Llewelyn Fawr ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwynedd

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Llewelyn Fawr ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwynedd

Also Known As: "Llywelyn Fawr", "Llywelyn the Great", "Llywelyn ab Iorwerth", "Prince of Wales", "Llewelyn Mawr", "The Great"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Aberffraw Castle, Caernarvonshire, Wales
Death: April 11, 1240 (64-72)
Aberconwy, Arllechwedd Isaf, Caernarvonshire, Wales
Place of Burial: Conwy, Wales
Immediate Family:

Son of Iorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain and Margred of Powys
Husband of Joan - Plantagenet, Lady Snowdon
Partner of Multiple Unidentified Mistresses; Crysten and Tangwystl verch Llywarch Goch
Father of Gwenllian verch Llewelyn; Gwladys Ddu verch Llewelyn; Angharad verch Llewelyn; N.N. verch Llewelyn; Elen ferch Llywelyn and 6 others

Occupation: Prince of Wales, Gwynedd amd Snowdonia Prince of Wales, King of Wales, Prince, "The Great", King of Gwynedd, Ruler of Wales, Prince of Gwynedd, Powys, Aberffraw
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About Llewelyn Fawr ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwynedd

source: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#Llywellyndied1240B

Llywelyn the Great

born Llywelyn ap Iowerth

Prince of Wales, Gwynedd, and Powys Wenwynwyn;

Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon 1218-1240; Last held by Rhys ap Gruffydd, Successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn

Prince of Gwynedd 1195–1240; Last held by Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, Successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn

Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn 1216–1240; Last held by Gwenwynwyn ab Owain, Successor Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn

m1. unknown, no children

m2. Joan, Lady of Wales illegitimate daughter of John King of England by Clemintine Pinel; children Dafydd ap Llewellyn, Helen the elder verch Llewellyn, Susanna verch Llewellyn

mistress 1 unknown. son Gruffydd ap Llewellyn

other mistresses (2-7) specific parentage unclear. Gwennllian verch Llewellyn, Gwladus Dhu verch Llewellyn, Margaret verch Llewellyn, Angharad verch Llewelyn, Helen the younger verch llewellyn

Father Iorwerth Drwyndwn

Mother Marared ferch Madog

Born c. 1173

Dolwyddelan

Died 11 April 1240

Cistercian, Aberconwy Abbey, Wales

Burial Aberconwy Abbey, Wales

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr), pronounced [ɬəˈwɛlɨ̞n]), full name Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, (c. 1173 – April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. He is occasionally called Llywelyn I of Wales.[1] By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for forty years, and was one of only two Welsh rulers to be called 'the Great'. Llywelyn's main home and court throughout his reign was at Garth Celyn on the north coast of Gwynedd, between Bangor and Conwy, overlooking the port of Llanfaes. Throughout the thirteenth century, up to the Edwardian conquest, Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, was in effect the capital of Wales. (Garth Celyn is now known as Pen y Bryn, Bryn Llywelyn, Abergwyngregyn and parts of the medieval buildings still remain).

During Llywelyn's boyhood Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who had agreed to split the kingdom between them following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England the same year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's illegitimate daughter Joan, also known as Joanna, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208 Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210 relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all his lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover these lands the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216 he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor Henry III in 1218. During the next fifteen years Llywelyn was frequently involved in fighting with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several of the major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240, and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.

Genealogy and early life

Dolwyddelan castle was built by Llywelyn; the old castle nearby may have been his birthplace.Llywelyn was born about 1173, the son of Iorwerth ap Owain and the grandson of Owain Gwynedd, who had been ruler of Gwynedd until his death in 1170. Llywelyn was a descendant of the senior line of Rhodri Mawr and therefore a member of the princely house of Aberffraw.[2] He was probably born at Dolwyddelan though probably not in the present Dolwyddelan castle, which is alleged to have been built by Llywelyn himself. He may have been born in the old castle which occupied a rocky knoll on the valley floor.[3] Little is known about his father, Iorwerth Drwyndwn, who may have died when Llywelyn was an infant. There is no record of Iorwerth having taken part in the power struggle between some of Owain Gwynedd's other sons following Owain's death, although he was the eldest surviving son. There is a tradition that he was disabled or disfigured in some way that excluded him from power.[4]

By 1175 Gwynedd had been divided between two of Llywelyn's uncles. Dafydd ab Owain held the area east of the River Conwy and Rhodri ab Owain held the west. Dafydd and Rhodri were the sons of Owain by his second marriage to Cristin ferch Goronwy. This marriage was not considered valid by the church as Cristin was Owain's first cousin, a degree of relationship which according to Canon law prohibited marriage. Giraldus Cambrensis refers to Iorwerth Drwyndwn as the only legitimate son of Owain Gwynedd.[5] Following Iorwerth's death, Llywelyn was, at least in the eyes of the church, the legitimate claimant to the throne of Gwynedd.[6]

Llywelyn's mother was Marared, sometimes anglicized to Margaret, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys. There is evidence that, after her first husband Iorwerth's death, Marared married in the summer of 1197, Gwion, the nephew of Roger Powys of Whittington Castle. She seems to have pre-deceased her husband, after bearing him a son, David ap Gwion, and therefore there can be no truth in the story that she later married into the Corbet family of Caus Castle (near Westbury, Shropshire) and later, Moreton Corbet Castle.[7]

Rise to power 1188–1199

The arms of the royal house of Gwynedd were traditionally first used by Llywelyn's father, Iorwerth DrwyndwnIn his account of his journey around Wales in 1188 Giraldus Cambrensis mentions that the young Llywelyn was already in arms against his uncles Dafydd and Rhodri.[8] In 1194, with the aid of his cousins Gruffudd ap Cynan[9] and Maredudd ap Cynan, he defeated Dafydd in a battle at the mouth of the River Conwy. Rhodri died in 1195, and his lands west of the Conwy were taken over by Gruffudd and Maredudd while Llywelyn ruled the territories taken from Dafydd east of the Conwy.[10] In 1197 Llywelyn captured Dafydd and imprisoned him. A year later Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, persuaded Llywelyn to release him, and Dafydd retired to England where he died in May 1203.

Wales was divided into Pura Wallia, the areas ruled by the Welsh princes, and Marchia Wallia, ruled by the Anglo-Norman barons. Since the death of Owain Gwynedd in 1170, Rhys ap Gruffydd had made the southern kingdom of Deheubarth the strongest of the Welsh kingdoms, and had established himself as the leader of Pura Wallia. After Rhys died in 1197, fighting between his sons led to the splitting of Deheubarth between warring factions. Gwenwynwyn ab Owain, prince of Powys Wenwynwyn, tried to take over as leader of the Welsh princes, and in 1198 raised a great army to besiege Painscastle, which was held by the troops of William de Braose, Lord of Bramber. Llywelyn sent troops to help Gwenwynwyn, but in August Gwenwynwyn's force was attacked by an army led by the Justiciar, Geoffrey Fitz Peter, and heavily defeated.[11] Gwenwynwyn's defeat gave Llywelyn the opportunity to establish himself as the leader of the Welsh. In 1199 he captured the important castle of Mold and was apparently using the title "prince of the whole of North Wales" (Latin: tocius norwallie princeps).[12] Llywelyn was probably not in fact master of all Gwynedd at this time since it was his cousin Gruffudd ap Cynan who promised homage to King John for Gwynedd in 1199.[13]

Early reign
Consolidation 1200–1209

Gruffudd ap Cynan died in 1200 and left Llywelyn undisputed ruler of Gwynedd. In 1201 he took Eifionydd and Llŷn from Maredudd ap Cynan on a charge of treachery.[14] In July the same year Llywelyn concluded a treaty with King John of England. This is the earliest surviving written agreement between an English king and a Welsh ruler, and under its terms Llywelyn was to swear fealty and do homage to the king. In return, it confirmed Llywelyn's possession of his conquests and allowed cases relating to lands claimed by Llywelyn to be heard under Welsh law.[15]

