Louis IV, king of West Francia

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Louis

Dutch: Lodewijk, German: Ludwig, Lithuanian: Liudvikas, Norwegian: Ludvig, Portuguese: Luis
Also Known As: "Louis IV d'Outremer"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Laon, Champagne, Aisne, France
Death: September 10, 954 (34)
Rheims, Champagne-Ardenne, France (Fell from his horse)
Place of Burial: Rheims, Champagne-Ardenne, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles III the Simple, king of the Franks and Eadgifu
Husband of Gerberga of Saxony
Father of Lothair IV, roi de France; Mathilde de France, Reine Consort des Deux-Bourgognes; Charles de France; Louis de France; Henri de France and 1 other
Half brother of Alpaïs; Arnulph; Rorico, Bishop of Laon; Drogo; Rothrudis and 5 others

Occupation: King of France, King, koning West-Francie
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Louis IV, king of West Francia

Louis IV, King of West Francia

  • Son of Charles III the Simple, king of the Franks and Eadgifu

Project MedLands, CAROLINGIANS

LOUIS, son of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the Franks & his second wife Eadgifu of England ([10 Sep 920/10 Sep 921]-Reims 10 Sep 954, bur Reims, Abbaye de Saint-Rémi). Rodulfus Glaber names "Ludowicum filium…regis Caroli"[375]. After his father was deposed in 923, his mother fled with Louis to England where he was brought up at the court of Æthelstan King of Wessex. His return to France after the death of King Raoul in early 936 was negotiated by Hugues "le Grand" [Capet]. He was crowned 19 Jun 936 at Laon by the Archbishop of Reims as LOUIS IV "d’Outremer" King of the Franks. He asserted his autonomy from Hugues "le Grand", to whom he awarded the title dux francorum, by establishing himself with his mother at Laon in 937[376]. His reign was characterised by constant disputes with his nobles, in particular Hugues "le Grand", Héribert II Comte de Vermandois, Arnoul Count of Flanders and Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie]. Despite constant military activity, he only increased the territory directly held by the kings of France by the counties of Laon (captured in 938 from Héribert II Comte de Vermandois) and Reims. He also temporarily held Amiens and Ponthieu. Following a revolt in Lotharingia against Otto I "der Große" King of Germany, Louis was offered the crown of Lotharingia in 939 by Duke Giselbert. King Otto responded by raiding Frankish territory, allying himself with Hugues "le Grand", Héribert II Comte de Vermandois, Arnoul I Count of Flanders and Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie], and obliged King Louis to renounce Lotharingia. Héribert and Hugues besieged Reims, forcing the restoration of Héribert's son as archbishop, and besieged King Louis at Laon. After the murder of Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie], King Louis detained Richard his heir, but was held captive himself by the people of Rouen after Richard escaped. King Otto launched a revenge attack, but was defeated by the Normans. After Louis was released by Hugues "le Grand", he was transferred to the custody of Thibaut Comte de Blois who held him captive for a year in 945/46[377]. King Louis died after falling from his horse on his way from Reims to Laon[378]. Married (end 939) as her second husband, GERBERGA of Germany, widow of GISELBERT Graf [im Maasgau] Duke of Lotharingia, daughter of HEINRICH I King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde von Ringelheim [Immedinger] (Nordhausen [913/14]-Reims 5 May 984, bur Abbaye de Reims). Liutprand states that the wife of "Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem" was "regis sororem"[379]. Flodoard names her "Gerbergam" when recording her second marriage[380]. King Louis married her without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, presumably to increase his hold on Lotharingia (which had been ruled by her first husband). She was active in the defence of Laon in 941 and of Reims in 946, accompanied her husband on expeditions to Aquitaine in 944 and Burgundy in 949, and was active during his period of imprisonment in 945/46[381]. An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi[382]. Her husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in 951, taken from his mother on her second marriage. Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in 959[383]. "Gerberga…Francorum regina" donated "alodo…Marsnam in comitatu Masaugo" to Reims Saint-Rémy, confirmed by "comitibus Emmone et Ansfrido", for the souls of "senioris nostri piæ memoriæ Gisleberti suique…patris…et matris Rageneri et Albradæ", by charter dated 10 Feb 968, signed by "Arnulfi comitis…Emmonis comitis, Ansfridi comitis…"[384]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Feb" of "Gerberga Francorum regina"[385].

King Louis IV & his wife had seven children:

