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Louis Isadore / Itze-Leib Kahn (Schmuilowsky)

Hebrew: לואיס איצ'ה לייב איזידור קאהן (שמואלובסקי)
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Kuressaare, Saaremaa, Estonia
Death: March 17, 1974 (73)
New York, United States
Place of Burial: Montefiore Cemetery Jenkintown Montgomery County Pennsylvania
Immediate Family:

Son of Leib / Leopold Schmuilowsky / Kahn and Beila Rebeca (Riva)/ Bertha Mendelowitsch / Mendelsohn
Husband of Esther* Virginia Kahn and Private
Partner of Anne* Griswold Tyng
Father of Private; Private and Private
Brother of Schorre / Saara Freedman and Oscher / Oscar Kahn

Occupation: arhitekt
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Louis Kahn

World-renowned architect. Born in 1901 on the Baltic island of Ösel, Louis Isadore Kahn's family emigrated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1905, where Louis Isadore Kahn lived the rest of his life.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Kahn

Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (March 5 [O.S. February 20] 1901 – March 17, 1974) was an American architect,[2] based in Philadelphia. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957.

From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn's works are considered as monumental beyond modernism. Famous for his meticulously built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, and his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect."[3]

Contents [show] Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

Jesse Oser House, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (1940) Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib (Leiser-Itze) Schmuilowsky (Schmalowski), was born into a poor Jewish family in Pärnu,[4] formerly in czarist Russia, but now in Estonia. He spent his early childhood in Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa, then part of the Russian Empire's Livonian Governorate.[1] At the age of three, he saw coals in the stove and was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which caught on fire and seared his face.[5] He carried these scars for the rest of his life.[6]

In 1906, his family emigrated to the United States, as they feared that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War. His birth year may have been inaccurately recorded in the process of immigration. According to his son's 2003 documentary film, the family could not afford pencils. They made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings.[7] Later he earned money by playing piano to accompany silent movies in theaters. He became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. His father changed their name to Kahn in 1915.[7]

Career[edit] Kahn trained at the University of Pennsylvania in a rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, with its emphasis on drawing. After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of the city architect, John Molitor. He worked on the designs for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition.[8]

In 1928, Kahn made a European tour. He was interested particularly in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne, France, and the castles of Scotland, rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism.[9] After returning to the United States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at the University of Pennsylvania, and then with Zantzinger, Borie and Medary in Philadelphia.[8]

In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes. Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are schemes for public housing that he had presented to the Public Works Administration, which supported some similar projects during the Great Depression.[8] They remained unbuilt.

Louis Kahn's Salk Institute Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was one with George Howe.[10] Kahn worked with Howe in the late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German-born architect Oscar Stonorov, for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania.[11] A formal architectural office partnership between Kahn and Oscar Stonorov began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, which produced fifty-four documented projects and buildings.[12][13]

Kahn did not arrive at his distinctive architectural style until he was in his fifties. Initially working in a fairly orthodox version of the International Style, he was influenced vitally by a stay as Architect in Residence at the American Academy in Rome during 1950, which marked a turning point in his career. After visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy, Greece, and Egypt, he adopted a back-to-the-basics approach. He developed his own style as influenced by earlier modern movements, but not limited by their sometimes-dogmatic ideologies.

In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and to create a proposal for a viaduct system.[14][15]

He described this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado:

In the center of town the streets should become buildings. This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, and it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation recently, and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme.[16]

Kahn's teaching career began at Yale University in 1947. He eventually was named as the Albert F. Bemis Professor of Architecture and Planning at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956. Kahn then returned to Philadelphia to teach at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 until his death, becoming the Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecture. He also was a visiting lecturer at Princeton University from 1961 to 1967.

Legacy and honors[edit] Kahn was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1953. He was made a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964. He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1964. In 1965 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician. He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968 and awarded the AIA Gold Medal, the highest award given by the AIA, in 1971,[17] and the Royal Gold Medal by the RIBA, in 1972.

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban[edit]

Play of light inside Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is perhaps the most important building designed by Kahn. Kahn got the design contract with the help of Muzharul Islam, one of his students at Yale University, who worked with him on the project. It was Kahn's last project, developed during 1962 to 1974. The Parliament building is the centerpiece of the national capital complex designed by Kahn that includes hostels, dining halls, and a hospital. According to Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, "it is one of the twentieth century's greatest architectural monuments, and is without question Kahn's magnum opus."[18]

Death[edit] In 1974, Kahn died of a heart attack in a restroom for men at Penn Station in Manhattan.[3] He had just returned from a work trip to India. Owing to police miscommunications in both New York City and Philadelphia, his wife and his office were not notified until two days after his death. After his long career, he was in debt when he died.

Personal life[edit] Kahn had three children with three women. With his wife, Esther, whom he married in 1930, he had a daughter, Sue Ann. With Anne Tyng, who began her working collaboration and personal relationship with Kahn in 1945, he also had a daughter, Alexandra Tyng. When Tyng became pregnant in 1953, to mitigate the scandal, she went to Rome, Italy, for the birth of their daughter.[19] With Harriet Pattison, he had a son, Nathaniel Kahn.