Llywelyn made his first move beyond the borders of Gwynedd in August 1202 when he raised a force to attack Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys, who was now his main rival in Wales. The clergy intervened to make peace between Llywelyn and Gwenwynwyn and the invasion was called off. Elise ap Madog, lord of Penllyn, had refused to respond to Llywelyn's summons to arms and was stripped of almost all his lands by Llywelyn as punishment.[16]

Llywelyn consolidated his position in 1205 by marrying Joan, the illegitimate daughter of King John. He had previously been negotiating with Pope Innocent III for leave to marry his uncle Rhodri's widow, daughter of Ragnald, King of Mann and the Isles. However this proposal was dropped when the more advantageous marriage to Joan was offered.[17]

In 1208 Gwenwynwyn of Powys fell out with King John who summoned him to Shrewsbury in October and then arrested him and stripped him of his lands. Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys and northern Ceredigion and rebuild Aberystwyth castle.[18] In the summer of 1209 he accompanied John on a campaign against King William I of Scotland.[19]

Setback and recovery 1210–1217

In 1210 relations between Llywelyn and King John deteriorated. J.E. Lloyd suggests that the rupture may have been due to Llywelyn forming an alliance with William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, who had fallen out with the king and had been deprived of his lands.[20] While John led a campaign against de Braose and his allies in Ireland, an army led by Earl Ranulph of Chester and Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, invaded Gwynedd. Llywelyn destroyed his own castle at Deganwy and retreated west of the River Conwy. The Earl of Chester rebuilt Deganwy, and Llywelyn retaliated by ravaging the earl's lands.[21] John sent troops to help restore Gwenwynwyn to the rule of southern Powys. In 1211 John invaded Gwynedd with the aid of almost all the other Welsh princes, planning according to Brut y Tywysogion "to dispossess Llywelyn and destroy him utterly".[22] The first invasion was forced to retreat, but in August that year John invaded again with a larger army, crossed the River Conwy and penetrated Snowdonia.[23] Bangor was burnt by a detachment of the royal army and the Bishop of Bangor captured. Llywelyn was forced to come to terms, and by the advice of his council sent his wife Joan to negotiate with the king, her father.[24] Joan was able to persuade her father not to dispossess her husband completely, but Llywelyn lost all his lands east of the River Conwy. He also had to pay a large tribute in cattle and horses and to hand over hostages, including his illegitimate son Gruffydd, and was forced to agree that if he died without a legitimate heir by Joan all his lands would revert to the king.[25]

This was the low point of Llywelyn's reign, but he quickly recovered his position. The other Welsh princes, who had supported King John against Llywelyn, soon became disillusioned with John's rule and changed sides. Llywelyn formed an alliance with Gwenwynwyn of Powys and the two main rulers of Deheubarth, Maelgwn ap Rhys and Rhys Gryg, and rose against John. They had the support of Pope Innocent III, who had been engaged in a dispute with John for several years and had placed his kingdom under an interdict. Innocent released Llywelyn, Gwenwynwyn and Maelgwn from all oaths of loyalty to John and lifted the interdict in the territories which they controlled. Llywelyn was able to recover all Gwynedd apart from the castles of Deganwy and Rhuddlan within two months in 1212.[26]

Wales c. 1217. Yellow: areas directly ruled by Llywelyn; Grey: areas ruled by Llywelyn's client princes; Green: Anglo-Norman lordships.John planned another invasion of Gwynedd in August 1212. According to one account, he had just commenced by hanging some of the Welsh hostages given the previous year when he received two letters. One was from his daughter Joan, Llywelyn's wife, the other from William I of Scotland, and both warned him in similar terms that if he invaded Wales his magnates would seize the opportunity to kill him or hand him over to his enemies.[27] The invasion was abandoned, and in 1213 Llywelyn took the castles of Deganwy and Rhuddlan.[28] Llywelyn made an alliance with Philip II Augustus of France,[29] then allied himself with the barons who were in rebellion against John, marching on Shrewsbury and capturing it without resistance in 1215.[30] When John was forced to sign Magna Carta, Llywelyn was rewarded with several favourable provisions relating to Wales, including the release of his son Gruffydd who had been a hostage since 1211.[31] The same year Ednyfed Fychan was appointed sensechal of Gwynedd and was to work closely with Llywelyn for the remainder of his reign.

Llywelyn had now established himself as the leader of the independent princes of Wales, and in December 1215 led an army which included all the lesser princes to capture the castles of Carmarthen, Kidwelly, Llanstephan, Cardigan and Cilgerran. Another indication of his growing power was that he was able to insist on the consecration of Welshmen to two vacant sees that year, Iorwerth as Bishop of St. David's and Cadwgan as Bishop of Bangor.[32]

In 1216, Llywelyn held a council at Aberdyfi to adjudicate on the territorial claims of the lesser princes, who affirmed their homage and allegiance to Llywelyn. Beverley Smith comments, "Henceforth, the leader would be lord, and the allies would be subjects".[33] Gwenwynwyn of Powys changed sides again that year and allied himself with King John. Llywelyn called up the other princes for a campaign against him and drove him out of southern Powys once more. Gwenwynwyn died in England later that year, leaving an underage heir. King John also died that year, and he also left an underage heir in King Henry III with a minority government set up in England.[34]

In 1217 Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, who had been allied to Llywelyn and had married his daughter Gwladus Ddu, was induced by the English crown to change sides. Llywelyn responded by invading his lands, first threatening Brecon, where the burgesses offered hostages for the payment of 100 marks, then heading for Swansea where Reginald de Braose met him to offer submission and to surrender the town. He then continued westwards to threaten Haverfordwest where the burgesses offered hostages for their submission to his rule or the payment of a fine of 1,000 marks.[35]

Later reign
Treaty of Worcester and border campaigns 1218–1229

Following King John's death Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor Henry III in 1218. This treaty confirmed him in possession of all his recent conquests. From then until his death Llywelyn was the dominant force in Wales, though there were further outbreaks of hostilities with marcher lords, particularly the Marshall family and Hubert de Burgh, and sometimes with the king. Llywelyn built up marriage alliances with several of the Marcher families. One daughter, Gwladus Ddu, was already married to Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but with Reginald an unreliable ally Llywelyn married another daughter, Marared, to John de Braose of Gower, Reginald's nephew. He found a loyal ally in Ranulph, Earl of Chester, whose nephew and heir, John the Scot, married Llywelyn's daughter Elen in about 1222. Following Reginald de Braose's death, Llywelyn also made an alliance with the powerful Mortimer family of Wigmore when Gwladus Ddu married Ralph de Mortimer.[36]

Criccieth Castle is one of a number built by Llywelyn.Llywelyn was careful not to provoke unnecessary hostilities with the crown or the Marcher lords; for example in 1220 he compelled Rhys Gryg to return four commotes in South Wales to their previous Anglo-Norman owners.[37] He built a number of castles to defend his borders, most thought to have been built between 1220 and 1230. These were the first sophisticated stone castles in Wales; his castles at Criccieth, Deganwy, Dolbadarn, Dolwyddelan and Castell y Bere are among the best examples.[38] Llywelyn also appears to have fostered the development of quasi-urban settlements in Gwynedd to act as centres of trade.[39]

Hostilities broke out with William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, in 1220. Llywelyn destroyed the castles of Narberth and Wiston, burnt the town of Haverfordwest and threatened Pembroke Castle, but agreed to abandon the attack on payment of £100. In early 1223 Llywelyn crossed the border into Shropshire and captured Kinnerley and Whittington castles. The Marshalls took advantage of Llywelyn's involvement here to land near St David's in April with an army raised in Ireland and recaptured Cardigan and Carmarthen without opposition. The Marshalls' campaign was supported by a royal army which took possession of Montgomery. Llywelyn came to an agreement with the king at Montgomery in October that year. Llywelyn's allies in south Wales were given back lands taken from them by the Marshalls and Llywelyn himself gave up his conquests in Shropshire.[40]