  • 1. LOTHAIRE (Laon end-941-Laon 2 Mar 986, bur Reims Saint-Rémi). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[386]. Flodoard names "Lotharius puer, filius Ludowici", when recording his accession[387]. He was elected to succeed his father 12 Nov 954 as LOTHAIRE King of the Franks.
  • 2. MATHILDE (end-943-26/27 Jan [981/992], bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[388]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "rex Francorum Lotharius…sororem suam Mathildem" and "Conradus rex Burgundie"[389]. "Mathilde et Alberada" are named as daughters of "Gerberga" in the Continuator of Flodoard, which specifies that Mathilde was mother of "Rodulfus rex et Mathildis soror eius"[390]. Her brother King Lothaire arranged this marriage to strengthen his position in south-eastern France. Her dowry consisted of the counties of Lyon and Vienne[391]. m ([964]%29 as his second wife, CONRAD I "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy [Welf], son of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Berta of Swabia ([922/25]-Vienne 19 Oct 993, bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice).
  • 3. CHARLES (Laon Jan 945-Rouen before 953). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[392], "Karolum" presumably being the older son of that name as indicated by the order, who presumably died after 951 which is the earliest date of the range during which the Genealogia was compiled[393]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that a son of King Louis was given as hostage to the Normans in 945 to secure the release of his father[394], although it is not known whether this son was Charles who would have been a baby at the time, normally too young to have been used as a hostage according to then current practice.
  • 4. daughter ([947/early 948]-). Flodoard records that "Chonradus…dux" baptised "filiam Ludowici regis" in the middle of his passage dealing with 948[395]. She must have been born in the previous year, or very early in the same year, if the timing of the birth of King Louis's son Louis is correctly dated to the end of 948.
  • 5. LOUIS ([Dec] 948-Laon 954 before 10 Sep). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[396]. Flodoard records the birth of "regi Ludowico filius…patris ei nomen imponens" at the end of his passage concerning 948[397].
  • 6. CHARLES (Laon summer 953-in prison Orléans 12 Jun 991, bur 1001 Maastricht, St Servatius). Flodoard records the birth of twins to "Gerberga regina" in 953 "unus Karolus, alter Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est"[398]. Emperor Otto II created him Duke of Lower Lotharingia in May 977 at Diedenhofen.
  • 7. HENRI (Summer 953-young). Flodoard records the birth of twins to "Gerberga regina" in 953 "unus Karolus, later Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est"[399].

Louis IV, King of West Francia BIOGRAPHY

Louis IV (10 September 920 – 30 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of France from 936 to 954. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the son of Charles III and Eadgifu of England, a daughter of King Edward the Elder. Exile He was only two years old when his father was deposed by the nobles, who set up Robert I in his place. When he was only three years old, Robert died and was replaced by Rudolph, duke of Burgundy. Rudolph's ally, a Carolingian himself, Count Herbert II of Vermandois, took Charles captive by treachery and the young Louis's mother took the boy "over the sea" to the safety of England, hence his nickname. Charles died in 929, but Rudolph ruled on until 936, when Louis was summoned back to France unanimously by the nobles, especially Hugh the Great, who had probably organised his return to prevent Herbert II, or Rudolph's brother Hugh the Black, taking the throne. [edit]Rise to the throne He was crowned king at Laon by Artald, archbishop of Rheims, on Sunday 19 June 936. Effectively, his sovereignty was limited to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a keenness beyond his years in obtaining the recognition of his authority by his feuding nobles. Nonetheless, his reign was filled with conflict; in particular with Hugh the Great, count of Paris. [edit]Marriage In 939, Louis became involved in a struggle with the Emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, but then married Otto's sister Gerberga of Saxony (914 – May 5, 984). They were parents to eight children: Lothair of France (941-986) Mathilde b. about 943; married Conrad of Burgundy Hildegarde b. about 944 Carloman b. about 945 Louis b. about 948 Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine (953-993) Alberade b. before 953 Henri b. about 953 [edit]Death Louis IV fell from his horse and died September 10, 954, at Rheims, in the Marne, and is interred there at Saint Rémi Basilica.

Louis-IV-king-of-France Biography, by Britannica.com

Louis IV, byname Louis d’Outremer (Louis from Overseas) (born 921—died Sept. 10, 954, Reims, France), king of France from 936 to 954 who spent most of his reign struggling against his powerful vassal Hugh the Great. When Louis’s father, Charles III the Simple, was imprisoned in 923, his mother, Eadgifu, daughter of the Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Elder, took Louis to England. He was recalled to France in 936 and crowned on June 19 at Laon byArtand, archbishop of Reims, who became Louis’s chief supporter against Hugh the Great. Louis proved not to be the puppet monarch that Hugh had anticipated; he even moved from Paris to Laon to avoid Hugh’s influence. In 939 he married Gerberga, the sister of King Otto I, the future Holy Roman emperor. When Hugh and Herbert of Vermandois seized Reims and attacked Laon in 940, Louis valiantly defended his city; but because of Louis’s earlier interference in Lorraine the German king, Otto I, sent aid to the rebels. Louis appeared to be totally defeated in 941, but he made peace with Otto in November 942 at Vise on the Meuse, and Hugh and he were reconciled after Herbert, Hugh’s chief supporter, died in 943. In 945, while intervening in Norman politics, Louis was captured and handed over to Hugh, who imprisoned him for a year until Louis surrendered his main base of Laon. On his release, Louis closely allied himself with Otto to retake Reims in 946. In 949 Louis again received control of Laon, and Hugh, excommunicated by French and German synods and by the Pope, made a peace in 951 that lasted until Louis’s death.

References: [WallopFH],[Moncreiffe],[AR7],[MRL],[RD500],[Weis1], [ES],[PlantagenetA]

Louis-IV-king-of-France Find A Grave Memorial

King of the west Franks. Also known by the nickname d'Outre-Mer or Transmarinus. Son of King Charles III "the Simplex" and his second wife Edgiva of Wessex, the older sister of Edith of Wessex. He spend his childhood with his mother at his grandfathers court in England. She had fled there after the Duke of Vermandois had imprisoned his father. In 936 Duke Hugh "the Great" called him back to France. On June 19th he was crowned King in Laon. In the fall of 939 he married the seven years older sister of Emperor Otto I, Gerberge. In the beginning the relationship with Hugh was serene. They fought together against Hugh "the Black," but the peace contract the two Hugh's signed opened Louis' eyes about the role his friend had appointed for him - the role of Hugh's marionette. The following conflict between the two lasted during much of his reign. In 946 he was imprisoned by Hugh, but was released after Otto I and Louis grandfather had pressured Hugh. For his release Louis had to hand over Laon. In 948 during a synod in Ingelheim Hugh was excommunicated. With Otto's support he was able to re-conquer Laon. In 953 the two reconciled in Soissons. On his way from Laon to Reims he hunted a wolf, fell from his horse and died from inner injuries. www.findagrave.com