Kahn's obituary in the New York Times, written by Paul Goldberger, mentions only Esther and his daughter by her as survivors. All of his children and their mothers attended the funeral. In 2003 his son with Pattison, Nathaniel Kahn, released a documentary about his father, entitled, My Architect: A Son's Journey. The Oscar-nominated film provides views and insights into the architecture of Kahn while exploring him personally through people who knew him: family, friends, and colleagues. It includes interviews with such renowned architectural contemporaries as Muzharul Islam, B. V. Doshi, Frank Gehry, Ed Bacon, Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, Vincent J. Scully, and Robert A. M. Stern. It also provides insights into Kahn's unusual and complicated family arrangements.

Designs[edit]

Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1966–72) Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut (1951–1953), the first significant commission of Louis Kahn and his first masterpiece, replete with technical innovations. For example, he designed a hollow concrete tetrahedral space-frame that did away with the need for ductwork and reduced the floor-to-floor height by channeling air through the structure itself. Like many of Kahn's buildings, the Art Gallery makes subtle references to its context while overtly rejecting any historical style. Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1957–1965), a breakthrough in Kahn's career that helped set new directions for modern architecture with its clear expression of served and servant spaces and its evocation of the architecture of the past. The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California (1959–1965) was to be a campus composed of three main clusters: meeting and conference areas, living quarters, and laboratories. Only the laboratory cluster, consisting of two parallel blocks enclosing a water garden, was built. The two laboratory blocks frame a long view of the Pacific Ocean, accentuated by a thin linear fountain that seems to reach for the horizon. First Unitarian Church, Rochester, New York (1959–1969), named as one of the greatest religious structures of the twentieth century by Paul Goldberger, the Pulitzer Prize-winning architectural critic.[20] Tall, narrow window recesses create an irregular rhythm of shadows on the exterior while four light towers flood the sanctuary walls with indirect, natural light. Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh (1962–1974) Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, in Ahmedabad, India (1962) National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Dhaka, Bangladesh (1963)[citation needed] Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–1972), awarded the Twenty-five Year Award by the American Institute of Architects in 1997. It is famous for its dramatic atrium with enormous circular openings into the book stacks. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1967–1972), features repeated bays of cycloid-shaped barrel vaults with light slits along the apex, which bathe the artwork on display in an ever-changing diffuse light. Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel, (1968–1974), unbuilt Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (1969–1974) Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York (1972–1974), construction completed 2012 Timeline of works[edit]

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, Dhaka; considered as Kahn's magnum opus

Interior of Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–72) All dates refer to the year project commenced

1935 – Jersey Homesteads Cooperative Development, Hightstown, New Jersey 1940 – Jesse Oser House, 628 Stetson Road, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania 1947 – Phillip Q. Roche House, 2101 Harts Lane, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 1951 – Yale University Art Gallery, 1111 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1952 – City Tower Project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1954 – Jewish Community Center (aka Trenton Bath House), 999 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing, New Jersey 1956 – Wharton Esherick Studio, 1520 Horseshoe Trail, Malvern, Pennsylvania (designed with Wharton Esherick) 1957 – Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1957 – Fred E. and Elaine Cox Clever House, 417 Sherry Way, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 1959 – Margaret Esherick House, 204 Sunrise Lane, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[21] 1958 – Tribune Review Publishing Company Building, 622 Cabin Hill Drive, Greensburg, Pennsylvania 1959 – Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 1959 – First Unitarian Church, 220 South Winton Road, Rochester, New York 1960 – Erdman Hall Dormitories, Bryn Mawr College, Morris Avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 1960 – Norman Fisher House, 197 East Mill Road, Hatboro, Pennsylvania 1961 – Point Counterpoint II, barge used by the American Wind Symphony Orchestra 1961 - Philadelphia's Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1962 – Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India 1962 – Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1963 – President's Estate, Islamabad, Pakistan (unbuilt) 1965 – Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Front Street, Exeter, New Hampshire 1966 – Kimbell Art Museum, 3333 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, Texas 1966 – Olivetti-Underwood Factory, Valley Road, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 1968 – Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel (unbuilt) 1969 – Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, 1080 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1971 – Steven Korman House, Sheaff Lane, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania 1973 – The Arts United Center (Formerly known as the Fine Arts Foundation Civic Center), Fort Wayne, Indiana[22] 1974 – Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York City, New York, completed 2012.[23] 1979 – Flora Lamson Hewlett Library of the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California[24] Legacy[edit]

360° panorama in the courtyard of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California (1959–65)

Panorama of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Louis Kahn Memorial Park, Eleventh & Pine Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Louis Kahn's work infused the International style with a fastidious, highly personal taste, a poetry of light. His few projects reflect his deep personal involvement with each. Isamu Noguchi called him "a philosopher among architects." He was known for his ability to create monumental architecture that responded to the human scale. He also was concerned with creating strong formal distinctions between served spaces and servant spaces. What he meant by servant spaces was not spaces for servants, but rather spaces that serve other spaces, such as stairwells, corridors, restrooms, or any other back-of-house function such as storage space or mechanical rooms. His palette of materials tended toward heavily textured brick and bare concrete, the textures often reinforced by juxtaposition to highly refined surfaces such as travertine marble.

