Hunter, p. 63). He at once joined the Duke of Burgundy in his triumphant campaign in the north-east, and was subsequently appointed captain of Coutances and Pont de l'Arche (Beaucourt, ii. 47; Stevenson, ii. 541). Bringing over a new army in the following summer (1434), he took Joigny on his way to Paris, and, penetrating up the Oise, captured Beaumont, Creil, Pont Ste.-Maxence, Crépy, and Clermont. He was rewarded with the county of Clermont (Cosneau, p. 212). Before leaving England he had accepted 1,000l. in full acquittance of his claims on the government, describing himself as ‘in great necessity’ (Ord. Privy Council, iv. 202). In September he became captain of Gisors. Just a year later he helped to recover St.-Denis, and his reconquest of the revolted pays de Caux early in 1436 did much to save Normandy for the English (Beaucourt, iii. 6). Talbot was now captain of Rouen, lieutenant of the king between the Seine and the Somme, and marshal of France. With Lord Scales he dislodged La Hire and Saintrailles from Gisors, which had been lost shortly after Paris. In January 1437 Talbot, Salisbury, and Fauconberg captured Ivry, and on 12 Feb. effected a skilful night surprise of Pontoise, after which they menaced Beauvais. Talbot assured communications between Pontoise and Normandy by taking several places in the Vexin, and Paris itself was threatened (Cosneau, pp. 266–8). He and Scales foiled an attempted diversion against Rouen (Beaucourt, iii. 11; cf. Cosneau, p. 241). Later in the year he helped to recover Tancarville, and by a dash across the Somme saved Crotoy from the Burgundians. In 1438 he retook some posts in Caux, but failed to relieve Montargis. Early in 1439, being now governor and lieutenant-general of France and Normandy (Doyle, iii. 310), Talbot ‘rode’ with the Earl of Somerset into Santerre, and in the summer threw reinforcements into the ‘Market’ of Meaux. He assisted in driving off Richemont from before Avranches in December (Cosneau, p. 300). The capture of Harfleur (October 1440) was largely his work, and he was appointed captain of that town with Lisieux and Montivilliers. In the summer of 1441 he five times ‘refreshed’ Pontoise, which Charles VII was besieging. Richemont offered battle, but Talbot thought it prudent to give him the slip by a night march. In the winter the Duke of York sent him home for reinforcements. He came back an earl, having been created by letters patent, dated 20 May 1442, Earl of Salop (Rot. Parl. vi. 428); though the title was taken from the county, not the city, Talbot and his successors always called themselves earls of Shrewsbury. Now constable of France, he recovered Conches, and in November laid siege to Dieppe. But some months before its relief in August 1443, York sent him to England to protest against the division of the command in France. He returned to Normandy; but both sides were now weary of the war, and in 1444 a truce was concluded at Tours.
- Next spring Shrewsbury and his wife took part in the home-bringing of Queen Margaret. Released from his foreign toils, he was for the third time sent (12 March 1445) to govern Ireland, and created (17 July 1446) Earl of Waterford, Lord of Dungarvan, and steward of Ireland. He rebuilt Castle Carberry to protect his lands in Meath, captured several chieftains, and enacted that those who would be taken for Englishmen should not use a beard upon the upper lip alone, and should shave it at least once a fortnight (Gilbert, p. 349). The Irish declared that ‘there came not from the time of Herod any one so wicked in evil deeds.’ At the end of 1447 Shrewsbury resigned the reins to his brother Richard, and in July 1448 was sent as lieutenant of Lower Normandy and captain of Falaise to assist Somerset in France. Exactly a year later he made an unsuccessful attempt to recover Verneuil. Rouen capitulating on 29 Oct. 1449, Shrewsbury was handed over as one of the hostages for the surrender of Honfleur and other towns to Charles VII. Honfleur standing out, he was sent to Dreux, and kept a prisoner for nine months. But on 10 July 1450 his release was made a condition of the surrender of Falaise, Charles stipulating only that he should visit Rome, where the jubilee was being celebrated, before returning to England (Stevenson, ii. ; cf. Will. Worc. ii. ).