Louis de France, IV Birth 10 Sep 920 Leon, Departement des Landes, Aquitaine, France Death 30 Sep 954 (aged 34) Champagne-Ardenne, France Burial Cathedrale Notre-Dame de Reims Reims, Departement de la Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Memorial ID 151313089

Louis-IV-king-of-France Death & Succession, by Wikipedia

Dynastic Memorial and Burial

Gerberga, a dynamic and devoted wife, supported the burial of her late husband at the Abbey of Saint-Remi.[60] Unusually for the Carolingians, she took care of the dynastic memorial (mémoire dynastique) of Louis IV. The Queen, from Ottonian descent, was constantly at the side of her husband, supporting him and being active in the defence of Laon (941) and of Reims (946), accompanied him on the military expeditions to Aquitaine (944) and Burgundy (949), and was also active during his period of imprisonment in 945-946.[61] By France and Germany, the role of queens was different: the memorial mostly was a task of males. Written shortly after 956, perhaps by Adso of Montier-en-Der (according to Karl Ferdinand Werner) the Life of Clotilde[62] proposes to Queen Gerberga to build a church destined to be burial place of members of the Carolingian dynasty: the Abbey of Saint-Remi; moreover in a charter dated 955, King Lothair, following the desires of his mother, confirmed the immunity of Saint-Remi as the place of coronations and royal necropolis.

The tomb of Louis IV was later destroyed during the French Revolution. At that time, the two tombs of Louis IV and his son Lothair were in the centre of the Abbey, the side of the Epistle reserved to Louis IV and the side of the gospel to Lothair. Both remains were moved in the middle of the 18th century and transported to the right and left of the mausoleum of Carloman I first under the first arch of the collateral nave towards the sacristy of Saint-Remi Abbey. The statues placed on the original graves were left there. Both statues were painted and the golden Fleur-de-lis on each of the Kings' capes was easily visible. A graphic description of the tombs was made by Bernard de Montfaucon.[63][64] Louis IV was shown seated on a throne with a double-dossier. He was depicted as full-bearded, wearing a bonnet and dressed with a chlamys and also was holding a sceptre who ended with a pine cone. The throne of Louis IV was similar to a bench placed on a pedestal of the same material. The seat had a back that was above the royal head he was home with a gable roof, three arches decorated the underside of the roof. The base on which rested his feet was decorated at the corners with figures of children or lions.[65]

Children

Louis IV and Gerberga had seven children:

  • Lothair (end 941 – 2 March 986), successor of his father.
  • Mathilde (end 943 – 27 January 992), married in 964 to King Conrad I of Burgundy.[67]
  • Charles (January 945 – Rouen, before 953). Guillaume de Jumièges records that a son of Louis IV hostage of the Normans after 13 July 945 to secure the release of his father,[68] although it's unknown whether this son was *

Charles, who would have been a baby at the time, normally too young to have been used as a hostage according to then current practice.

  • Daughter (947 / early 948 – died young). Flodoard records that Chonradus...dux baptised filiam Ludowici regis in the middle of his passage dealing with 948.[69] She must have been born in the previous year, or very early in the same year, if the timing of the birth of King Louis's son Louis is correctly dated to the end of 948.

Louis (December 948 – before 10 September 954). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim as children of Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga. Flodoard records the birth of regi Ludowico filius...patris ei nomen imponens at the end of his passage concerning 948.[70] Charles (summer 953 – 12 June 991), invested as Duke of Lower Lorraine by Emperor Otto II in May 977 at Diedenhofen.

  • Henry (summer 953 – died shortly after his baptism). Flodoard records the birth of twins to Gerberga regina in 953 unus Karolus, later Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est.

Succession

Immediately after Louis IV died, his widow Gerberga was forced to obtain the approval of Hugh the Great for the coronation of her son Lothair, which took place on 12 November 954 at the Abbey of Saint-Remi in Reims.

The regency of the Kingdom was held firstly by Hugh the Great, and after his death in 956 by Gerberga's brother Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lotharingia until 965, marking the Ottonian influence over France during all the second half of the 10th century.[61] Thus, the end of Louis IV's reign and the beginning of the rule of Lothair, wasn't the "dark century of iron and lead [...] but rather [...] the last century of the Carolingian Europe".

Louis IV's youngest surviving son Charles, known as Charles of Lower Lorraine, settled on an island in the Zenne river in the primitive pagus of Brabant, where he erected a castrum in the town called Bruoc Sella or Broek Zele, which later became Brussels.