While widely known for his the poetic sensibilities of his spaces, Kahn also worked closely with engineers and contractors on his buildings. The results often were technically innovative and highly refined. In addition to the influence Kahn's more well-known work has on contemporary architects (such as Muzharul Islam, Tadao Ando), some of his work (especially the unbuilt City Tower Project) became very influential among the high-tech architects of the late twentieth century (such as Renzo Piano, who worked in Kahn's office, Richard Rogers, and Norman Foster). His prominent apprentices include Muzharul Islam, Moshe Safdie, Robert Venturi, Jack Diamond, and Charles Dagit.

Many years after his death, Kahn continues to provoke controversy. Before his Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park at the southern tip of Roosevelt Island was built,[25] a New York Times editorial opined:

There's a magic to the project. That the task is daunting makes it worthy of the man it honors, who guided the nation through the Depression, the New Deal and a world war. As for Mr. Kahn, he died in 1974, as he passed alone through New York City's Penn Station. In his briefcase were renderings of the memorial, his last completed plan.[26]

The editorial describes Kahn's plan as:

...simple and elegant. Drawing inspiration from Roosevelt's defense of the Four Freedoms—of speech and religion, and from want and fear—he designed an open 'room and a garden' at the bottom of the island. Trees on either side form a 'V' defining a green space, and leading to a two-walled stone room at the water's edge that frames the United Nations and the rest of the skyline.

Critics note that the panoramic view of Manhattan and the United Nations building are blocked by the walls of that room and by the trees.[27] Other as-yet-unanswered critics have argued more broadly that not enough thought has been given to what visitors to the memorial would be able to do at the site.[28] The proposed project was opposed by a majority of island residents who were surveyed by the Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation group currently working extensively on the island.[29]

The movement for the memorial, which was conceived by Kahn's firm almost 35 years ago, needed to raise $40 million by the end of 2007; as of July 20, it had collected $5.1 million.[30] There is a merest hint in Architectural Record about the oft-heard argument that the project must be built because it literally, was Kahn's last;[31] this is rebutted by those who say the plans are not enough like Kahn's other work to be touted as a memorial to Kahn as well as FDR.[32]

In popular culture[edit] Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Lewis Spratlan, with collaborators Jenny Kallick and John Downey (Amherst College class of 2003), composed the chamber opera Architect as a character study of Kahn. The premiere recording was due to be released in 2012 by Navona Records.

Kahn was the subject of the Oscar-nominated documentary film My Architect: A Son's Journey, presented by Nathaniel Kahn, his son.[33]:127 Kahn's complicated family life inspired the "Undaunted Mettle" episode of Law & Order: Criminal Intent.

In the film Indecent Proposal, character David Murphy (played by Woody Harrelson), referenced Kahn during a lecture to architecture students, attributing the quote "Even a brick wants to be something" to Kahn.

Architecturally-inspired ice cream sandwich maker Coolhaus, based in Los Angeles, California, named a cookie and ice cream combination after Kahn. Dubbed "Louis Ba-kahn", the sandwich consists of chocolate chip cookies and Brown Butter Candied Bacon ice cream.[33]:126[34]

http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/archives/image.html?start=1400&fq=...

Louis Isadore Kahn

' (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky; March 5 [O.S. February 20] 1901 – March 17, 1974) was an American architect,[2] based in Philadelphia. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957. From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania.

Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings for the most part do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Famous for his meticulously built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, and his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect."[3]

Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Education 1.3 Career 2 Awards and honors 3 Death 4 Personal life 5 Legacy 6 Designs 7 Timeline of works 8 Legacy 9 In popular culture 10 Gallery 11 References 11.1 Notes 11.2 Sources 11.3 Further reading 12 External links Biography Early life

Jesse Oser House, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (1940) Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib (Leiser-Itze) Schmuilowsky (Schmalowski), was born into a poor Jewish family in Pärnu,[4] formerly in the Russian Empire, but now in Estonia. He spent his early childhood in Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa, then part of the Russian Empire's Livonian Governorate.[1] At the age of three, he saw coals in the stove and was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which caught on fire and burned his face.[5] He carried these scars for the rest of his life.[6]

In 1906, his family emigrated to the United States, as they feared that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War. His birth year may have been inaccurately recorded in the process of immigration. According to his son's 2003 documentary film, the family could not afford pencils. They made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings.[7] Later he earned money by playing piano to accompany silent movies in theaters. He became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. His father changed their name to Kahn in 1915.[7]

Education Kahn excelled in art from a young age, repeatedly winning the annual award for the best watercolor by a Philadelphia high school student. He was an unenthusiastic and undistinguished student at Philadelphia Central High School until he took a course in architecture in his senior year, which convinced him to become an architect. He turned down an offer to go to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts to study art under a full scholarship, instead working at a variety of jobs to pay his own tuition for a degree in architecture at the University of Pennsylvania School of Fine Arts. There, he studied under Paul Philippe Cret in a version of the Beaux-Arts tradition, one that discouraged excessive ornamentation.[8]

Career After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of the city architect, John Molitor. He worked on the designs for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition.[9]

In 1928, Kahn made a European tour. He was interested particularly in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne, France, and the castles of Scotland, rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism.[10] After returning to the United States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at the University of Pennsylvania, and then with Zantzinger, Borie and Medary in Philadelphia.[9]

In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes. Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are schemes for public housing that he had presented to the Public Works Administration, which supported some similar projects during the Great Depression.[9] They remained unbuilt.