- In November 1451 Shrewsbury was made governor of Portsmouth, and two months later (7 Feb. 1452) constable of Porchester. The French threatening Calais, he was appointed (in March) captain of the fleet, and engaged (July) to serve at sea for three months with three thousand fighting men (Beaucourt, v. 54, 264). But the abandonment of the expedition against Calais, and the arrival (August) of envoys from Gascony to solicit intervention, decided the government of Henry VI to make a great effort to recover that province, and Shrewsbury was sent out as lieutenant of Aquitaine. His powers (dated 1 and 2 Sept.) were very wide, extending to the right of pardoning all offences and of coining money (Fœdera, xi. 313). Sailing with a considerable army, Shrewsbury landed about 17 Oct. in the Médoc near Soulac in a creek now silted up, but still called ‘l'anse à l'Anglot,’ and at once marched upon Bordeaux. Olivier de Coëtivy, the seneschal of Guienne, would have resisted, but the city rose, a gate was opened (20 Oct.), and he found himself a prisoner (Ramsay, ii. 153; cf. for the dates Ribadieu, p. 272, d'Escouchy, iii. 429). In a brief space the whole Bordelais, save Fronsac, Blaye, and Bourg, returned to its old allegiance. In the following March, 1453, Shrewsbury, reinforced by troops brought out by his son Viscount Lisle and Lords Camoys and Moleyns, opened the campaign by the capture of Fronsac. But his progress was arrested by the approach of three converging French armies; the Counts of Clermont and Foix, with two army corps, marched from the south into the Médoc, the king commanded a northern army on the Charente, while Marshals Jalognes and de Lohéac delivered a central attack down the Dordogne valley. Shrewsbury, according to one account, first marched out to Martignas with a view of giving battle to Clermont and Foix, but retired before their superior forces to Bordeaux (Beaucourt, v. 269). Meanwhile the army of the Dordogne, with artillery under the famous Jean Bureau, captured Chalais and Gensac; Gensac fell on 8 July, and five or six days later siege was laid to Castillon, some twelve miles further down the river on its right bank, and commanding the direct road to Bordeaux. Shrewsbury hurried to its assistance, leaving his foot and artillery to follow. Reaching Castillon in the early morning of 17 July 1453, he at once drove out the French archers from the abbey above the town; they retreated with some loss to the large entrenched camp, a mile and a quarter eastwards between the Dordogne and its little tributary the Lidoire, with its front covered by the latter, where their main body was stationed. After refreshing his men in the abbey, Shrewsbury, in a brigandine covered with red velvet and riding a little hackney, led them out against this position. Arrived there, he ordered them to dismount, but retained his own horse in consideration of his age. To attack without artillery a moated and palisaded camp defended (if we may credit Æneas Sylvius) by three hundred pieces of ordnance was foolhardy enough. But the impetuous charge of the English and Gascons shouting ‘Talbot, Talbot, St. George,’ left the issue long doubtful. Shrewsbury ordered his men to protect themselves against the enemy's fire by interlocking their bucklers. His standard was fixed for a moment on the rampart and the entrance of the camp carried. But this advantage was again lost, and before it could be recovered a body of Breton lances concealed on the heights of Mont d'Horable to the north threw themselves on the flank of the wearied English, and Shrewsbury, already wounded in the face, was struck in the leg by a shot from a culverin and dismounted. His men began to fly, and the French descending on the little group around him, one of them thrust a sword through his body without recognising his victim. His son Lisle, whom he had vainly entreated to save himself (Æneas Sylvius), fell by his side. Gashed and trampled under foot, Shrewsbury's body was so disfigured that his own herald recognised it next day only by the absence of a tooth (D'Escouchy, ii. 43). It was conveyed to England and interred in the old burial-place of the Stranges in the parish church of Whitchurch, though to this day the peasants of Périgord believe him to be buried in a mound between the camp and the Dordogne which, from a chapel that surmounted it till the Revolution, is called ‘la chapelle de Talbot’ (Ribadieu, p. 313). Hunter (p. 64) indeed says that his remains were buried in France, and not brought to England until many years after by his grandson, Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton, but he gives no authority for the statement. Over his remains was erected a fine canopied monument enclosing his effigy in full armour, with the mantle of the order of the Garter, and his feet resting on a talbot dog; having suffered greatly from the ravages of time and the fall of the church in 1711, it was completely restored by his descendant, Countess Brownlow, in 1874. The inscription gives the wrong date 7 July. At the rebuilding of the church an urn containing his heart embalmed was discovered.
- Shrewsbury was a sort of Hotspur, owing his reputation more to dash and daring than to any true military genius. ‘Ducum Angliæ omnium strenuissimus et audacissimus,’ wrote the chronicler Basin (i. 192). In all his long career as a commander he fought only two actions which deserve to be called battles; Patay was a rout from the beginning, and Castillon a miscalculation. The last general of the school of Edward III who fought abroad was overthrown significantly enough by artillery, the new arm which the French had recently developed. Shrewsbury's courageous perseverance and ubiquitous activity throughout an unusually protracted military career, and the forlorn attempt of the valiant old warrior to stem the disasters of his country, made a deep impression upon both nations. The legends of Guienne still keep green the memory of ‘le roi Talabot’ (Ribadieu, p. 282).