Links

Sources

  • The precise date of birth of Louis IV is unknown. The Annals of Flodoard indicate that he was fifteen in 936 and that he was born in the region of Laon-Reims.
  • Anselm de Gibours (1726). Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France [Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of France] (in French). Vol. 1 (3rd ed.). Paris: La compagnie des libraires. p. 36.
  • Donald A. Bullough, Carolingian Renewal: Sources and Heritage, (Manchester University Press, 1991), 286
  • Hartley, C. (2003). A Historical Dictionary of British Women. Routledge history online. Taylor & Francis Books Limited. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-85743-228-2. Retrieved 2 August 2018. The daughter of King Edward the Elder, Eadgifu became the second wife of the beleaguered Carolingian King of West Frankia, Charles the Simple. In September 920 or 921 she gave birth to Louis, the future Louis IV, called 'd'Outremer' on ...
  • Poly 1990, p. 296.
  • Sot 1988, p. 724.
  • a b c Sot 1988, p. 727
  • Pierre Riche, The Carolingians, Transl. Michael Idomir Allen, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), 256.
  • Michel Bur: La Champagne médiévale, 2005, p. 657.
  • The chroniclers Aimon de Fleury recorded in his Gestis francorum that Louis IV was crowned in the Abbey of Saint-Vincent in Laon.
  • Flodoard, Annales 936, ed. P. Lauer.
  • Dorothy Whitelock (tr.), English Historical Documents c. 500–1042. 2nd ed. London, 1979. p. 344.
  • Isaïa 2009, p. 131.
  • Pinoteau 1992, pp. 76-80.
  • Depreux 2002, pp. 136-137.
  • Sarah Foot: Dynastic Strategies: The West Saxon Royal Family in Europe. In: David Rollason, Conrad Leyser, Hannah Williams: England and the Continent in the Tenth Century: Studies in Honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876–1947). Brepols, 2010, p. 246.
  • a b Theis 1990, p. 169.
  • Title held by Charles Martel and Pepin the Short when they were mayors of the Palace for the last Merovingian kings.
  • Guillot, Sassier 2003, p. 170.
  • Theis 1990, p. 170.
  • It's understood that the duke of the Franks is now the first person in the kingdom after the king. Charter of Louis IV, n° 4, 26 December 936. Guillot, Sassier 2003, p. 170.
  • In fact, in the kingdom of the Franks during the 9th century, there can be only one duke. If Hugh the Great proclaimed himself duke of all the Franks and over all the kingdoms (Burgundy and Aquitaine included) this means that he doesn't recognize the legitimacy of Hugh the Black as duke of Burgundy. This quarrel ended in 936-937 when the two enemies agreed to share Burgundy.
  • Quote of Laurent Theis. C. Bonnet, Les Carolingiens (741-987), Paris, Colin, 2001, p. 214.
  • Guillot, Sassier 2003, pp. 170-171
  • a b Guillot, Sassier 2003, p. 171.
  • In fact, until the 10th century, the Catalan nobles go to the royal palace in Laon to confirm privileges for their churches and ensure their loyalty to the King. And Wilfred, brother of the Count of Barcelona, received a charter from Louis IV renewing his rights in the Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa (937).
  • Theis 1990, pp. 155-157.
  • The minor France is the region between Loire and Meuse.
  • Theis 1990, p. 171.
  • a b Theis 1990, p. 172.
  • a b Theis 1990, pp. 171-172.
  • Isaïa 2009, p. 49.
  • Isaïa 2009, p. 317.
  • According to contemporary sources (Dudon of Saint-Quentin and Flodoard of Reims), the murder was an act of revenge of the Count of Flanders who had just lost in favor of William I the city of Montreuil because the count of the Normans had approached King Louis IV to the detriment of Arnold and his lord Otto I of Germany. Dudon of Saint-Quentin: De Moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum, ed. Jules Lair, Caen, 1865, p. 84.
  • Riché 1999, p. 287.
  • Theis 1990, p. 173.
  • Guillot, Sassier 2003, p. 172.
  • The Normans had never accepted the regency of Herluin. Dudo of Saint-Quentin, op. cit., p. 90.
  • It seems that Richard I was returned to the Normans at the same time. Dudon of Saint-Quentin, op. cit., p. 92.
  • a b c Sassier 1987, p. 116.
  • Theis 1990, p. 174
  • Richer de Reims: Gallica Histoire de son temps Book II, p. 203 Archived 27 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  • a b Hervé Pinoteau: La symbolique royale française, ve ‑ xviiie siècles, PSR, p. 115.
  • Hervé Pinoteau: La symbolique royale française, ve ‑ xviiie siècles, PSR, p. 159.
  • Sassier 1987, p. 117.
  • Régine Le Jan: Femmes, pouvoir et société dans le haut Moyen Âge, 2001, p. 35.
  • Theis 1990, pp. 174-175.
  • Theis 1990, p. 176.
  • Theis 1990, p. 177, 200.
  • Sassier 1987, p. 118.
  • Flodoard: Histoire de l'Église de Reims, pp. 548-549.
  • Isaïa 2009, pp. 190-191.
  • Flodoard: Histoire de l'Église de Reims, p. 550.
  • Renoux 1992, p. 181, 191.
  • Flodoard: Annals, Monumenta Germaniæ Historica Scriptorum III, p. 401.
  • Jean nDunba: West Francia: The Kingdom. In: Timothy Reuter. The New Cambridge Medieval History III. Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 384.
  • Sassier 2002, pp. 188-189.
  • Richer de Reims: Histoire de son temps – La mort de Lothaire, Book III, p. 137.
  • Poly 1990, pp. 292-294.
  • Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France 987-1328, (Hambledon Continuum, 2007), 41.
  • a b Isaïa 2009, p. 271
  • Michel Rouche: Clovis, histoire et mémoire online, 1997, p. 147.
  • Bernard de Montfaucon: Les monuments de la monarchie française, vol. I, p. 346.
  • Prosper Tarbé: Les sépultures de l'église Saint-Remi de Reims, 1842.
  • Christian Settipani: La Préhistoire des Capétiens, ed. Patrick Van Kerrebrouck, 1993, p. 327.
  • Christian Settipani: La Préhistoire des Capétiens, éd. Patrick Van Kerrebrouck, 1993, p. 330.
  • Burgundy and Provence, 879-1032, Constance Brittain Bourchard, The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 3, C.900-c.1024, ed. Rosamond McKitterick and Timothy Reuter, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 342.