Louis Kahn's Salk Institute Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was one with George Howe.[11] Kahn worked with Howe in the late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German-born architect Oscar Stonorov, for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania.[12] A formal architectural office partnership between Kahn and Oscar Stonorov began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, which produced fifty-four documented projects and buildings.[13][14]

Kahn did not arrive at his distinctive architectural style until he was in his fifties. Initially working in a fairly orthodox version of the International Style, he was influenced vitally by a stay as Architect in Residence at the American Academy in Rome during 1950, which marked a turning point in his career. After visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy, Greece, and Egypt, he adopted a back-to-the-basics approach. He developed his own style as influenced by earlier modern movements, but not limited by their sometimes-dogmatic ideologies. In the 1950s and 1960s as a consultant architect for the Philadelphia City Planning Commission Kahn developed several plans for the center of Philadelphia that were never executed.[15]

In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and to create a proposal for a viaduct system.[16][17]

He described this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado:

In the center of town the streets should become buildings. This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, and it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation recently, and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme.[18]

Kahn's teaching career began at Yale University in 1947. He eventually was named as the Albert F. Bemis Professor of Architecture and Planning at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956. Kahn then returned to Philadelphia to teach at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 until his death, becoming the Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecture. He also was a visiting lecturer at Princeton University School of Architecture from 1961 to 1967.

Awards and honors Kahn was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1953. He was made a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964. He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1964. In 1965 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician. He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968 and awarded the AIA Gold Medal, the highest award given by the AIA, in 1971, and the Royal Gold Medal by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), in 1972.[19][20] In 1971, he received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[21]

Death In 1974, Kahn died of a heart attack in a restroom at Penn Station in Manhattan.[3] He had just returned from a work trip to India. Owing to police miscommunications in both New York City and Philadelphia, his wife and his office were not notified until two days after his death. After his long career, he was in debt when he died.

Louis Kahn - A pencil sketch by Sarbjit Bahga Personal life Kahn had three children with three women. With his wife, Esther (1905-1996), whom he married in 1930, he had a daughter, Sue Ann. With Anne Tyng, who began her working collaboration and personal relationship with Kahn in 1945, he also had a daughter, Alexandra. When Tyng became pregnant in 1953, to mitigate the scandal, she went to Rome, Italy, for the birth of their daughter.[22] With Harriet Pattison, he had a son, Nathaniel Kahn. Most biographical works on Kahn fail to describe the profound impact his female partners had on his designs.[citation needed] Anne Tyng was an extremely talented architect and teacher, while Harriet Pattison was a pioneering landscape architect.[23]

Legacy Kahn's obituary in the New York Times written by Paul Goldberger mentions only Esther and his daughter by her as survivors. All of his children and their mothers attended the funeral. In 2003 Nathaniel Kahn released a documentary about his father, entitled, My Architect: A Son's Journey. The Oscar-nominated film provides views and insights into the architecture of Kahn while exploring him personally through people who knew him: family, friends, and colleagues. It includes interviews with such renowned architectural contemporaries as Shamshul Wares, B. V. Doshi, Frank Gehry, Ed Bacon, Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, Vincent J. Scully, and Robert A. M. Stern. It also provides insights into Kahn's unusual and complicated family arrangements.

Designs

Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1966–1972)

Play of light inside Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut (1951–1953), the first significant commission of Louis Kahn and his first masterpiece, replete with technical innovations. For example, he designed a hollow concrete tetrahedral space-frame that did away with the need for ductwork and reduced the floor-to-floor height by channeling air through the structure itself. Like many of Kahn's buildings, the Art Gallery makes subtle references to its context while overtly rejecting any historical style. Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1957–1965), a breakthrough in Kahn's career that helped set new directions for modern architecture with its clear expression of served and servant spaces and its evocation of the architecture of the past. The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California (1959–1965) was to be a campus composed of three main clusters: meeting and conference areas, living quarters, and laboratories. Only the laboratory cluster, consisting of two parallel blocks enclosing a water garden, was built. The two laboratory blocks frame a long view of the Pacific Ocean, accentuated by a thin linear fountain that seems to reach for the horizon. It has been named "arguably the defining work" of Kahn.[24] First Unitarian Church, Rochester, New York (1959–1969), named as one of the greatest religious structures of the twentieth century by Paul Goldberger, the Pulitzer Prize-winning architectural critic.[25] Tall, narrow window recesses create an irregular rhythm of shadows on the exterior while four light towers flood the sanctuary walls with indirect, natural light. Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, in Ahmedabad, India (1961) National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Dhaka, Bangladesh (1963)[citation needed] Eleanor Donnelly Erdman Hall, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania (1960-1965), designed as a modern Scottish castle. Page text.[26] Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–1972), awarded the Twenty-five Year Award by the American Institute of Architects in 1997. It is famous for its dramatic atrium with enormous circular openings into the book stacks. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1967–1972), features repeated bays of cycloid-shaped barrel vaults with light slits along the apex, which bathe the artwork on display in an ever-changing diffuse light. Arts United Center, Fort Wayne, Indiana (1973), The only building realized of a ten-building Arts Campus vision, Kahn's only theatre and building in the Midwest Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel, (1968–1974), unbuilt Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (1969–1974) Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York (1972–1974), construction completed 2012 Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh) was Kahn's last project, developed 1962 to 1974. Kahn got the design contract with the help of Muzharul Islam, one of his students at Yale University, who worked with him on the project. The Bangladeshi Parliament building is the centerpiece of the national capital complex designed by Kahn, which includes hostels, dining halls, and a hospital. According to Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, "it is one of the twentieth century's greatest architectural monuments, and is without question Kahn's magnum opus."[27] Google Map - location of Louis Kahn's Buildings