In 1228 Llywelyn was engaged in a campaign against Hubert de Burgh, who was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most powerful men in the kingdom. Hubert had been given the lordship and castle of Montgomery by the king and was encroaching on Llywelyn's lands nearby. The king raised an army to help Hubert, who began to build another castle in the commote of Ceri. However in October the royal army was obliged to retreat and Henry agreed to destroy the half-built castle in exchange for the payment of £2,000 by Llywelyn. Llywelyn raised the money by demanding the same sum as the ransom of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny, whom he had captured in the fighting.[41]

Marital problems 1230

Following his capture, William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny decided to ally himself to Llywelyn, and a marriage was arranged between his daughter Isabella and Llywelyn's heir, Dafydd ap Llywelyn. At Easter 1230 William visited Llywelyn's court Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn now known as Pen y Bryn, Abergwyngregyn. During this visit he was found in Llywelyn's chamber together with Llywelyn's wife Joan. On 2 May, De Braose was hanged in the marshland under Garth Celyn, the place now remembered as Gwern y Grog, Hanging Marsh, a deliberately humiliating execution for a nobleman, and Joan was placed under house arrest for a year. The Brut y Tywysogion chronicler commented:

“ ... that year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife.[42] ”

A letter from Llywelyn to William's wife, Eva de Braose, written shortly after the execution enquires whether she still wishes the marriage between Dafydd and Isabella to take place.[43] The marriage did go ahead, and the following year Joan was forgiven and restored to her position as princess.

Until 1230 Llywelyn had used the title princeps Norwalliæ 'Prince of North Wales', but from that year he changed his title to 'Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon', possibly to underline his supremacy over the other Welsh princes.[44] He did not formally style himself 'Prince of Wales' although as J.E. Lloyd comments "he had much of the power which such a title might imply".[45]

Final campaigns and the Peace of Middle 1231–1240

In 1231 there was further fighting. Llywelyn was becoming concerned about the growing power of Hubert de Burgh. Some of his men had been taken prisoner by the garrison of Montgomery and beheaded, and Llywelyn responded by burning Montgomery, Powys, New Radnor, Hay and Brecon before turning west to capture the castles of Neath and Kidwelly. He completed the campaign by recapturing Cardigan castle.[46] King Henry retaliated by launching an invasion and built a new castle at Painscastle, but was unable to penetrate far into Wales.[47]

Negotiations continued into 1232, when Hubert was removed from office and later imprisoned. Much of his power passed to Peter de Rivaux, including control of several castles in south Wales. William Marshal had died in 1231, and his brother Richard had succeeded him as Earl of Pembroke. In 1233 hostilities broke out between Richard Marshal and Peter de Rivaux, who was supported by the king. Llywelyn made an alliance with Richard, and in January 1234 the earl and Llywelyn seized Shrewsbury. Richard was killed in Ireland in April, but the king agreed to make peace with the insurgents.[48] The Peace of Middle, agreed on 21 June, established a truce of two years with Llywelyn, who was allowed to retain Cardigan and Builth. This truce was renewed year by year for the remainder of Llywelyn's reign.[49]

Death and aftermath
Arrangements for the succession

In his later years Llywelyn devoted much effort to ensuring that his only legitimate son Dafydd would follow him as ruler of Gwynedd. Dafydd's older but illegitimate brother, Gruffydd, was excluded from the succession. This was a departure from Welsh custom, not as is often stated because the kingdom was not divided between Dafydd and Gruffydd but because Gruffydd was excluded from consideration as a potential heir owing to his illegitimacy. This was contrary to Welsh law which stipulated that illegitimate sons had equal rights with legitimate sons, provided they had been acknowledged by the father.[50]

Strata Florida Abbey was the site of the council of 1238.In 1220 Llywelyn induced the minority government of King Henry to acknowledge Dafydd as his heir.[51] In 1222 he petitioned Pope Honorius III to have Dafydd's succession confirmed. The original petition has not been preserved but the Pope's reply refers to the "detestable custom ... in his land whereby the son of the handmaiden was equally heir with the son of the free woman and illegitimate sons obtained an inheritance as if they were legitimate". The Pope welcomed the fact that Llywelyn was abolishing this custom.[52] In 1226 Llywelyn persuaded the Pope to declare his wife Joan, Dafydd's mother, to be a legitimate daughter of King John, again in order to strengthen Dafydd's position, and in 1229 the English crown accepted Dafydd's homage for the lands he would inherit from his father.[53] In 1238 Llywelyn held a council at Strata Florida Abbey where the other Welsh princes swore fealty to Dafydd.[54] Llywelyn's original intention had been that they should do homage to Dafydd, but the king wrote to the other rulers forbidding them to do homage.[55]

Gruffydd was given an appanage in Meirionnydd and Ardudwy but his rule was said to be oppressive, and in 1221 Llywelyn stripped him of these territories.[56] In 1228 Llywelyn imprisoned him, and he was not released until 1234. On his release he was given part of Llŷn to rule. His performance this time was apparently more satisfactory and by 1238 he had been given the remainder of Llŷn and a substantial part of Powys.[57]

Death and the transfer of power

Joan died in 1237 and Llywelyn appears to have suffered a paralytic stroke the same year.[58] From this time on, his heir Dafydd took an increasing part in the rule of the principality. Dafydd deprived his brother Gruffydd of the lands given him by Llywelyn, and later seized him and his eldest son Owain and held them in Criccieth Castle. In 1240 the chronicler of Brut y Tywysogion records:

“ ... the lord Llywelyn ap Iorwerth son of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Wales, a second Achilles, died having taken on the habit of religion at Aberconwy, and was buried honourably.[59] ”

Llywelyn's stone coffin is now in Llanrwst parish church.Llywelyn died at the Cistercian abbey of Aberconwy, which he had founded, and was buried there. This abbey was later moved to Maenan near Llanrwst, and Llywelyn's stone coffin can now be seen in Llanrwst parish church. Among the poets who lamented his passing was Einion Wan:

"True lord of the land - how strange that today

He rules not o'er Gwynedd;

Lord of nought but the piled up stones of his tomb,

Of the seven-foot grave in which he lies."[60]

Dafydd succeeded Llywelyn as prince of Gwynedd, but King Henry was not prepared to allow him to inherit his father's position in the remainder of Wales. Dafydd was forced to agree to a treaty greatly restricting his power and was also obliged to hand his brother Gruffydd over to the king, who now had the option of using him against Dafydd. Gruffydd was killed attempting to escape from the Tower of London in 1244. This left the field clear for Dafydd, but Dafydd himself died without an heir in 1246 and was eventually succeeded by his nephew, Gruffydd's son, Llywelyn the Last.

Historical assessment

Llywelyn dominated Wales for over forty years, and was one of only two Welsh rulers to be called 'the Great', the other being his ancestor Rhodri the Great. The first person to give Llywelyn the title 'the Great' seems to have been his near-contemporary, the English chronicler Matthew Paris.[61]

John Edward Lloyd gave the following assessment of Llywelyn:

“ "Among the chieftains who battled against the Anglo-Norman power his place will always be high, if not indeed the highest of all, for no man ever made better or more judicious use of the native force of the Welsh people for adequate national ends; his patriotic statemanship will always entitle him to wear the proud style of Llywelyn the Great."[62] ”

David Moore gives a different view:

“ "When Llywelyn died in 1240 his principatus of Wales rested on shaky foundations. Although he had dominated Wales, exacted unprecedented submissions and raised the status of the prince of Gwynedd to new heights, his three major ambitions - a permanent hegemony, its recognition by the king, and its inheritance in its entirety by his heir - remained unfulfilled. His supremacy, like that of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, had been merely personal in nature, and there was no institutional framework to maintain it either during his lifetime or after his death."[63] ”

Children

The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children is uncertain. He was survived by nine children, two legitimate, one probably legitimate and six illegitimate. Elen ferch Llywelyn (c.1207–1253), his only certainly legitimate daughter, first married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester. This marriage was childless, and after John's death Elen married Sir Robert de Quincy, the brother of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester. Llywelyn's only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c.1208–1246), married Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny, Lord of Abergavenny. William was the son of Reginald de Braose and Gracia Briwere. After Gracia's death Reginald married, Gwladys Dduu, another of Llywelyn's daughters. Dafydd and Isabella may have had one child together, Helen of Wales (1246–1295), but the marriage failed to produce a male heir.

Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206–1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk in the fifteenth century states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although most sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch.[64] She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny in November 1215, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death in 1228 she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore in 1230 and had five sons and a daughter.

The mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children is known or assumed to have been Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168–1198). Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196–1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and is known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey. Their four sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death. Llywelyn had another son, Tegwared ap Llywelyn, by a woman known only as Crysten.

Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198–after 1263) married John de Braose of Bramber and Gower, a nephew of Reginald de Braose, by whom she had at least three sons. After his death in 1232 she married Walter III de Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford Castle with whom she had a single daughter, Matilda Clifford. Other illegitimate daughters were Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who married William de Lacy, and Angharad ferch Llywelyn, who married Maelgwn Fychan. Susanna ferch Llywelyn was sent to England as a hostage in 1228, and married Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife in 1237 by whom she had at least two sons.

Cultural allusions

A number of Welsh poems addressed to Llywelyn by contemporary poets such as Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, Dafydd Benfras and Llywarch ap Llywelyn (better known under the nickname Prydydd y Moch) have survived. Very little of this poetry has been published in English translation.[65]

Llywelyn has continued to figure in modern Welsh literature. The play Siwan (1956, English translation 1960) by Saunders Lewis deals with the finding of William de Braose in Joan's chamber and his execution by Llywelyn. Another well-known Welsh play about Llywelyn is Llywelyn Fawr by Thomas Parry.

Llywelyn is the main character or one of the main characters in several English-language novels:

Raymond Foxall (1959) Song for a Prince: The Story of Llywelyn the Great covers the period from King John's invasion in 1211 to the execution of William de Braose.

Sharon Kay Penman (1985) Here be Dragons is centred on the marriage of Llywelyn and Joan. Dragon's lair (2004) by the same author features the young Llywelyn before he gained power in Gwynedd.

Edith Pargeter (1960-63) "The Heaven Tree Trilogy" features Llywelyn, Joan, William de Braose, and several of Llywelyn's sons as major characters.

Gaius Demetrius (2006) Ascent of an Eagle tells the story of the early part of Llywelyn's reign.

The story of the faithful hound Gelert, owned by Llywelyn and mistakenly killed by him, is also considered to be fiction. "Gelert's grave" is a popular tourist attraction in Beddgelert but is thought to have been created by an eighteenth century innkeeper to boost the tourist trade. The tale itself is a variation on a common folktale motif.[66]

LLEWELYN AP5 IORWERTH, PRINCE OF NORTH WALES (Iorwerth "Drwyndwn" Ap OWAIN4, Owain I GWINEDH3, Griffith2, Cynan ap IAGO1), son of (4) Prince Iorwerth "Drwyndwn" Ap4 and Margred Verch (MADOG), was born in 1173 in Aberffraw Castle, and died on 11 April 1240 in Aberconwy. He married in England, INT after 16 (Aft 16 1205 Apr), (PN-24) PRINCESS JOAN OF WALES of London, Middlesex, England, daughter of (PN-20) John I "Lackland", King of England and Clemence, who was born circa 1188, died INT 1236 (37 ()) in Aberconwy[2], and was buried in Llan-Faes, Dindaethwy, Isle of Anglesey, Wales. He married TANGWYSTL. [7, 15, 18, 12, 1]

1173-1240, Prince of North Wales

Children of: Llewelyn ap5 IORWERTH, Prince of North Wales and Princess Joan of WALES:

6 i. HELEN6.

7 ii. MISS VERCH LLYWELYN of Caernarvon, b. circa 1214.

+ 8 iii. ELEN (HELEN) VERCH LLEWELYN Of Caernarvon, b. circa 1206, d. before 24 Oct. 1253 of Chester, Cheshire, England; m. (AEN-8) ROBERT DE QUINCY.

9 iv. ANGHARAD VERCH LLYWELYN , b. circa 1212.

10 v. DAFYDD AP LLYWELYN, PRINCE OF NORTH WALES , b. circa 1209, d. in March 1246.

+ 11 vi. MARGARET LLEWELLYN, b. circa 1230, d. after 1263 in Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England; m. (1) (FS-2) JOHN DE BRAOSE; m. (2) (P-62) WALTER DE CLIFFORD circa 1232.

12 vii. GWENLLIAN "LAS" VERCH LLYWELYN Of Caernarvon, b. circa 1207.

+ 13 viii. GLADYS DHU, d. in 1251; m. (AAS-5) RALPH DE MORTIMER, BARON OF WIGMORE in 1230.

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales1,2

M, #107904, b. 1173, d. 1240

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales|b. 1173\nd. 1240|p10791.htm#i107904|Iorwerth Drwyndwn (?)||p10260.htm#i102595||||Owain G. (?)||p10260.htm#i102594|unknown (?)||p10260.htm#i102596|||||||

Last Edited=3 Apr 2009

    Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales was born in 1173.1 He is the son of Iorwerth Drwyndwn (?). He married, secondly, Joan (?), daughter of John I 'Lackland', King of England and Clementina (?), in 1205.2 He died in 1240.1
    Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales was also known as Llewelyn, Prince of Wales.3 Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales also went by the nick-name of Llwelyn 'the Great'. He gained the title of Prince Llywelyn of North Wales.4 He hanged the Anglo-Norman baron, William de la Braose, for having an affair with his wife.

Children of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales and Tangwystyl Goch

   * Gwladus Du (?)+ d. 1251
   * Gruffydd (?)+
   * Dafydd (?)
   * Angharad (?)+

Children of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales

   * Margaret ap Llywelyn+ 3
   * Helen (?)+ d. a Feb 1294/955

Children of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales and Joan (?)

   * Helen ap Llywelyn+ b. c 1207, d. bt 1 Jan 1253 - 24 Oct 12534
   * David, Prince of North Wales b. c 1208, d. 1246

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 71. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
  2. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 22. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  3. [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 1063. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
  4. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 194.
  5. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume VIII, page 403.

See http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~medieval/llywelyn.htm for a reasonably reliable ancestry.


Prince of Wales


The poet Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch wrote in an elegy on Llywelyn:

Do you not see the path of the wind and the rain?

Do you not see the oak trees in turmoil?

Cold my heart in a fearful breast

For the king, the oaken door of Aberffraw


Llywelyn "the Great" Ap Iowerth (Prince of Wales)

Born: 1173

Died: 11 Apr 1240

Married: Joan PLANTAGENET 18 Jun 1205 (b. c. 1188; d. 2 Feb 1237, Aber) daughter of JOHN I "Lackland" (King of England) and Agatha De FERRERS Notes: Others suggest her mother was Clemence, the wife of Henry Pinel.

Children:

1. Dafydd Ap LLYWELYN (Prince of Gwynedd) (m. Isabella De Braose)

2. Ellen Verch LLYWELYN

3. Angharad Verch LLYWELYN

4. Margaret Verch LLYWELYN (m.1 John De Braose - m.2 Walter Clifford)


From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_ab_Iorwerth

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr, [ɬəˈwɛlɨn vaur]), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 1172 – 11 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 40 years.