Om Louis IV, king of West Francia (Dansk)

Ludvig IV den Oversøiske. Konge af Frankrig

Louis IV eller Louis d'Outremer [Fr., = Louis fra udlandet], 921-54, franske konge (936-54), søn af kong Charles III (Charles Simple). Han tilbragte sin ungdom som en eksil i England, men på død kong Raoul blev han mindede adelen under ledelse af Hugh den Store. Men Louis energi og uafhængighed mishagede Hugh, der kæmpede mod ham med den tyske konge, Otto I, indtil 942. Fanget af normannerne (945), blev Louis overgivet til Hugh, af hvem han blev løsladt alene på overdragelse af Laon (946). Nu i alliance med Otto, Louis gjorde krig mod Hugh og fik sin indsendelse i 950. Louis blev efterfulgt af sin søn Lothair

Über Ludwig IV, westfränkischer König (Deutsch)

Wiklopedia:

Ludwig IV. der Überseeische (lateinisch Transmarinus, französisch Louis IV d'Outre-Mer; * zwischen 10. September 920 und 10. September 921; † 10. September 954 in Reims[1]) war westfränkischer König von 936 bis 954. Er stammte aus dem Geschlecht der Karolinger, der Königsdynastie des westfränkischen Reichs, die damals bereits sehr geschwächt und vom Wohlwollen mächtiger Adelsgruppen abhängig war.

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig war der Sohn König Karls III. des Einfältigen und dessen zweiter Frau Eadgifu, einer Tochter König Eduards des Älteren von Wessex. Karl musste sich mit Gegenkönigen auseinandersetzen, die keine Karolinger waren und den Herrschaftsanspruch der Karolingerdynastie nicht anerkannten. Als Graf Heribert II. von Vermandois, der auf der Seite des Gegenkönigs Rudolf von Burgund stand, im Jahr 923 Karl den Einfältigen in eine Falle lockte und gefangensetzte, floh Eadgifu mit dem erst zweijährigen Ludwig nach England. Dort wuchs Ludwig am Hof seines Großvaters Eduard und später seines Onkels Æthelstan auf. Im Westfrankenreich regierte nunmehr allein Rudolf von Burgund, der jedoch auf die Unterstützung des mächtigen Geschlechts der Robertiner angewiesen war, während Heribert II. weiterhin den gefangenen Karl als Faustpfand behielt, um auf König Rudolf Druck auszuüben. 929 starb Karl in der Haft. Als im Januar 936 König Rudolf starb, ohne einen Sohn zu hinterlassen, kam bei der Regelung der Nachfolge dem mächtigen Robertiner Hugo dem Großen eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Hugo, dessen Vater Robert I. bereits Westfrankenkönig gewesen war, hätte selbst nach der Krone greifen können, zog es aber vor, zur Karolingerdynastie zurückzukehren, die durch Karls Schicksal einen schweren Macht- und Ansehensverlust erlitten hatte. Er wollte einem relativ machtlosen Karolinger die Königswürde überlassen, um selbst die Reichspolitik aus dem Hintergrund zu lenken. Daher verhandelte er mit Æthelstan und Eadgifu über die Rückkehr Ludwigs. Hugo war ein Schwager von Æthelstan und Eadgifu, da er damals mit einer Schwester Eadgifus verheiratet war. Man einigte sich und der erst fünfzehnjährige Ludwig landete in Boulogne, wo Hugo ihn empfing und ihm huldigte.

Am 19. Juni 936 wurde Ludwig IV. in Laon von Erzbischof Artold von Reims zum westfränkischen König gekrönt. Im Gegenzug musste er Hugo eine einzigartige Sonderstellung im Reich einräumen. Hugo erhielt den eigens für ihn geschaffenen Rang eines „Herzogs der Franken“ (dux Francorum), und bereits in einer Königsurkunde von 936 stellte Ludwig fest, er handle auf den Rat „unseres geliebtesten Hugo, des Frankenherzogs, der in allen unseren Reichen der Zweite nach uns ist“. Damit war Hugo nicht mehr nur, wie frühere Robertiner, als Markgraf und Graf für große Gebiete zuständig, in denen dem König kein direktes Eingreifen mehr möglich war, sondern er stand „in allen Reichen“, also in sämtlichen Teilen des Westfrankenreichs, zwischen dem König und den nachrangigen Vasallen. Der Titel „Herzog der Franken“ wurde somit in bewusster Analogie zu „König der Franken“ auf das Gesamtreich bezogen (obwohl im engeren Sinn nur ein bestimmter Reichsteil, das Hugo dem Großen verliehene Herzogtum Franzien, gemeint war). Damit wurde Ludwig faktisch auf die Rolle eines nominellen Königs reduziert und der Robertiner beanspruchte eine Stellung, die mit derjenigen der karolingischen Hausmeier im späten Merowingerreich vergleichbar war.