Timeline of works

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, Dhaka; considered as Kahn's magnum opus

Interior of Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–1972) All dates refer to the year project commenced

1935 – Jersey Homesteads Cooperative Development, Hightstown, New Jersey 1940 – Jesse Oser House, 628 Stetson Road, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania 1947 – Phillip Q. Roche House, 2101 Harts Lane, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 1950 - Morton and Lenore Weiss House, 2935 Whitehall Rd, East Norriton, Pennsylvania[28] 1951 – Yale University Art Gallery, 1111 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1952 – City Tower Project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1954 – Jewish Community Center (aka Trenton Bath House), 999 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing, New Jersey 1956 – Wharton Esherick Studio, 1520 Horseshoe Trail, Malvern, Pennsylvania (designed with Wharton Esherick) 1957 – Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1957 – Fred E. and Elaine Cox Clever House, 417 Sherry Way, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 1959 – Margaret Esherick House, 204 Sunrise Lane, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[29] 1958 – Tribune Review Publishing Company Building, 622 Cabin Hill Drive, Greensburg, Pennsylvania 1959 – Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 1959 – First Unitarian Church, 220 South Winton Road, Rochester, New York 1960 – Erdman Hall Dormitories, Bryn Mawr College, Morris Avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 1960 – Norman Fisher House, 197 East Mill Road, Hatboro, Pennsylvania 1961 – Point Counterpoint, a converted barge performance venue used by the American Wind Symphony Orchestra 1961 - Philadelphia's Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1961 – Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India 1962 – Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1963 – President's Estate, Islamabad, Pakistan (unbuilt) 1965 – Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Front Street, Exeter, New Hampshire 1966 – Kimbell Art Museum, 3333 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, Texas 1966 – Olivetti-Underwood Factory, Valley Road, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 1966 - Temple Beth El of Northern Westchester, Chappaqua, New York 1968 – Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel (unbuilt) 1969 – Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, 1080 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1971 – Steven Korman House, Sheaff Lane, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania 1973 – Arts United Center (Formerly known as the Fine Arts Foundation Civic Center), Fort Wayne, Indiana[30] 1974 – Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York City, New York, completed 2012.[31] 1976 – Point Counterpoint II, an improved concert venue for the American Wind Symphony Orchestra, is debuted posthumously 1979 – Flora Lamson Hewlett Library of the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California[32] Legacy

360° panorama in the courtyard of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California (1959–1965)

Panorama of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Louis Kahn Memorial Park, S. 11th & Pine Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Louis Kahn's work infused the International style with a fastidious, highly personal taste, a poetry of light. His few projects reflect his deep personal involvement with each. Isamu Noguchi called him "a philosopher among architects." He was known for his ability to create monumental architecture that responded to the human scale. He also was concerned with creating strong formal distinctions between served spaces and servant spaces. What he meant by servant spaces was not spaces for servants, but rather spaces that serve other spaces, such as stairwells, corridors, restrooms, or any other back-of-house function such as storage space or mechanical rooms. His palette of materials tended toward heavily textured brick and bare concrete, the textures often reinforced by juxtaposition to highly refined surfaces such as travertine marble. He is often well remembered for his deliberation about the use of brick, on how it can be more than the basic building material:

If you think of Brick, you say to Brick, 'What do you want, Brick?' And Brick says to you, 'I like an Arch.' And if you say to Brick, 'Look, arches are expensive, and I can use a concrete lintel over you. What do you think of that, Brick?' Brick says, 'I like an Arch.' And it's important, you see, that you honor the material that you use. ... You can only do it if you honor the brick and glorify the brick instead of shortchanging it.[18]

While widely known for the poetic sensibilities of his spaces, Kahn also worked closely with engineers and contractors on his buildings. The results often were technically innovative and highly refined. In addition to the influence Kahn's more well-known work has on contemporary architects (such as Muzharul Islam, Tadao Ando), some of his work (especially the unbuilt City Tower Project) became very influential among the high-tech architects of the late twentieth century (such as Renzo Piano, who worked in Kahn's office, Richard Rogers, and Norman Foster). His prominent apprentices include Muzharul Islam, Moshe Safdie, Robert Venturi, Jack Diamond, and Charles Dagit.