During Llywelyn's boyhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200 and made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's natural daughter Joan in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated, and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor, Henry III, in 1218. During the next fifteen years, Llywelyn was frequently involved in fights with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career, as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240 and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_the_Great

Llywelyn the Great

Llywelyn I of Wales

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Gwynedd


Was called Llewelyn the Great Was Prince of Gwynedd, Powys, Aberffraw Was Lord of Snowdon His reign 1216AD-1240AD Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr, [ɬəˈwɛlɨn vaur]), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 1172 – 11 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 40 years.

During Llywelyn's boyhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200 and made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's natural daughter Joan in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated, and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands west of the River Conwy, but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor, Henry III, in 1218. During the next fifteen years, Llywelyn was frequently involved in fights with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career, as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240 and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.


Born in Aberffraw, Wales on 1164 to Iorwerth Ap Owain and Margred Verch Madog. Llewelyn married Tangwystl Verch Llywarch and had 2 children. Llewelyn married Joan and had 5 children. He passed away on 1240 in Aberconwy, Wales.
born Llywelyn ap Iowerth (Llwelyn son of Lowerth)

Prince of Wales, Gwynedd, and Powys Wenwynwyn

Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon 1218-1240; Last held by Rhys ap Gruffydd, Successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn

Prince of Gwynedd 1195–1240; Last held by Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, Successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn

Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn 1216–1240; Last held by Gwenwynwyn ab Owain, Successor Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Ap_Iorwerth-26

Born 1173 in Aberffraw Castle, Gwynedd, Anglesey, Wales

Son of Iorweth ap Owain (Gwynedd) of Gwynedd and Marared ferch Madog

Husband of Tangwystl ferch Llywarch — married 1194 in (not married) Wales

Husband of Joan FitzJohn — married 23 Mar 1204 [location unknown]

Husband of Eve FitzWarin — married 1239 [location unknown]

Father of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, Gwladus (ferch Llywelyn) de Mortimer, Ellen ferch Llewelyn, Margaret (ferch Llywelyn) de Clifford, Gwenllian (ferch Llywelyn) de Lacy, Tegwared y Baiswen (Llewelyn) ap Llywelyn, Angharad (Llewellyn) Maelgwyn, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Agatha Verch Llywelyn, Susanna ferch Llywelyn, Helen (Llywelyn) ferch Llywelyn and Tegwared Ap Llewelyn

Died 11 Apr 1240 in Aberconwy Abbey, Conwy, Conwy County, North Wales

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ~ Llywelyn Fawr (the Great)
   Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffudd ap Cynan[1] 
   Llywelyn Fawr,[2] Prince of Gwynedd (1195–1240[3]) in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales,[4] was also called 
   Llywelyn I of Wales (Welsh: Cymru)[5]
   Llywelyn of Cymru, of Gwynedd, of Powys Wenwynwyn[citation needed]
   Prince of Wales[6] (1218–1240)
   Prince of North Wales[7]
   Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn (1216–1240)[citation needed]
   Prince of Aberffraw[7] (1230[3])
   Lord of Snowdon[7] (1230[3]) 

Vitals

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (1173–Apr 11, 1240)[7]

   Born 1173,[7] Aberffraw Castle[citation needed] or Dolwyddelan Castle, "traditionally the birthplace of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth"[8][9][10][11]
   Parents — son and heir of Iorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain[7] Gwynedd (of Gwynedd)[1] and his wife Marared ferch Madog[7][1][12] (married about 1163[13]) 
   Wives & Mistresses — Llywelyn married three[14] or four times and had numerous mistresses.[7] 
   Wives: 
   unknown 1st wife[14] (or 2 wives before Joan[7][15])
       (Miss) ____ of Chester, daughter of Hugh de Meschines, 6th Earl of Chester, Viscount d'Avranches, Seigneur de St. Sever & Briquessart and Bertrade de Montfort, circa 1196. She died before 24 November 1199. [7] No issue.[16]
       _____, "widow of his uncle, Rhodri ab Owain (died 1195), and daughter of Reynold (or Rognvaldr), King of Man. He proposed to marry her in 1199. [7] Pope Innocent III officially granted permission for him to marry this woman 19 April 1203, which permission was formally rescinded 17 Feb. 1204/5. It is unknown if this marriage took place."[7][17] 
   Joan FitzJohn (c.1188–1236/37), natural daughter of King John I of England; married in England about 1205 (settlement dated October 1204,[7] before 23 March 1204/5,[7] after 16 April 1205,[14] 18 June 1205, Ascensiontide (mid-May) 1206[18])
   Eva FitzWarin, daughter of Fulk FitzWarin[7] (by his first wife[7] or his second[14]), married Llywelyn in 1239 (no issue)[7] 
   Mistresses: Llywelyn is said to have had seven mistresses, but the name of only one is known:[14] 
   Tangwystl ferch Llywarch Goch[14][1] 
    Children of Llywelyn[19] 
   Gruffudd ap Llywelyn,[14][7][1][20] by mistress Tangwystl [14]born circa.1199, died 1244
   Gwladys Ddu ferch Llywelyn,[14][7][1][20] by an unnamed mistress [14]born circa.1206, died 1251
   Ellen[7] (Helen,[14] Elen[1][20]) ferch Llywelyn, by wife Joan [14]born circa 1206? died circa 1253
   Margred[1][20] (Margaret[14][7]) ferch Llywelyn, by an unknown mistress [14]born circa 1208? died circa 1263
   Dafydd ap Llywelyn,[14][7][1] Prince of Wales, born circa 1208 (1211?), by wife Joan [14]died 25 February 1246
   Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn,[14][7][1][20] by a mistress [14]born circa 1209 died 1281
   Angharad ferch Llywelyn,[14][7][1][20] by an unknown mistress [14]born circa 1210, died 1257
   Tegwared ap Llywelyn,[7][1][20] born circa 1210, by an unknown mistress [14]possible twin to Angharad?
   Helen,[14] or Susanna,[14][7][21] by wife Joan [14]born circa 1214? Died 1259? (_____, wife of Malcolm of Fife,[7] Helen married Malcolm of Fife,[14] Elen married Malcolm Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife[20])
   _____, married William Caention[22]
   (a second) Angharad, married Philip ab Ifor[22] 
   Llywelyn died 11 April 1240[7] at the Cisterician Abbey of Aberconwy, Arllechwedd Isaf, Caernarvonshire, Wales, where he had "taken on the habit of religion."[23] He is buried at Aberconwy Abbey.[7] 
       "Princess Joan died in 1237 at Garth Celyn and Llywelyn suffered a paralytic stroke later in the same year. He died at the Cistercian Abbey of Aberconwy, his own foundation, on 11th April, 1240 and was buried there. His stone coffin was later removed to the parish church of Llanwrst, where it can still be seen."[24] 

Biography

"Llywelyn spent most of his life restoring and enhancing the hegemony of his grandfather Owain Gwynedd. A striking youth and a successful warrior at an early age, he acquired (from 1194) lands at the expense of his kinsmen, enabling him to master Gwynedd by 1203. Good relations with King John brought recognition and his marriage to John's natural daughter Joan."[3]

Residence
   Dolwyddelan castle: built by Llywelyn; old castle nearby may have been his birthplace. 
   Llywelyn's main home and court throughout his reign was at Garth Celyn on the north coast of Gwynedd. 