- Besides the effigy on his tomb, several characteristic portraits of Shrewsbury have been preserved. Almost all show a strongly marked face with aquiline nose and commanding eye. One is engraved in Strutt's ‘Regal Antiquities,’ p. 85, and again in Doyle's ‘Official Baronage,’ from MS. Reg. 15 E. vi., a book presented by Shrewsbury to Margaret of Anjou; another from the same source is in Strutt's ‘Dress and Habits of England,’ plate cxv.; a larger one was reproduced from a manuscript belonging to Louise of Savoy by André Thevet in ‘Les Vrais Pourtraits et Vies des hommes illustres,’ Paris, 1584, and has since been re-engraved in Ribadieu's ‘Histoire de la Conquête de la Guyenne,’ Bordeaux, 1866. The sixteenth-century engraver has included a representation of Talbot's sword said to have been found in the Dordogne about 1575; it bore the inscription ‘Sum Talboti pro vincere inimico meo, 1443.’ A quaint picture of Shrewsbury in his tabard, now in the College of Arms, is stated to have been removed from his widow's tomb in Old St. Paul's before the fire. It is engraved in Lodge's ‘Illustrations’ and (from a copy at Castle Ashby) in Pennant's ‘Journey to London,’ along with a companion portrait of Shrewsbury's second wife from the same collection.
- Shrewsbury was twice married. By his first wife, Maud, daughter of Thomas Neville, lord Furnivall, whom he espoused before March 1407, perhaps before October 1404, he had three sons: John [q. v.], who succeeded him as second earl and is separately noticed; Thomas, born in Ireland on 19 June 1416, died on 10 Aug. in the same year (Marleburrough, p. 26); and Christopher of Treeton, who was slain at the battle of Northampton in 1460. He had at least one daughter, Joan, who shortly after 25 July 1457 became the fourth wife of James, lord Berkeley (d. 1463), and, surviving him, married, about 1487, Edmund Hungerford (Complete Peerage, i. 330). Shrewsbury married secondly, in or before 1433, Margaret (cf. Stevenson, i. 444, 458), eldest daughter of Richard Beauchamp, fifth earl of Warwick [q. v.], by his first wife, Elizabeth, only child of Thomas, lord Berkeley (d. 1417). She and her husband continued her mother's resistance to the succession of the heir male, James Berkeley, to the barony and lands of Berkeley; they imprisoned his third wife, Isabella Mowbray, at Gloucester, where she died in 1452. Shrewsbury in the same year carried off their second son as a hostage to Guienne; he perished at Castillon. His own eldest son by Margaret, John, who, in consideration of his mother being eldest coheiress of the Lords Lisle, had been created Baron (1444) and Viscount (1451) Lisle, likewise fell in that battle (Complete Peerage, v. 114). They had two younger sons—Humphrey, marshal of Calais, who died at Mount Sinai in 1492; and Lewis—and two daughters, Eleanor (d. 1468?), who was alleged by Richard III to have been ‘married and troth-plight’ to Edward IV before his marriage with Elizabeth Woodville, and became the wife of Sir Thomas Boteler, son of Lord Sudeley; and Elizabeth, who married the last Mowbray duke of Norfolk, and died in 1507 (Dugdale i. 330; Testamenta Vetusta, pp. 409, 471; Complete Peerage, vi. 43, vii. 297). Margaret became reconciled with Lord Berkeley a few days before his death in 1463, but apparently renewed her claim against his son, who after her death (14 June 1467) slew her grandson, the second Viscount Lisle, in the combat at Nibley Green on 20 March 1470 (Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, ed. Maclean, 1885, ii. 57–75; Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucester Archæological Society, iii. 305). From Shrewbury's will, dated 1 Sept. 1452, it would appear that he thought himself entitled to the ‘honour of Warwick,’ which had gone to Richard Neville (the ‘king-maker’), husband of his wife's younger half-sister (Hunter, p. 64). An illegitimate son of Talbot fell at Castillon.
- [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Rymer's Fœdera, original ed.; Stevenson's Letters and Papers illustrative of the Wars of the English in France and the Chronique of Wavrin, both in Rolls Ser.; Gesta Henrici V, ed. English Historical Society; Æneas Sylvius's Historia Europæ in the Scriptores rerum Germanicarum of Freher, 1600–11; Chronicles of Basin, Monstrelet, Gruel, and Mathieu d'Escouchy with the Procès de Jeanne d'Arc, published by the Société de l'Histoire de France; the chronicles by the two Cousinots, ed. Vallet de Viriville; Henry Marleburrough's Chronicle of Ireland, Dublin, 1809; Beltz's Memorials of the Order of the Garter; Cosneau's Connetable de Richemont; Ribadieu's Conquête de Guyenne; Drouyn's La Guienne militaire pendant la domination Anglaise; Clément's Jacques Cœur; Gilbert's Hist. of the Viceroys of Ireland, 1865; Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV; Tyler's Memoirs of Henry V, 1838; Sir James Ramsay's Hist. of Lancaster and York; Du Fresne de Beaucourt's Histoire de Charles VII, 1881–91; Dugdale's Baronage; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886; other authorities in the text.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Talbot,_John_(1388%3F-1453)_(DNB00)
- BURGH, Hugh (d.1430), of Wattlesborough, Salop and Dinas Mawddwy, Merion.