Many years after his death, Kahn continues to provoke controversy. Before his Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park at the southern tip of Roosevelt Island was built,[33] a New York Times editorial opined:

There's a magic to the project. That the task is daunting makes it worthy of the man it honors, who guided the nation through the Depression, the New Deal and a world war. As for Mr. Kahn, he died in 1974, as he passed alone through New York City's Penn Station. In his briefcase were renderings of the memorial, his last completed plan.[34]

The editorial describes Kahn's plan as:

... simple and elegant. Drawing inspiration from Roosevelt's defense of the Four Freedoms—of speech and religion, and from want and fear—he designed an open 'room and a garden' at the bottom of the island. Trees on either side form a 'V' defining a green space, and leading to a two-walled stone room at the water's edge that frames the United Nations and the rest of the skyline.

A group spearheaded by William J. vanden Heuvel raised over $50 million in public and private funds between 2005 and 2012 to establish the memorial. Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park officially opened to the public on October 24, 2012.

In popular culture Kahn was the subject of the 2003 Oscar-nominated documentary film My Architect: A Son's Journey, presented by Nathaniel Kahn, his son.[35]:127 Kahn's complicated family life inspired the "Undaunted Mettle" episode of Law & Order: Criminal Intent.

In the 1993 film Indecent Proposal, character David Murphy (played by Woody Harrelson), referenced Kahn during a lecture to architecture students, attributing the quote "Even a brick wants to be something" to Kahn.

Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Lewis Spratlan, with collaborators Jenny Kallick and John Downey (Amherst College, class of 2003), composed the chamber opera Architect as a character study of Kahn. The premiere recording was due to be released in 2012 by Navona Records.

In Showtime's Billions (Season 4, Episode 6), Taylor Mason and Wendy Rhoades meet at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park and discussed Kahn's genius and his relationship with his estranged son.[36]

About Louis Kahn (עברית)

לואי קאהן

' (באנגלית: Louis Isadore Kahn, נולד בשם איצ'ה לייב שמואלובסקי; ‏ 20 בפברואר 1901 – 17 במרץ 1974) היה אדריכל אמריקאי יהודי נודע, מחשובי האדריכלים המודרניסטים האמריקאים.

זוכה מדליית הזהב המלכותית מטעם המכון המלכותי לאדריכלים בריטים ומדליית הזהב של מכון האדריכלים האמריקאי.

תוכן עניינים 1 קורות חיים 1.1 קריירה 1.2 חייו הפרטיים 1.3 מותו 2 עבודתו האדריכלית ומאפייניה 2.1 עבודות נבחרות 3 קישורים חיצוניים 4 הערות שוליים קורות חיים קאהן נולד לבלה רבקה לבית מנדלוביץ' וללייב שמואלובסקי בפרנו, אסטוניה, אז חלק מן האימפריה הרוסית, במשפחה ענייה. בינקותו עברו הוריו לקורסארה שבאי היומאה. בשנת 1906 היגרה המשפחה לארצות הברית, בגלל חשש האב מפני גיוסו לצבא הרוסי. בשנת 1914 קיבל אזרחות אמריקנית ובשנה שלאחר מכן שינה האב את שמו ל"לאופולד קאהן". לואי הצעיר נאלץ לעזור בפרנסת המשפחה, תחילה במכירת ציורים שלו ומאוחר יותר בנגינה בפסנתר באולמות ראינוע.

קריירה את הכשרתו קיבל לואי קאהן באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, שם נלמד מקצוע האדריכלות במתכונת שמרנית ובהתאם למסורת אדריכלות הבוז-אר (Beaux-Arts). לאחר סיום לימודיו ב-1924 פנה לעבוד כשרטט במשרד מקומי. ארבע שנים לאחר מכן יצא לסיור אדריכלי באירופה, בו התרשם בעיקר מביצורים מימי הביניים, ביניהם חומות העיר קרקסון בצרפת ומבצרים עתיקים אחרים בסקוטלנד.

בשנת 1932 הקים קאהן יחד עם חברו האדריכל דומיניק ברנינגר את "קבוצת המחקר האדריכלי" (ARG), לשם "מחקר קבוצתי של שיכון ופינוי שכונות עוני". הקבוצה הייתה למעשה חבורה רופפת של אדריכלים צעירים, רובם מובטלים. חברי הקבוצה התעניינו באוונגרד האירופאי ובאג'נדות חברתיות פופוליסטיות, והיו מחסידי הסגנון הבינלאומי שעשה אז את צעדיו הראשונים בארצות הברית. התוכניות שהוליד הפרויקט המרכזי של הקבוצה לא מומשו, כולל תוכנית הדיור הציבורי של קאהן שהוגשה לרשות העבודות הציבוריות, והקבוצה התפרקה פחות משלוש שנים לאחר הקמתה[1].