Reign

1197:

   "After the death of the lord Rhys, his son Gruffudd succeeded him in the government of the dominion, which was held by Maelgwn his brother, when the said Maelgwn, after being banished before from his territory, came, accompanied by his men, and also by the family of Gwenwynwyn, to Aberystwyth, and subjugated the town and castle, killing many of the people, and carrying others into bondage, and taking possession of the whole of Ceredigion with its castles. And after seizing his brother Gruffudd, he sent him to the prison of Gwenwynwyn, who agreeably to his desire sent him to an English prison. And then Gwenwynwyn subjugated Arwystli, and captured Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth and David son of Owain Gwynedd. That year, Owain Cyveiliog died at Ystrad Harebell, the monastery which he himself had founded after putting on the habit of religion."[26] 

1199: captured castle of Mold ... using title "prince of the whole of North Wales"; (Latin: tocius norwallie princeps). Llywelyn was probably not in fact master of all Gwynedd at this time since it was his cousin Gruffudd ap Cynan who promised homage to King John for Gwynedd in 1199.[4]

1201

   "The ensuing year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, subdued the cantrev of Lleyn, having expelled Maredudd, son of Cynan, on account of his treachery."[1] 

1202

   "about the first feast of St. Mary in the autumn, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, raised an army from Powys, to control Gwenwynwyn, and possess the country. Although Gwenwynwyn was close to him, ... he called ... the other princes ... related to him, to ... war ... against Gwenwynwyn. ... Elise, son of Madog, son of Maredudd ... refused ... and ... endeavoured to bring ... peace with Gwenwynwyn. And therefore, after the clergy and the religious had concluded a peace between Gwenwynwyn and Llywelyn], the territory of Elise, son of Madog, his uncle was taken from him. And ultimately there was given him for maintenance, in charity, the castle of Crogen with seven small townships. And thus, after conquering the castle of Bala, Llywelyn returned back happily. That year, about the feast of St. Michael, the family of young Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys, obtained possession of the castle of Llanymddyvri.[26] 

1203

   "The ensuing year, young Rhys, son of Gruffudd subdued the castle of Llanegwad. And then died David, son of Owain, in England, after having been banished out of Wales by Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. That year Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, by devices got possession of the castle of Llanymddyvri, and the castle of Llangadog; and the castle of Dineirth was completed."[26] 

1208

   "Rhys and Owain, sons of Gruffudd, attacked the castle of Llangadog, which they burned, killing some of the garrison, and imprisoning others."[26] 
   Gwenwynwyn of Powys fell out with King John (John summoned him to Shrewsbury in October ... then arrested ... and stripped him of his lands. Llywelyn annexed southern Powys and northern Ceredigion and rebuild Aberystwyth castle.)[2] 

Summer 1209: accompanied John on a campaign against William I of Scotland.

1209.

   "King John went with an immense army into Ireland; and he took from the sons of Hugh de Lacy their land and their a castles. After receiving homage of all in Ireland, and capturing the wife of William Bruse, and young William, his son, with his wife and his son and daughter, he returned with honour to England. He then put young William and his mother unmercifully to death in the castle of Windsor. That year, the earl of Caerleon built the castle of Dyganwy, which Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, had previously demolished, for fear of the king. And then also, that earl built the castle of Holywell; and Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, ravaged the territory of that earl." 

1210

   "One thousand two hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, made cruel attacks upon the English; and on that account king John became enraged, and formed a design of entirely divesting Llywelyn of his dominion. And he collected a vast army towards Gwynedd, with the view of utterly destroying it."[26] 

1211

   "The ensuing year, as Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, could not brook the many insults done to him by the men of the king, who had been left in the new castle at Aberconway he confederated with the Welsh princes, namely, Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor, and Maredudd, son of Robert; and rose against the king, subduing all the castles which he had made in Gwynedd, except Dyganwy and Rhuddlan; Mathraval, in Powys, made by Robert Vepont, they subdued, and whilst they were reducing that, the king, with a vast army, came to oppose them, and he himself burned it with fire. That year, Robert Vepont hanged, at Shrewsbury, Rhys, son of Maelgwn, who was a hostage to the king, not being yet seven years old. And in the same year, Robert, bishop of Bangor, died."[26] 

1215

   "Then Giles, bishop of Hereford, made peace with the king, from fear of the pope; ... and he died at Gloucester, about the feast of St. Martin; and his patrimony came to his brother Rheinallt de Bruse, who took for his wife the (Gladwys), daughter of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd. ...That year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the Welsh princes in general, collected a vast army to Caermarthen; and before the end of five days, he obtained the castle, and razed it to the ground. And then they demolished the castles of Llanstephan and Talacharn and St. Clare. And from thence, on the eve of the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle, they proceeded to Ceredigion, and fought against the castle of Emlyn. Then the men of Cemaes did homage to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the castle of Trevdraeth was delivered to him; which, by general consent, was shattered. And when the garrison of Aberystwyth saw that they could not maintain the castle, they delivered it up to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, on the feast of St. Stephen; and the following day, the feast of St. John the Apostle, the castle of Cilgerran was delivered to bim. And then Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and all the Welsh princew that were with him, returned to their countries, happy and joyful with victory. And here are the names of the princes who were on that expedition from Gwynedd:— Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, and Howel, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, his uncle, and Llywelyn, son of Maredudd, son of Cynan; out of Powys, Gwenwynwyn, son of Owain Cyveiliog, and Maredudd, son of Robert of Cydewain, and the family of Madog, son of Gruffudd Madog, and the two sons of Maelgwn, son of Cadwallon; and out of South Wales, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and Rhys the Hoarse, his brother, and young Rhys, and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys. And these are the names of the castles which were subjugated in that expedition; that is to say, the castle of Senghenydd, the castle of Cydweli, Caermarthen, Llanstephan, St. Clare, Talacharn, Trevdraeth, Aberteivi, and Cilgerran."[26] 

Llywelyn allied with Philip II Augustus of France, then with the barons rebelling against John, marching on Shrewsbury and capturing it without resistance in 1215.

When John was forced to sign Magna Carta, Llywelyn was rewarded with several favorable provisions relating to Wales, including the release of his son Gruffydd, a hostage since 1211. The same year Ednyfed Fychan was appointed sensechal of Gwynedd and was to work closely with Llywelyn for the remainder of his reign. Llywelyn the Great

1216

   A year after that and then there was a partition of land between Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and his brother, Rhys the Hoarse, and Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, at Aberdovey, in the presence of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, when all the Welsh princes, for the most part and all the wise men of Gwynedd were summoned thither together. And to Maelgwn, son of Rhys, were allotted three cantrevs of Dyved, that is to say, the cantrev of Gwarthav, the cantrev of Cemaes, and the cantrev of Emlyn, with Penllwynog and the castle of Cilgerran; and of the Vale of Tywi, the castle of Llanymddyvri, with two comots, namely, Hirvryn and Mallaen, and the manor of Myddvai; and of Ceredigion, the two comots of Gwynionydd and Mabwynion. And to young Rhys, and his brother Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, were allotted the castle of Aberteivi, and the castle of Nant yr Ariant, with throe cantrevs of Ceredigion. And to Rhys the Hoarse were allotted, as his share the whole of Cantrev Mawr, except Mallaen, and the Cantrev Bychan, except Hirvryn and Myddvai; and to him likewise came Cydweli and Carnwyllon. In that year, Gwenwynwyn, lord of Powys, made peace with John, king of England, treating with contempt the oath and the engagement which he had plighted to the chieftains of England and Wales, and violating the homage which he had done to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and surrendering the hostages that he had given thereon."[3] 

1217:

   Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, who had been allied to Llywelyn and married his daughter Gwladus Ddu changed sides. Llywelyn responded by invading his lands, first threatening Brecon, where the burgesses offered hostages for the payment of 100 marks, then heading for Swansea where Reginald de Braose met him to offer submission and to surrender the town. He then continued westwards to threaten Haverfordwest where the burgesses offered hostages for their submission to his rule or the payment of a fine of 1,000 marks. 
   Treaty of Worcester and border campaigns 1218–1229 

Following King John's death Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor Henry III in 1218. This treaty confirmed him in possession of all his recent conquests. From then until his death Llywelyn was the dominant force in Wales, though there were further outbreaks of hostilities with marcher lords, particularly the Marshall family and Hubert de Burgh, and sometimes with the king. Llywelyn built up marriage alliances with several of the Marcher families.[4]

1220

   "That year, on the feast of S. Jean de Collaces next after that Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, cited to him most of the princes of all Wales, and collected a vast army to go against the Flemings of Rhos and Pembroke (William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke), because of their breaking the peace and the treaty, which the men of England had made between the English and the Welsh, by their committing frequent depredations upon the Welsh, and harrassing them. On the first day he attacked the castle of Arberth, which the Flemings had built, after having been formerly destroyed by the Welsh; and he obtained the castle by force, and threw it to the ground, after killing some of the garrison, burning others, and capturing others. And the following day he destroyed the castle of Gwys, and burned the town. The third day he came to Haverford, and burned the whole of the town to the castle gate. And thus he went round Rhos and Deugleddyv in five days, making vast slaughter of the people of the country. And after making a truce with the Flemings until the calends of May, he returned back joyful and happy."[26] 

Early 1223: Llywelyn captured Kinnerley and Whittington castles in Shropshire. In April, Marshalls recaptured Cardigan and Carmarthen. Their campaign was supported by a royal army that took Montgomery. Llywelyn came to an agreement with the king at Montgomery in October. His allies in south Wales were given back lands taken by the Marshalls, and Llywelyn gave up Shropshire conquests.