- s. of Hugh Burgh. m. (1) by 1413, Elizabeth (c.1389-bef. Oct. 1429), da. of John Mawddwy (alias de la Pole) of Dinas Mawddwy, by Elizabeth, da. and h. of Sir Fulk Corbet of Wattlesborough and h. of her bro. Fulk Mawddwy, 1s. John†; (2) c.1429, Agnes.1
- Offices Held
- Treasurer, Ire. 23 Feb. 1414-Feb. 1420.2
- Commr. of inquiry, Ire. Jan., Aug. 1415,3 Salop May 1422 (concealments), Flints. July 1428 (claims to Mold castle); weirs, Salop Nov. 1424, Dec. 1427, to raise royal loans July 1426, May 1428.
- J.p. Salop 10 Feb. 1416-Mar. 1419, Dec. 1420-d.
- Sheriff, Salop 10 Feb. 1430-d.
- Burgh apparently came from a Westmorland family, and his earliest connexions with Shropshire were as a retainer of Thomas Neville, Lord Furnival, the brother of the earl of Westmorland, and his wife Ankaret, Lady Strange of Blackmere and widow of Richard, Lord Talbot. Burgh served as Neville’s feoffee in the lordship of Worksop, Nottinghamshire, but before Neville’s death in 1407 he entered the service of Lady Ankaret’s younger son, Sir John Talbot (who had married Neville’s elder daughter and coheir by his former wife and was subsequently to succeed him as Lord Furnival). In 1405 Burgh was Talbot’s second-in-command of the garrison of Montgomery, and he was still lieutenant in June 1407 when he collected 100 marks at the Exchequer for the soldiers’ wages. It seems likely that he continued in Talbot’s company throughout the pacification of Wales. In 1408 Lady Ankaret named him as a feoffee of the lordship of Corfham for the settlement of the estate on Talbot, and three years later he performed a similar service as an attorney for the transfer of certain lands in Yorkshire to his superior’s wife. Burgh was involved in other transactions relating to the Talbot and Strange estates and he evidently occupied a position of trust in the Talbot family’s affairs. There is no record of him receiving an annuity from his lord, but in 1414 he was granted by him two thirds of the manor of Alberbury, Shropshire, no doubt in lieu.4
- It was probably to his attachment to Talbot that the landless Hugh Burgh owed his connexion by marriage with one of the oldest families of Shropshire, that of Corbet of Moreton Corbet. The marriage had taken place by 1413 and in June 1414, on the death without issue of her brother, Fulk Mawddwy, Burgh’s wife came into a substantial inheritance. Through her mother she inherited all the Corbet estates which had not been entailed on the male line, including the Shropshire manors of Wattlesborough, Yockleton, Shelve and Wentnor, five other manors, two hamlets and a quarter of the forest of Caus; and through her father, who was descended from the princes of Powys Wenwynwyn, she inherited not only the Welsh lordship of Mawddwy but also the manor of Treffgarne and other lands in Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire. A third part of the combined Corbet and Mawddwy estates remained in the possession of Fulk Mawddwy’s widow, and did not fall to Burgh until her death in 1429 (less than a year before his own demise), but it was Burgh who as ‘lord of Mawddwy’ confirmed his father-in-law’s charter to the local burgesses. Burgh’s wife’s inheritance had been valued in 1403 at almost £57 a year, even though the Welsh lands had been devastated by the rebels under Owen Glendower (a cousin, but no friend, of her father’s). By the time of Burgh’s own death, nearly 30 years after the start of the rebellion, there had been little improvement, owing to pestilence and robberies, although the extent of the later economic disruption on the estates may well have been exaggerated.5
- Shortly before she came into her inheritance, Burgh’s wife had given birth to a son, who was baptized at Wattlesborough on 12 June 1414 and named in honour of his principal godfather, John Talbot, Lord Furnival. In the preceding February Talbot had been appointed as Henry V’s lieutenant in Ireland, and had immediately nominated Burgh as treasurer and Lawrence Merbury (now appearing as the other godfather of Burgh’s son) as chancellor of the province. Burgh was sworn into office at Dublin on 18 Sept., and he acted as Talbot’s deputy in Ireland until November, when he returned to England to escort the lieutenant across the Irish Sea. Burgh conducted an inquiry into the state of Irish finances in January 1415 and remained in the province for most of that year, a period entailing military as well as administrative duties. As treasurer he enjoyed a fee of 3s.4d. per diem and was well placed to secure grants of the farm of lands in Ireland. He returned home at the end of 1415 in time to be elected to the Parliament which met in November, and he probably then remained in England until after his second spell as a Member of the Commons. Burgh apparently took no part in the conquest of Normandy, but instead acted, from early 1420, as attorney in England for Sir William Talbot and John, Lord Clifford, during their absence with Henry V’s army. By then he had relinquished his post in Ireland, for Lord Talbot had been succeeded as lieutenant by James, earl of Ormond.6