בשנים הבאות השתתף קאהן בפרויקטים שונים, חלקם הגדול שיכונים ומבני דיור ציבורי שתכנן עבור רשות השיכון של פילדלפיה. בין השאר שיתף פעולה עם אדריכלים דוגמת ג'ורג' האו, מחלוצי הסגנון הבינלאומי בארצות הברית, ואוסקר סטורונוב, איתו קיים שותפות פורה שנמשכה בין 1942 ל-1947.

ב-1947 החל קאהן את קריירת ההוראה שלו במשרת הוראה באוניברסיטת ייל.

ב-1950 נסע קאהן לרומא ושהה באקדמיה האמריקאית ברומא. לשהותו ברומא ולסיורים שערך באיטליה, יוון ומצרים הייתה השפעה עצומה עליו והיא היוותה נקודת מפנה בקריירה שלו ובאדריכלות שיצר. עד אז תכנן במסגרת המקובלת של הסגנון הבינלאומי של אותה תקופה; לאחר השנה שהעביר באיטליה חזר קאהן לשורשי המודרניזם המוקדם, תוך שהוא מעניק לו פרשנות אישית שקיבעה את מעמדו כאדריכל יצירתי ומשמעותי.

ב-1956 קיבל משרת פרופסור ב-MIT ושנה לאחר מכן חזר לאוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, הפעם כפרופסור, ובה לימד עד סוף חייו.

חייו הפרטיים נישא לאסתר לבית ישראלי, עוזרת-מחקר באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, ולשניים נולדה בת משותפת, סו אן. במקביל לנישואיו ניהל מאוחר יותר מערכת יחסים עם האדריכלית אן טינג, עמה עבד בפילדלפיה. ממערכת יחסים זו נולדה בשנת 1954 הבת אלכסנדרה. קאהן ניהל מערכת יחסים נוספת עם אדריכלית הנוף הארייט פטיסון. ממערכת יחסים זו נולד בשנת 1962 הבן נתניאל.

מותו ב-17 במרץ 1974 נפטר קאהן מהתקף לב בתא שירותים בתחנת פן בניו יורק, כאשר היה בדרכו חזרה מהודו. גופתו נמצאה רק לאחר ימים ספורים וזוהתה על ידי הדרכון שהיה עימו. בשל חוסר תיאום משטרתי, חלפו שלושה ימים עד שדבר מותו נודע למשפחתו ולמשרד שלו.

עבודתו האדריכלית ומאפייניה התהליך הסגנוני שעבר קאהן משקף את התפתחות האדריכלות המודרנית: בתחילה סגנון מקושט, קרוב לנאו קלאסיציזם, שמשתמש בטכנולוגיות הבניה החדשות ועליהן מעמיס מוטיבים עתיקים מגוונים. בהמשך פניה לעבר הסגנון הבינלאומי, הלבן והפשוט, ולבסוף מעבר לבטון החשוף ולעושר הצורני של הברוטליזם.

עם זאת, סגנונו האישי של קאהן והשפה האדריכלית הייחודית שפיתח, שזכו להערכה רבו וקבעו את מעמדו כאדריכל חדשן ומרכזי, ניכרים רק בשלב הברוטליסטי המאוחר יותר של פעילותו, לאחר ביקורו ברומא ותחילת קריירת ההוראה. עבודותיו של קאן התייחסו בעיקר לנושא האור ולזרימתו לתוך המבנה וכן התאפיינו במשחקי חלל ומסה. בין תלמדיו של קאהן נמנים שני אדריכלים בעלי שם עולמי: משה ספדיה ורוברט ונטורי.

ב-1971 במהלך הרצאה באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה אמר את ציטוטו המפורסם המשקף בעיניו את ההתייחסות הראויה של האדריכל לחומרים עמם הוא עובד:"אם תחשוב על לבנה, תאמר ללבנה, "מה תרצי להיות, לבנה?" והלבנה תאמר לך, "אני אוהבת קשת". ואם תאמר ללבנה "תראי, קשתות הן יקרות, ואני יכול להשתמש בקורת בטון מעלייך. מה את חושבת על זה, לבנה?" והלבנה אומרת, "אני אוהבת קשת". וזה חשוב, אתה מבין, שתכבד את החומר שאתה משתמש בו. ותוכל לעשות זאת אם תכבד את הלבנה ותאדיר את הלבנה במקום להקטין אותה."

רוב המבנים בתכנונו נמצאים בארצות הברית, אך הוא תכנן מספר פרויקטים במדינות נוספות, ביניהן הודו ובנגלדש, כאשר המפורסם ביותר הוא בניין הממשל הבנגלי בעיר דאקה. בישראל תכנן קאהן הצעה לבניית בית הכנסת החורבה, שלבסוף נדחתה, וכן השתתף בתכנון בניין הפקולטה להנדסה ע"ש וולפסון באוניברסיטת תל אביב, עליו זכה בשנת 1984 בפרס רוקח.