1228: Llywelyn campaigned against Hubert de Burgh, Justiciar of England and Ireland, and one of the most powerful men in the kingdom. Hubert was given the lordship and castle of Montgomery by the king and encroached on Llywelyn's nearby lands. The king raised an army to help Hubert, who began to build another castle in the commote of Ceri. But in October, the royal army retreated and Henry agreed to destroy the half-built castle for £2,000 from Llywelyn. Llywelyn raised the money by demanding the same sum as the ransom of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny, who he captured in the fighting.[27] 1205 Marriage to Joan and Issue

1205

Llywelyn m. 18 Jun 1205 England; (Aft 16 Apr 1205) Joan (c.1188 - 1236/37), dau of King John I of England. Her mother is disputed; see her profile for further discussion.

Joan married Llywelyn the Great[28][29]at Ascensiontide 1206,[30] Joan and Llywelyn were married , probably around mid-May.[31][32]

1211-1232

Her role as ambassadress and intermediary between her husband and the Crown in the period 1211-32 was an important one. [33]

1228:

In 1228 Llywelyn's daughter Susanna was made a ward of Nicholas of Verdun: "Henry III King of England granted the upbringing of "L. princeps Norwallie et Johanna uxor sua et…soror nostra Susannam filiam suam" to "Nicholao de Verdun et Clementie uxori sue" by order dated 24 Nov 1228[292]. [34]

Issue:

   Helen ferch Llywellyn of Caernarvon (c. 1214)
   Elen (Helen) verch Llywellyn of Caernarvon, (c.1206 -before 24 Oct. 1253) of Chester. m.1 abt 1222 John de Scotia, Earl of Chester, m.2 Robert de Quincy
   ANGHARAD Verch Llywellyn (c.1212)
   DAFYDD ap Llywellyn (c.1209 - Mar 1246)
   Margaret ferch Llywelyn (c.1230 - aft 1263 Clifford Castle, Herefordshire). m.1 John de Braose; m.2 Walter de Clifford c.1232
   Gwenllian "LAS" Verch Llywellyn Of Caernarvon, b. circa 1207.
   Gwladus dhu (d.1251) m. Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny[35], m. 2nd (1230) Ralph de Mortimer. 

Mistresses and Issue

While some sources suggest that the mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children was his mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168-1198), Cawley [14] reports only Gruffudd as a child of Tangwystl, with the other illegitimate children the issue of Llywelyn's other mistreses.

Issue:

   Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196-1244) eldest son. Mother: Tangwystl. m. Senena, Dau. Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey. Issue: 4 sons:
       Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. 
   Tegwared ap Llywelyn[36]
   Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198-after 1263) m.1John de Braose of Gower, nephew of Reginald de Braose; m.2 Walter Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford.
   Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn m. William de Lacey
   Angharad ferch Llywelyn, Angharad may have been Joan's dau. Her illegitimacy is uncertain. See Wikipedia: Angharad ferch Llywelyn m. Maelgwn Fychan 

Marital problems

1230 William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny, was executed for sleeping with Llywelyn's wife. They were caught in Llwelyn's bedroom.[26][37]

   Previously ... Braose allied with Llywelyn during his capture, and arranged a marriage between his daughter Isabella and Llywelyn's heir, Dafydd ap Llywelyn. This was upheld after his execution. Shortly after Braose' death, a letter from Llywelyn to William's wife, Eva asks if she still wants their kid's wedding to take place ... which did happen. Meanwhile, Joan was put on house arrest, but restored to her the next year.[5] 

Death of Spouse

1237: Joan died, "in February, at the court of Aber, and was buried in a new cemetery on the side of the strand ... Howel, bishop of Llanelwy, had consecrated. And in honour of her, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, built there a monastery for barefooted monks, which is called Llanvaes in Mona. And then Ieuan, earl of Caerleon, and Cynvrig, son of the lord Rhys, died. That year, there came again a cardinal from Rome to England, sent, as his legate, by pope Gregory the ninth."[26] Strata Florida Abbey — council of 1238 & son Dafydd

1238

   "The ensuing year, on the morrow after the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist [Oct. 19], all the princes of Wales sware fidelity to David, son of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, at Strata Florida. And then he took, from his brother Gruffudd, Arwystli and Ceri and Cyveiliog and Mawddwy and Mochnant and Caereinion; leaving to him nothing but the cantrev of Lleyn itself. And then Maredudd, son of Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor, slew his brother Gruffudd; and immediately Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, divested him of his territory on that account."[26] 

Death

1240:

   "Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Wales, died ... and was buried at Aberconway, after taking the habit of religion. And after him David, his son, by Joan, the daughter of king John ... reigned. The month of May following, David, son of Llywelyn, having with him the barons of Wales, went to Gloucester, to do homage to the king his uncle, and to receive from him his territory lawfully. And then the English sent Walter Marshall, and an army with him, to fortify Aberteivi."[26] 

Burial of Llywelyn the Great

According to Lee (1893), Llywelyn died 11 April 1240 at the Cisterician Abbey of Aberconwy, Arllechwedd Isaf, Caernarvonshire, Wales, where he had "taken on the habit of religion." He is buried at the abbey.[23]

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon, died at Aberconway Abbey 11 April 1240, where he was buried.[7]

He was later reburied at Llanrwst Parish Church. Gwydir Chapel next to the Church of St. Grwst in Llanrwst, Conway, Wales, contains the empty coffin of Llywelyn the Great. He was originally buried at Aberconwy Abbey, but his coffin was moved to the new abbey at Maenan when the Cistercian monks were forced to move there by Edward I.

The whereabouts of Llywelyn's corpse remains a mystery. (http;//www.walesdirectory.co.uk/Towns_in_Wales/Llanrwst_Town_2.htm)

       Aberconway Abbey was also known as Aberconway Abbey Parish Church and is now known as St. Mary and All Saints Church, in Conwy, Conwy County, North Wales. 