- Burgh welcomed Lord Talbot as a visitor to Wattlesborough in April 1421, at about the time of his third election to Parliament. Although he had long served Talbot in Wales and Ireland he did not now accompany him to France, and, indeed, save for journeys to Westminster for two more Parliaments, he appears to have spent his remaining years in Shropshire. He attended the shire elections held at Shrewsbury in November 1421, 1423 and 1426, and acted as a feoffee of property in the county on behalf of William Burley of Broncroft (his fellow MP of 1421, 1422 and 1425), a lawyer who also had close connexions with Lord Talbot. Burgh’s own association with this nobleman gave him a prominence in local affairs beyond that to be expected of a mere ‘esquire’: some time before 1429, in a petition presented to the duke of Gloucester touching Burgh’s recovery, by a supposedly corrupt assize of novel disseisin, of certain tenements in Shrewsbury, it was stated that he was ‘officer to Lord Talbot and other great lords’, and thus had at his command an influence derived from these connexions and bolstered by his position as a j.p., which rendered futile any local inquiry or process. Burgh is known to have visited Talbot’s seat at Blackmere at Christmas 1424 and again in 1428, there carrying out duties as a member of the lord’s council. In 1429, after Talbot had been taken prisoner at the battle of Patay, Burgh was named by him as one of those who should handle contributions for his ransom.7
- Burgh was appointed sheriff of Shropshire in February 1430, and in that same month, in association with William Burley and others, he took out a lease at the Exchequer of the manor of Monk Meole in Shrewsbury and other properties of which he was already acting as a trustee. He died on 18 Aug. before the end of his shrievalty. Burgh’s widow (his second wife) received dower in lands he had leased in Cardiganshire, while his first wife’s estates passed to his son (Talbot’s godson) John, then aged 16.8
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/burgh-hugh-1430
- .... etc.
- Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346), Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Edward III, was summoned to Parliament as Lord Talbot in 1331, which is accepted as evidence of his baronial status at that date.
- He was descended from Richard Talbot, a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battledsen in Bedfordshire. The Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy. Hugh Talbot, probably his son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153. This Richard (d. 1175) is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He also held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot (d. 1231) obtained a fresh charter in 1190. Gilbert's grandson Gilbert (d. 1274) married Gwenlynn Mechyll, daughter and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms. Their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed the Barons' Letter, 1301, held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346) was summoned to Parliament, which is considered evidence of his baronial status.
- The first baron's grandson, the 3rd Baron Talbot, died in Spain supporting John of Gaunt's claim to the throne of Castile. Richard, the fourth Baron, married Ankaret, 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere. In 1387, during his father's lifetime, Richard 4th Baron was summoned to Parliament as Ricardo Talbot de Blackmere in right of his wife. His son [Gilbert], the fifth Baron, also succeeded his mother as eighth Baron Strange of Blackmere.
- On the early death of the 5th Baron, the titles passed to his daughter, Ankaret, the sixth and ninth holder of the titles. However, she died a minor and was succeeded by her uncle, John seventh Baron Talbot. John married Maud Nevill, 6th Baroness Furnivall, and, in 1409, he was summoned to Parliament in right of his wife as Johann Talbot de Furnyvall. In 1442 John was created Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England and in 1446 Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland. .... etc.
- From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Talbot
- Shrewsbury, Earl of (E, 1442)
- John [Talbot], jure uxoris 6th and 5th Baron Furnival later 7th Baron Talbot and 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere later 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, KG