In den ersten Monaten seiner Regierung war Ludwig völlig von Hugo dem Großen abhängig und musste ihn auf einem erfolgreichen Feldzug gegen Hugo den Schwarzen von Burgund begleiten, wobei Hugo der Große sich nordburgundische Gebiete und insbesondere die Stadt Sens aneignete. 937 machte sich Ludwig jedoch von seinem "Vormund" unabhängig und begann eine selbständige, gegen die Übermacht des Robertiners gerichtete Politik zu betreiben. Dabei stützte er sich auf Vornehme, die ebenfalls die robertinische Expansion eindämmen wollten, darunter Erzbischof Artold von Reims, den Ludwig zu seinem Kanzler machte, und Hugo der Schwarze, mit dem er ein Bündnis schloss. Darauf reagierte Hugo der Große seinerseits mit neuen Bündnissen. Er verbündete sich mit Heribert II. und sicherte sich ein gutes Verhältnis zu Otto dem Großen, dessen Schwester Hadwig er heiratete, nachdem seine englische Frau, Ludwigs Tante, gestorben war. Damit bahnte sich ein Gegensatz zwischen Ludwig und Otto an, und als sich die Herzöge Giselbert von Lothringen und Eberhard von Franken gegen Otto den Großen erhoben, unterstellten sie sich Ludwig. Dadurch schien sich dem Karolinger eine Chance zu bieten, das karolingische Stammland Lothringen, das nach der Entmachtung Karls des Einfältigen in den Hoheitsbereich des ostfränkischen Reichs geraten war, zurückzugewinnen. Er gedachte militärisch einzugreifen und stieß ins Elsass vor, doch kam ihm Otto zuvor, der am 2. Oktober 939 Giselbert in der Schlacht von Andernach besiegte und damit die Zukunft Lothringens entschied. Giselbert ertrank auf der Flucht und Ludwig heiratete Giselberts Witwe Gerberga, eine Schwester Ottos des Großen. Nunmehr waren sowohl König Ludwig als auch sein Gegenspieler Hugo der Große mit Otto verschwägert und Otto konnte eine Schiedsrichterrolle zwischen den beiden Rivalen einnehmen und für ein Machtgleichgewicht zwischen ihnen sorgen. Zunächst stand Otto wegen des lothringischen Konflikts ganz auf der Seite Hugos des Großen. Er unternahm 940 einen Feldzug ins Westfrankenreich, um Ludwig zu bestrafen. In der Pfalz Attigny nahm er die Huldigung von Hugo dem Großen und Heribert II. entgegen. Die beiden hatten schon zuvor die Stadt Reims erobert und dort den Erzbischof Artold, einen der wichtigsten Getreuen Ludwigs, abgesetzt. Otto stieß auch nach Burgund vor, um Ludwigs dortigen Verbündeten, Hugo den Schwarzen, vor militärischen Aktionen zu warnen. 942 empfing Otto seine Schwäger Ludwig und Hugo in Visé an der Maas. Es wurde ein allgemeiner Ausgleich erzielt. Ludwig musste auf Lothringen verzichten.

Die Lage änderte sich zugunsten Ludwigs, als Ende 942 Graf Wilhelm I. Langschwert von Rouen, der Machthaber der Normandie, ermordet wurde und Anfang 943 Heribert II. starb. Heriberts Söhne stritten um die Erbschaft und in der Normandie war der Erbe, der künftige Herzog Richard I., noch unmündig. Ludwig nutzte diese Gelegenheit, um in der Normandie einzugreifen und dort seine königliche Autorität militärisch geltend zu machen. In den Kämpfen gegen seine normannischen Gegner geriet Ludwig jedoch im Juli 945 in einen Hinterhalt. Er konnte zunächst fliehen, wurde dann aber gefangengenommen. Die Normannen lieferten ihn an Hugo den Großen aus. Hugo behielt ihn in Gefangenschaft und forderte als Preis für die Freilassung, dass Ludwig auf die Stadt Laon, sein Machtzentrum, verzichte. Königin Gerberga sah sich gezwungen, Laon einem Vasallen Hugos zu übergeben. Im Sommer 946 kam Ludwig frei.

Diese schwere Demütigung Ludwigs erinnerte an das Schicksal seines Vaters Karl und bedeutete nicht nur für ihn persönlich, sondern auch für das Königtum als solches einen dramatischen Prestigeverlust. Das lag nicht im Interesse Ottos des Großen, der nun auf Bitten seiner Schwester Gerberga eingriff, um der Übermacht Hugos entgegenzuwirken. Im Herbst 946 zog ein großes Heer Ottos nach Westen und vereinte sich mit den Ludwig treuen Kräften. Hugo vermied eine Feldschlacht. Seine Truppen verschanzten sich in den Städten. Das Heer der beiden Könige konnte Laon, Senlis, Paris und Rouen nicht einnehmen, doch gelang ihnen die Eroberung von Reims, wo sie den vertriebenen Erzbischof Artold wieder einsetzten. Im Juni 948 traten in Ingelheim westfränkische, lothringische und ostfränkische Bischöfe unter dem Vorsitz eines päpstlichen Legaten in Gegenwart Ottos und Ludwigs zu einer Synode zusammen und verurteilten Hugo sowohl wegen seines Vorgehens gegen Ludwig als auch wegen der Vertreibung Artolds aus Reims. 949 konnte Ludwig die Stadt Laon in einem nächtlichen Überraschungsangriff zurückerobern; nur die Zitadelle blieb in der Hand von Hugos Kräften. 950 vermittelte Herzog Konrad der Rote von Lothringen im Auftrag Ottos des Großen einen Friedensschluss zwischen Ludwig und Hugo. Nun übergab Hugo dem König die Zitadelle von Laon.