Notes on a Name

Why "ap Iorwerth-26" as the WikiTree ID? Richardson[7] and FMG/MedLands[14] both show him as Llywelyn ap Iorwerth; the Cymru project's naming guide calls for including ab, ap, or ferch in the Last Name at Birth (LNAB) field; and "ap" because of the way Iorwerth is pronounced:

   Llywelyn ap Iorwerth
   [ɬəˈwɛlɨ̞n][4] ap [ˈjɔrwɛrθ][38] 

Children Himself Parents ap Llywelyn & ferch Llywelyn (see list above) Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Iorwerth ab Owain ap Gruffudd Margred ferch Madog ap Maredudd

ab, ap or ferch[39]

   "Ferch" actually means "daughter of", so if a woman was named "Elen ferch Llywelyn ap Gwilym", this would mean that her name was Elen, her father's name was Llywelyn, and her father's father's name was Gwilym. Properly, none of these words, "ap", "ab", or "ferch", are capitalized. 
   The terms come from the fact that those are the words in the Welsh anguage which mean "son of" and "daughter of". Kind of like "filius" in Latin or "...sson" in Scandinavian languages. 
   The difference between "ap" and "ab" is the sound which follows it. We do the same in the English language with "a bicycle" and "an orange". The spelling and pronunciation of the indefinite article changes depending on whether it preceeds a vowel sound or a consonant sound. 
   In Welsh, "ap" comes before a consonant sound, thus "Einion ap Llywelyn", "Jenkin ap Gruffudd", "Llywarch ap Bran". "Ab", on the other hand, comes before a vowel sound, thus "Maredudd ab Einion", "Huw ab Owain". The reason I said "vowel sound" and not "vowel" is that in certain circumstances the initial letter "I" in Welsh can sound like a consonant. Thus "Rhys ap Iorwerth" and "Dafydd ap Ieuan". Kind of like in English where an initial "U" can sound like a consonant. We say "a university", not "an university". 
   As you would expect, not everybody knows enough Welsh to handle patronyms properly, so you'll find lots of variations in the forms, even among people who write on Welsh genealogies. But the above is the correct Welsh way of doing things. 

What's in a name? The following "Meaning & History" information is from Behind the Name:

   Iorwerth: Means "handsome lord" from Welsh ior "lord" and berth "handsome". This name is used in the Mabinogion, a collection of tales from Welsh myth, where it belongs to a son of Maredudd. This name is sometimes used as a Welsh form of Edward.
   Llywelyn: Possibly a Welsh form of the old Celtic name Lugubelenus, a combination of the names of the gods LUGUS and BELENUS. Alternatively it may be derived from Welsh llyw "leader". This was the name of several Welsh rulers, notably the 13th-century Llywelyn the Great who fought against England. 

Sources

   ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Bartrum
   ↑ sometimes shown as Llywelyn Mawr, which also means Great, but Fawr is more frequently used for Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (see this G2G discussion)
   ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 John Cannon, "Llywelyn ab Iorwerth." The Oxford Companion to British History. 2002. Encyclopedia.com (accessed 12 Feb. 2016).
   ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Wikipedia: Llywelyn the Great
   ↑ Wikipedia: Selected Biography, May 18
   ↑ Llywelyn the Great, Heritage Holidays
   ↑ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham, (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2013), Vol V, pp 298-302
   ↑ Dolwyddelan Castle, Castles of Wales
   ↑ Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, BBC Wales
   ↑ "It is suggested that Llywelyn ab Iorwerth was born in Dolwyddelan Castle and that he was raised in Powys." (Llywelyn Fawr, Snowdonia National Park Authority)
   ↑ this blog says Llywelyn the Great built Dolwyddelan Castle, but it seems to be the only source of that tidbit (and, if so, he could not have been born there)
   ↑ Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ancestor table, compiled by Stewart Baldwin (accessed Feb. 12, 2016)
   ↑ from Marared's WikiTree profile
   ↑ 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Cawley, The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (#FMG)
   ↑ See also this Gen-Medieval Rootsweb post by Douglas Richardson, Oct. 5, 1999
   ↑ Llywelyn 'the Great', Prince of Gwynedd, Aberffraw, Lord Snowdon, "Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors and Cousins" (website, compiled by Mr. Marlyn Lewis, Portland, OR; accessed February 12, 2016), citing Richardson's Plantagenet Ancestry (Vol III, pp 422-424) and Royal Ancestry (Vol V, pp 297-298)
   ↑ See also this Gen-Medieval Rootsweb post by Stewart Baldwin, Oct. 7, 1999
   ↑ "According to the Worcester Annals" (see Plantagenesta)
   ↑ List of first nine children with dates from Sharon Kaye Penman's blog; footnotes indicate if child is also shown by #FMG, #Richardson, #Bartrum, and #Turner-Thomas. Cawley <ref></ref> lists nine children -- 3 by wife Joan, 1 by mistress Tangwystl, and the remaining 5 by other mistresses, as shown. Two additional children follow the nine listed by Penman. Other sections in this biography include additional information as to the mothers (see above). See also discussions on the profiles of the mothers and the children.
   ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 #Turner-Thomas
   ↑ Penman suggests that Helen and Susanna may be the same person, but most other researchers list them as separate persons.
   ↑ 22.0 22.1 Listed by #Bartrum, #Richardson, and #Turner-Thomas
   ↑ 23.0 23.1 Lee, S. (1893). Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 34. NY: Macmillian and Co., p. 7ff, at 12 archive.org.
   ↑ Llywelyn the Great, English Monarchs
   ↑ Public Monument and Sculpture Association National Recording Project (link available through archive.org's Wayback Machine)
   ↑ 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 Brut y Tywysogion, Jesus MS 111 (Red Book of Hergest), retrieved 2014-06-08, amb
   ↑ Wikipedia Llywelyn the Great
   ↑ Richardson, p. 563-564, retrieved 2014-08-02, amb
   ↑ son of Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd Prince of North Wales and Marared ferch Madog ap Maredudd.
   ↑ Worcester Annals
   ↑ According to www.princesofgwynedd.com May 1206 at Chester.
   ↑ married 1205, according to Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG)
   ↑
   ↑ Cawley, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Accessed February 15, 2016
   ↑ 1215-Brut y Tywysogion
   ↑ by Crysten
   ↑ In Easter 1230 William visited Llywelyn's court Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn now known as Pen y Bryn, Abergwyngregyn. During this visit he was found in Llywelyn's chamber together with Llywelyn's wife Joan. On 2 May, De Braose was hanged in the marshland under Garth Celyn, the place now remembered as Gwern y Grog, Hanging Marsh, a deliberately humiliating execution for a nobleman, and Joan was placed under house arrest for a year.
   ↑ Wikipedia: Iorwerth
   ↑ Gen-Medieval Rootsweb post by William A. Reitwiesner, September 1995
   Llywelyn Fawr, from the Rootsweb database for Celtic Royal Genealogy by Sir Arthur E Turner-Thomas V.C., G.C., K.G.(Wales), K.C.B.
   The Bartrum Project (digitization of "Welsh Genealogies AD 300- 1500" by Peter C. Bartrum)
       Gruffudd ap Cynan 1
       Gruffudd ap Cynan 3, Owain Gwenydd
       Gruffudd ap Cynan 4, Iorwerth Drwyndwn 
   Lee, S. (1893). Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 34. NY: Macmillian and Co. archive.org.
   Cokayne, G.E., Gibbs, V., Doubleday, H.A. White, G.H., Warrand, D. & Walden, H, (2000). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, Vol. 1, pp.403. Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000
   Mosley, C. (2003). Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, (107th ed. Vol. 1, pp.1063).Wilmington, DE: Genealogical Books Ltd.
   Weir, A. (1999). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, (pp. 71, 194). London: The Bodley Head.
   Jacob Youde William Lloyd, The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog: And the Ancient Lords of Arwystli, Cedewen, and Meirionydd, Volume 1 (p 161)
   Peter Stewart's GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval "Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ancestor table" 

See also:

   Douglas Richardson discussion of Llewelyn's parentage. February 2017. 

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/soc.genealogy.medieval/qPH0BlVAXEs

MEDIEVAL LANDS: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families by Charles Cawley © Foundation for Medieval Genealogy & Charles Cawley 2000-2017.

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Llewelyn Fawr ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwynedd's Timeline

1172
1172
Caernarvonshire, Wales

This castle was built during his time.

1194
December 5, 1194
Age 22
Gwynedd,Wales
1194
Age 22
Gwynedd, Wales
1194
Age 22
1196
1196
Age 24
Probably Gwynedd, Wales, (Present UK)
1202
1202
Age 30
Meisgyn, Penychen, Glamorganshire, Wales
1205
May 1205
Age 33
Wales, United Kingdom
1205
Age 33
Wales
1206
1206
Age 34
Caernarvonshire, Wales