- 2nd son of Richard [Talbot], 4th Baron Talbot, by his wife Ankaret Lestrange, suo jure Baroness Lestrange of Blackmere, dau. of John [Lestrange], 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere
- born c. 1384
- mar. (1) bef. 12 Mar 1406/7 Maud de Nevill, suo jure Baroness Furnivall (b. c. 1392; d. bef. 1425; bur. at Worksop Priory, co. Nottingham), only child of Thomas [de Nevill], jure uxoris 5th and 4th Baron Furnivall, by his first wife Joan de Furnival, suo jure Baroness Furnivall, only child of William [de Furnivall], 4th and 3rd Baron Furnivall
- children by first wife
- 1. Sir John Talbot, later 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury
- 2. Sir Christopher Talbot, of Treeton (d. 10 Jul 1460 at the Battle of Northampton)
- 1. Lady Joan Talbot, mar. (1) 25 Jul 1457 as his fourth wife James [de Berkeley], 1st Baron Berkeley, and (2) bef. 26 May 1474 Edmund Hungerford
- mar. (2) 6 Sep 1425 Lady Margaret de Beauchamp (b. 1404; d. 14 Jun 1467; bur. in the Jesus Chapel, St Paul's Cathedral, London), 1st dau. and cohrss. of Richard [de Beauchamp], 13th Earl of Warwick, by his first wife Elizabeth de Berkeley, suo jure Baroness Berkeley, Baroness Lisle of Kingston and Baroness Teyes, only child of Thomas [de Berkeley], 5th Baron Berkeley, by his wife Margaret de Lisle, suo jure Baroness Lisle of Kingston and Baroness Teyes, only child of William [de Lisle], 2nd Baron de Lisle and Baron Teyes
- children by second wife
- 3. John Talbot, later 1st Viscount Lisle
- 4. Sir Humphrey Talbot, Marshal of Calais (d. 1492)
- 5. Sir Lewis Talbot, of Penyard, co. Hereford
- 2. Lady Elizabeth Talbot (d. bef. 10 May 1507), mar. bef. 27 Nov 1448 John [de Mowbray], 5th Duke of Norfolk, and had issue
- 3. Lady Eleanor Talbot, allegedly precontracted to marry King Edward IV - on account of this the King's marriage to Lady Elizabeth Wydville was declared invalid on 25 Jun 1483 by the Act of Parliament known as "Titulus Regius" and at the same time their children were declared illegitimate and unfit to inherit the Crown - the marriage was ultimately recognised as valid in October 1485 by the first Parliament of King Henry VII and its issue were restored in blood accordingly - Lady Eleanor had an illegitimate son by King Edward, Edward de Wigmore, who died in infancy in 1468 (d. 30 Jun 1468), mar. Sir Thomas Boteler (dvp. and sp. betw. 1450 and 1468), only son and heir ap. of Ralph [Boteler], 7th and 1st Baron Sudeley, by his first wife Elizabeth Hende, widow of John Hende
- died 17 Jul 1453 (bur. at St Alkmund's, Whitchurch, co. Shropshire)
- 20 May 1442 Earl of Shrewsbury
- 17 Jul 1446 Earl of Waterford and Hereditary Steward of Ireland
- suc. by son by first wife
- note King's Esquire bef. 1407; sum. to Parliament jure uxoris as Baron Furnivall from 26 Oct 1409 to 26 Feb 1420/21; knighted bef. 1413; Commissioner to arrest and imprison Lollards 1413/4; Commissioner to enforce the Statute of Leicester against the Lollards 1414; King's Lieutenant in Ireland 1414-20 and 1444/5-52; Knight of the Garter 1424; Justiciar of Ireland 1425; Captain of Coutances and Pont de l'Ache 1427/8; Captain of Falaise 1428; took part in the siege of Orleans 1428-29; suc. his niece 13 Dec 1431 as 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 7th Baron Talbot; cr. Count of Clermont Jun 1434; involved in the French campaign 1435-42; Keeper of the Castle and Town of Porchester and Governor of Portsmouth 1451/2-53; returned to the French Campaign 1451/2 and slain at the siege of Castillon with his son John, Lord Lisle
- John [Talbot], 7th and 6th Baron Furnival later 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, KG
- born c. 1413
- mar. bef. Mar 1444/5 his third cousin Lady Elizabeth Butler (d. 8 Sep 1473; bur. in Shrewsbury Abbey), only dau. of James [Butler], 4th Earl of Ormonde, by his first wife Joan de Beauchamp, only dau. of William [de Beauchamp], 1st Baron Bergavenny
- 1. Sir John Talbot, later 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury
- 2. Sir James Talbot (d. 2 Sep 1471)
- 3. Ven Christopher Talbot, Rector of Whitchurch, co. Shropshire, Archdeacon of Chester (d. aft. 1474)
- 4. George Talbot
- 5. Sir Gilbert Talbot KG, of Grafton, co. Worcester, fought on the Lancastrian side at the Battle of Bosworth 1485, Commander at the Battle of Stoke 1487, Deputy Captain of Calais (d. 19 Sep 1518), mar. (1) after 1475 Elizabeth le Scrope (widow of Thomas [le Scrope], 5th Baron Scrope of Masham), 5th dau. by his first wife of Ralph [de Greystock], 5th Baron Greystock, and had issue:
- 1a. .... etc.
- Sir Gilbert Talbot KG mar. (2) Etheldreda Gardiner (widow of (1) Thomas Barton and (2) Richard Gardiner, Lord Mayor of London), dau. of William Landwade, of Landwade, co. Cambridge, and had further issue:
- 3a. .... etc.