Am 10. September 954 starb Ludwig in Reims an den Folgen eines Sturzes vom Pferd und wurde dort in der Basilika Saint-Remi begraben.

Familie [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig heiratete 939 Gerberga († 5. Mai 968 oder 969), die Tochter des deutschen Königs Heinrich I. (Liudolfinger) und Witwe des Herzogs Giselbert von Lothringen. Mit ihr hatte er sieben Kinder:

   * Lothar (941–986), König von Frankreich ∞ 966 Emma von Italien, Tochter des Königs Lothar II. von Italien
   * Mathilde (* Ende 943, † nach 26. November 981) ∞ um 964 Konrad III. König von Burgund († 993) (Welfen)
   * Karl (* Januar 945, † vor 953)
   * eine Tochter (Name nicht überliefert) (* Anfang 948)
   * Ludwig (* Dezember 948, † vor 10. September 954)
   * Karl (953–nach 991), Herzog von Niederlothringen (977-991), Zwillingsbruder Heinrichs
   * Heinrich (* Sommer 953, † bald nach der Taufe), Zwillingsbruder Karls von Niederlothringen

Gerberga erhielt 951 die Abtei Notre-Dame in Laon von ihrer Schwiegermutter und wurde 959 Äbtissin von Notre-Dame in Soissons.

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Walther Kienast: Deutschland und Frankreich in der Kaiserzeit (900-1270), 1. Teil, Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1974. ISBN 3-7772-7428-3
   * Carlrichard Brühl: Die Geburt zweier Völker. Deutsche und Franzosen (9.-11. Jahrhundert), Böhlau, Köln 2001. ISBN 3-412-13300-0
   * Karl Ferdinand Werner: Vom Frankenreich zur Entfaltung Deutschlands und Frankreichs, Sigmaringen 1984. ISBN 3-79957027-6
   * Philippe Lauer: Le règne de Louis IV d'Outre-Mer, Paris 1900, Nachdruck Genève 1977 (grundlegende Untersuchung)

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * Ludwig IV. bei genealogie-mittelalter.de

Anmerkungen [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ Zur Datierung der Geburt siehe Lauer S. 10 und Anm. 2 sowie Auguste Eckel: Charles le Simple, Paris 1899, S. 104; zum Todesdatum Lauer S. 231f. und Anm. 4 (mit Belegen).

Vorgänger

Rudolf von Burgund

König des Westfrankenreichs

936–954 Nachfolger

Lothar

Normdaten: Personennamendatei (PND): 118574914 | Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN): n 85238293 | Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): 5723015


Apie Liudvikas IV, Frankų Karalius (Lietuvių)

Louis IV, King of West Francia

  • Son of Charles III the Simple, king of the Franks and Eadgifu

http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020063&tree=LEO

Louis IV (10 September 920 – 30 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of France from 936 to 954. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the son of Charles III and Eadgifu of England, a daughter of King Edward the Elder. Exile He was only two years old when his father was deposed by the nobles, who set up Robert I in his place. When he was only three years old, Robert died and was replaced by Rudolph, duke of Burgundy. Rudolph's ally, a Carolingian himself, Count Herbert II of Vermandois, took Charles captive by treachery and the young Louis's mother took the boy "over the sea" to the safety of England, hence his nickname. Charles died in 929, but Rudolph ruled on until 936, when Louis was summoned back to France unanimously by the nobles, especially Hugh the Great, who had probably organised his return to prevent Herbert II, or Rudolph's brother Hugh the Black, taking the throne. [edit]Rise to the throne He was crowned king at Laon by Artald, archbishop of Rheims, on Sunday 19 June 936. Effectively, his sovereignty was limited to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a keenness beyond his years in obtaining the recognition of his authority by his feuding nobles. Nonetheless, his reign was filled with conflict; in particular with Hugh the Great, count of Paris. [edit]Marriage In 939, Louis became involved in a struggle with the Emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, but then married Otto's sister Gerberga of Saxony (914 – May 5, 984). They were parents to eight children: Lothair of France (941-986) Mathilde b. about 943; married Conrad of Burgundy Hildegarde b. about 944 Carloman b. about 945 Louis b. about 948 Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine (953-993) Alberade b. before 953 Henri b. about 953 [edit]Death Louis IV fell from his horse and died September 10, 954, at Rheims, in the Marne, and is interred there at Saint Rémi Basilica.