- 5. Sir Humphrey Talbot
- 1. Lady Anne Talbot, mar. Sir Henry Vernon, of Haddon. co. Derby, Governor and Treasurer to Arthur, Prince of Wales (d. 1511), and had issue
- 2. Lady Margaret Talbot, mar. Thomas Chaworth (dsp. c. 1483)
- died 10 Jul 1460 (bur. in Worksop Priory, co. Nottingham)
- suc. by son
- note Knight of the Bath 1426; suc. his mother c.1433 as 7th Baron Furnivall; served in France 1434 and 1442; Chancellor of Ireland 1446; Lord High Treasurer of England 1456-58; Knight of the Garter 1457; Joint Keeper of the King's Mews and Falcons 1457; Chief Butler of England 1458; Chief Justice of Chester 1458/9; Steward of Wakefield 1459; Steward of Ludlow 1460; killed at the Battle of Northampton fighting for the Lancastrian side
- From: http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/shrewsbury1442.htm?zoom_highlight=talbot
- (1) Visitation (Yorkshire,1563-4, Talbot I) contains an illustrious pedigree for the early generations of this family, indicating that a John Talbot came into England from Normandy with the Conqueror and married the daughter of a Rychard, Lord Talbot, descended from a John, Lord Talbot of Eclesfeld, etc.. However, that pedigree appears to be largely spurious. Similarly, Visitation (Worcestershire, 1569, Talbot) provides a pedigree going back 8 generations before the 1st Earl much of which appears spurious. Collins reports that this family is 'said to be in England before the Norman Conquest' but starts with the following Richard. TCP is cautious about the origins of this family, pointing out that Talbot was a common Norman nickname. [A talbot was a long-eared dog used for tracking and hunting. Any reference to someone as 'de Talbot' should probably be read as 'le Talbot'.] BE1883 starts with the following Richard but, apart from mentioning that his son Geoffrey was ancestor of the Talbots of Bashall (which TCP appears to disagree with), then follows the descent of his son Hugh
- (2) On Temp44 we show the interesting additional connections shown by a large online database which we wish to investigate further but which we think important enough to draw attention to.
- Richard Talbot (a 1085)
- m. ?? de Gournay (dau of Gerard, Sire de Gournay, Lord of Yarmouth)
- 1. Geoffrey Talbot (d c1129/30)
- His family is as reported in a note to TCP (Munchensy of Norfolk).
- m. Agnes de Lacy (dau of Walter de Laci)
- A. Geoffrey Talbot (d 1140)
- B. Sybil Talbot
- m. Payn FitzJohn of Ewyas, Sheriff of Hereford and Salop
- 2. Hugh Talbot (a 1118)
- m. (div) Beatrix de Mandeville (d 19.04.1197, dau of William de Mandeville)
- A. Richard Talbot (d before 25.12.1175) first in the pedigree given by TCP (Talbot)
- m. _ Bulmer (dau of Stephen Bulmer of Appletreewick)
- i. Gilbert Talbot (d before 13.02.1230/1)
- a. Richard Talbot (d before 13.04.1234)
- m. (before 1124) Aline or Aliva Basset (dau of Alan Basset, Baron of Wycombe, widow of Drew de Montacute)
- (1) Gilbert Talbot (d 1274)
- m. Gwendaline (dau of Rhys ap Griffith ap Rhys ap ap Griffith ap Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr, King of South Wales)
- (A) Richard Talbot, lord of Eccleswall, Sheriff of Gloucester (d 1306)
- m. Sarah de Beauchamp (dau of William de Beauchamp of Elmley, 1st Earl of Warwick)
- (i) Sir Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron, Lord Chamberlain (d 1346)
- m. Anne Boteler (dau of William Boteler of Wemme)
- (a) Sir Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron (d 1356)
- m. (before 1325) Elizabeth Comyn (b 1299, a 1326, dau of Sir John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch)
- ((1)) Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron (d 24.04.1387)
- m1. Petronilla Butler (d 1387, dau of James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde)
- ((A)) Sir Richard Talbot, 4th Baron (d 07.09.1396)
- m. Ankaret le Strange (dau of John Strange, 4th Lord of Blackmere)
- ((i)) Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron, Lord Strange of Blackmere (b 1383, d 19.10.1418-9)
- m1. (before 20.05.1392) Joan Plantagenet (b 1384, d 16.08.1400, dau of Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester)
- m2. (c1415) Beatrix of Portugal (m2. Thomas Fettiplace of East Shefford) see here
- ((a)) .... etc.
- ((ii)) Sir John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewbury (b 1390, d 20.07.1453)
- m1. (12.03.1406) Maud, Baroness Furnivall (d before 1433, dau of Thomas Nevill, Lord Furnival)
- m2. Margaret Beauchamp (dau of Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick)
- ((iii)) Richard Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Deputy of Ireland
- ((iv)) Thomas Talbot of Wrockwardine
- ((v)) Anne Talbot
- m. Hugh Courtenay, 4th Earl of Devon (b 1389, d 16.06.1422)
- ((vi)) Mary Talbot probably of this generation
- m. Sir Thomas Greene of Green's Norton (d 1417)
- ((B)) .... etc.
- i. Gilbert Talbot (d before 13.02.1230/1)
- Main source(s): BP1934 (Shrewsbury), BE1883 (Talbot - various), Visitation (Surtees Society 1869, Yorkshire, Dugdale 1664-6, Talbot of Thorneton) with support from TCP (Talbot), Collins (1741, Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury).