From http://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-IV-king-of-France

Louis IV, byname Louis d’Outremer (Louis from Overseas) (born 921—died Sept. 10, 954, Reims, France), king of France from 936 to 954 who spent most of his reign struggling against his powerful vassal Hugh the Great. When Louis’s father, Charles III the Simple, was imprisoned in 923, his mother, Eadgifu, daughter of the Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Elder, took Louis to England. He was recalled to France in 936 and crowned on June 19 at Laon byArtand, archbishop of Reims, who became Louis’s chief supporter against Hugh the Great. Louis proved not to be the puppet monarch that Hugh had anticipated; he even moved from Paris to Laon to avoid Hugh’s influence. In 939 he married Gerberga, the sister of King Otto I, the future Holy Roman emperor. When Hugh and Herbert of Vermandois seized Reims and attacked Laon in 940, Louis valiantly defended his city; but because of Louis’s earlier interference in Lorraine the German king, Otto I, sent aid to the rebels. Louis appeared to be totally defeated in 941, but he made peace with Otto in November 942 at Vise on the Meuse, and Hugh and he were reconciled after Herbert, Hugh’s chief supporter, died in 943. In 945, while intervening in Norman politics, Louis was captured and handed over to Hugh, who imprisoned him for a year until Louis surrendered his main base of Laon. On his release, Louis closely allied himself with Otto to retake Reims in 946. In 949 Louis again received control of Laon, and Hugh, excommunicated by French and German synods and by the Pope, made a peace in 951 that lasted until Louis’s death.

References: [WallopFH],[Moncreiffe],[AR7],[MRL],[RD500],[Weis1], [ES],[PlantagenetA]


King of the west Franks. Also known by the nickname d'Outre-Mer or Transmarinus. Son of King Charles III "the Simplex" and his second wife Edgiva of Wessex, the older sister of Edith of Wessex. He spend his childhood with his mother at his grandfathers court in England. She had fled there after the Duke of Vermandois had imprisoned his father. In 936 Duke Hugh "the Great" called him back to France. On June 19th he was crowned King in Laon. In the fall of 939 he married the seven years older sister of Emperor Otto I, Gerberge. In the beginning the relationship with Hugh was serene. They fought together against Hugh "the Black," but the peace contract the two Hugh's signed opened Louis' eyes about the role his friend had appointed for him - the role of Hugh's marionette. The following conflict between the two lasted during much of his reign. In 946 he was imprisoned by Hugh, but was released after Otto I and Louis grandfather had pressured Hugh. For his release Louis had to hand over Laon. In 948 during a synod in Ingelheim Hugh was excommunicated. With Otto's support he was able to re-conquer Laon. In 953 the two reconciled in Soissons. On his way from Laon to Reims he hunted a wolf, fell from his horse and died from inner injuries. www.findagrave.com

Louis de France, IV Birth 10 Sep 920 Leon, Departement des Landes, Aquitaine, France Death 30 Sep 954 (aged 34) Champagne-Ardenne, France Burial Cathedrale Notre-Dame de Reims Reims, Departement de la Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Memorial ID 151313089

From http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6240881



Buried in Saint Rémi Basilica, Reims (Rheims), France.

doop Mormoon adres: geni:place_name SG geni:occupation King of France, Rey de Francia Occidental 936 - 954, Roi de France (936-954), Rei da França, Konge, Roi de France, Roi des Francs (15 janvier 936 - 10 septembre 954), KING OF FRANCE, Kung i Västra Frankrike 936-954, König von Westfranken, Kung, King geni:about_me Louis IV (10 September 920 – 30 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of France from 936 to 954. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the son of Charles III and Eadgifu of England, a daughter of King Edward the Elder.

Exile

He was only two years old when his father was deposed by the nobles, who set up Robert I in his place. When he was only three years old, Robert died and was replaced by Rudolph, duke of Burgundy. Rudolph's ally, a Carolingian himself, Count Herbert II of Vermandois, took Charles captive by treachery and the young Louis's mother took the boy "over the sea" to the safety of England, hence his nickname.

Charles died in 929, but Rudolph ruled on until 936, when Louis was summoned back to France unanimously by the nobles, especially Hugh the Great, who had probably organised his return to prevent Herbert II, or Rudolph's brother Hugh the Black, taking the throne.

[edit]Rise to the throne

He was crowned king at Laon by Artald, archbishop of Rheims, on Sunday 19 June 936. Effectively, his sovereignty was limited to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a keenness beyond his years in obtaining the recognition of his authority by his feuding nobles. Nonetheless, his reign was filled with conflict; in particular with Hugh the Great, count of Paris.

[edit]Marriage

In 939, Louis became involved in a struggle with the Emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, but then married Otto's sister Gerberga of Saxony (914 – May 5, 984). They were parents to eight children:

Lothair of France (941-986)

Mathilde b. about 943; married Conrad of Burgundy

Hildegarde b. about 944

Carloman b. about 945

Louis b. about 948

Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine (953-993)

Alberade b. before 953

Henri b. about 953

[edit]Death

Louis IV fell from his horse and died September 10, 954, at Rheims, in the Marne, and is interred there at Saint Rémi Basilica.

Links

àcerca (Português (Portugal))

Afastado do trono desde a morte de seu pai, somente após a morte de Raul I resolveu regressar de Inglaterra, adquirindo o apelido de d’Outremer.

Os domínios próprios do Rei restringiram-se, essencialmente, à região de Laon. Ele não tinha autoridade sobre todas as regiões ao sul do Rio Loire, pois quem reinava no sul de França e da Borgonha, era Hugo o Grande, filho de Roberto I. Luís IV morreu no dia 10 de setembro de 954, em Reims.

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Louis IV, king of West Francia's Timeline

920
September 10, 920
Laon, Champagne, Aisne, France
922
922
Age 1
England w/mother - Louis Transmarinus
941
August 941
Laon (Louwen), Aisne, Hauts-de-France, France
943
943
Laon, Aisne, Hauts-de-France, France
945
January 945
Laon, Aisne, Picardie, France
948
December 948
953
953
953
Laon, Aisne, Picardie, France