- From: Stirnet.com
- Sir John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewbury (b 1390, d Chastillon 20.07.1453)
- m1. (12.03.1406) Maud Nevill, Baroness Furnivall (b c1391, d before 1433, dau of Thomas Nevill, Lord Furnival)
- 1. John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Chancellor of Ireland (b 1413, d Northampton 10.07.1460, 2nd son)
- m1. (before 08.06.1421, sp) Catherine Burnel (dau of Sir Edward Burnel) this marriage may not have taken place
- m2. Elizabeth Butler (d 08.09.1473, dau of James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland)
- A. .... etc.
- 2.+ other sisue - Thomas (dvpsp), Sir Christopher (d Northampton 10.07.1460)
- m2. Margaret Beauchamp (d 14.06.1468, dau of Richard de Beauchamp, 5th Earl of Warwick)
- 4. John Talbot, 1st Viscount L'Isle (b c1426, d Chastillon 17.07.1453)
- The following comes from BE1883 (Talbot of L'Isle) & TCP (vol VIII, 'Lisle').
- m. Joan Chedder (d 15.07.1464, dau/coheir of Sir Thomas Chedder of Chedder (by Isabel, dau/coheir of Robert Scobhull), widow of Richard Stafford)
- A. .... etc.
- 4. Sir Humphrey Talbot (dsp 1492, Marshal of Calais)
- m. Mary Champernoun (dau/heir of John Champernoun)
- 5. Sir Lewis Talbot of Penyard
- 6. Joan Talbot
- m1. (c25.07.1457, sp) Sir James de Berkeley, 1st Lord (b c1394, d 11.1463)
- m2. Edmund Hungerford mentioned by Brydges but not by BP1934
- 7. Elizabeth Talbot (d 1506/7) mentioned by BP1934 but not by Brydges
- m. (by 27.11.1448) James Mowbray, 5th Duke of Norfolk (b 18.10.1444, d 17.01.1475-6)
- 8. Eleanor Talbot (b c1436, d 30.06.1468) not mentioned by either BP1934 or Brydges (!) but reputedly of this generation, of this marriage
- m1. (1449) Sir Thomas Butler or Boteler (son of Ralph, Lord Sudeley)
- m2/p. Edward Plantagenet, King Edward IV of England (b 28.04.1441, d 09.04.1483)
- Probably of this generation but, if so, unsure of which marriage was ...
- 9. Catharine Talbot
- m. Sir Nicholas Eyton of Eyton, Sheriff of Salop (a 1455)
- Main source(s): BP1934 (Shrewsbury) with some support from Collins (Brydges, vol 3 (1812), 'Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury', p11+) with some support/contradiction from Visitation (Worcestershire, 1569, Talbot) and input/support as reported above
- From: Stirnet.com
This surname TALBOT was the name of an English family, descended from Richard de Talbot, named in the Domesday Book, and from Gilbert (died 1346) the first baron. The Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot is the premier earl on the Rolls of England and Ireland, and hereditary lord steward of Ireland. The Lords Talbot de Malahide represent a family in Ireland which settled there in 1167. Surnames as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. They were not in use in England or in Scotland before the Norman Conquest, and were first found in the Domesday Book. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. It was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) it became general practice amongst all people. It was a baptismal name 'the son of Talbut or Talbott'. The name was brought into England in the wake of the Norman Conquest of 1066. Early records of the name mention Richard Talebot, listed as a tenant in the Domesday Book of 1086. Ricardus Talebot was documented during the reign of Henry II (1154-1180). Talebot de Hadfield, ibid. Willelmus Talbot of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. John Hedlea married Susanna Talbott at Westminster, London in the year of 1580. The name also applied to one with a Normandy accent, a bandit, one who blacked their faces (a lampblack) to avoid recognition. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884
- Sir John "Old Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury" Talbot KG
- Born 1384 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Englandmap
- Son of Richard Talbot and Ankaret (Strange) Talbot
- Brother of Gilbert Talbot, Mary (Talbot) Greene, Richard Talbot, Unknown Talbot, Alice (Talbot) de la Mere, Anne * (Talbot) Courtenay, Thomas Talbot and William Talbot
- Husband of Maud (Neville) Talbot — married before 8 Mar 1407 (to 31 May 1423) in Englandmap
- Husband of Margaret (Beauchamp) Talbot — married 6 Sep 1425 (to 17 Jul 1453) in Warwick Castlemap
- Father of Joan (Talbot) Berkeley, John Talbot KG, Katherine Talbot, Joan Talbot, Elizabeth (Talbot) Mowbray,
- John Talbot and Eleanor (Talbot) Butler
- Died 17 Jul 1453 in Battle of Castillon, Dordogne, Aquitaine, Francemap
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury's Timeline
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK
December 12, 1413
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England