עבודות נבחרות 1951 – University Art Center 1954 – Trenton Bath House 1957 – Richards Medical Center 1959 – Salk Institute 1959 – Esherick House 1959 – First Unitarian Church of Rochester 1960 – Erdman Hall Dormitories 1960 – Norman Fisher House 1963 – Institute of Public Administration 1962 – National Assembly Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1967 – Exeter Library 1967 – Kimbell Art Museum 1969 – Yale Center for British Art 1973 – פארק ארבע החירויות על שם רוזוולט קישורים חיצוניים ויקישיתוף מדיה וקבצים בנושא לואי קאהן בוויקישיתוף אוסף לואי קאהן, ארכיון אדריכלות, אוניברסיטת פנסילבניה אמילי ט. קופרמן, ביוגרפיה של לואי קאהן

באתר Philadelphia architects and building לואי קאהן , באתר "Find a Grave" (באנגלית) Great Buildings on-line, with links Factsheet Honoring Kahn at his centennial, with photographs Drawings for the Kimbell Art Museum , Beaux-Arts training as applied to Modernism My Architect , biographical movie (IMDb , 2003) Space is the place , a personal collection of photographs taken at various Kahn buildings Yale University Art Gallery – Louis I. Kahn building , information from the Yale University Art Gallery on the renovations being done to highlight Kahn's original intentions for the YUAG building. https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%90%D7%99_%D7%A7%D7%90...

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World-renowned architect. Born in 1901 on the Baltic island of Ösel, Louis Isadore Kahn's family emigrated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1905, where Louis Isadore Kahn lived the rest of his life.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Kahn

Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (March 5 [O.S. February 20] 1901 – March 17, 1974) was an American architect,[2] based in Philadelphia. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957.

From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn's works are considered as monumental beyond modernism. Famous for his meticulously built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, and his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect."[3]

Contents [show] Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

Jesse Oser House, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (1940) Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib (Leiser-Itze) Schmuilowsky (Schmalowski), was born into a poor Jewish family in Pärnu,[4] formerly in czarist Russia, but now in Estonia. He spent his early childhood in Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa, then part of the Russian Empire's Livonian Governorate.[1] At the age of three, he saw coals in the stove and was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which caught on fire and seared his face.[5] He carried these scars for the rest of his life.[6]

In 1906, his family emigrated to the United States, as they feared that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War. His birth year may have been inaccurately recorded in the process of immigration. According to his son's 2003 documentary film, the family could not afford pencils. They made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings.[7] Later he earned money by playing piano to accompany silent movies in theaters. He became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. His father changed their name to Kahn in 1915.[7]

Career[edit] Kahn trained at the University of Pennsylvania in a rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, with its emphasis on drawing. After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of the city architect, John Molitor. He worked on the designs for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition.[8]

In 1928, Kahn made a European tour. He was interested particularly in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne, France, and the castles of Scotland, rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism.[9] After returning to the United States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at the University of Pennsylvania, and then with Zantzinger, Borie and Medary in Philadelphia.[8]

In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes. Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are schemes for public housing that he had presented to the Public Works Administration, which supported some similar projects during the Great Depression.[8] They remained unbuilt.

Louis Kahn's Salk Institute Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was one with George Howe.[10] Kahn worked with Howe in the late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German-born architect Oscar Stonorov, for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania.[11] A formal architectural office partnership between Kahn and Oscar Stonorov began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, which produced fifty-four documented projects and buildings.[12][13]

Kahn did not arrive at his distinctive architectural style until he was in his fifties. Initially working in a fairly orthodox version of the International Style, he was influenced vitally by a stay as Architect in Residence at the American Academy in Rome during 1950, which marked a turning point in his career. After visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy, Greece, and Egypt, he adopted a back-to-the-basics approach. He developed his own style as influenced by earlier modern movements, but not limited by their sometimes-dogmatic ideologies.

In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and to create a proposal for a viaduct system.[14][15]

He described this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado:

In the center of town the streets should become buildings. This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, and it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation recently, and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme.[16]

Kahn's teaching career began at Yale University in 1947. He eventually was named as the Albert F. Bemis Professor of Architecture and Planning at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956. Kahn then returned to Philadelphia to teach at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 until his death, becoming the Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecture. He also was a visiting lecturer at Princeton University from 1961 to 1967.

Legacy and honors[edit] Kahn was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1953. He was made a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964. He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1964. In 1965 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician. He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968 and awarded the AIA Gold Medal, the highest award given by the AIA, in 1971,[17] and the Royal Gold Medal by the RIBA, in 1972.

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban[edit]

Play of light inside Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is perhaps the most important building designed by Kahn. Kahn got the design contract with the help of Muzharul Islam, one of his students at Yale University, who worked with him on the project. It was Kahn's last project, developed during 1962 to 1974. The Parliament building is the centerpiece of the national capital complex designed by Kahn that includes hostels, dining halls, and a hospital. According to Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, "it is one of the twentieth century's greatest architectural monuments, and is without question Kahn's magnum opus."[18]

Death[edit] In 1974, Kahn died of a heart attack in a restroom for men at Penn Station in Manhattan.[3] He had just returned from a work trip to India. Owing to police miscommunications in both New York City and Philadelphia, his wife and his office were not notified until two days after his death. After his long career, he was in debt when he died.

Personal life[edit] Kahn had three children with three women. With his wife, Esther, whom he married in 1930, he had a daughter, Sue Ann. With Anne Tyng, who began her working collaboration and personal relationship with Kahn in 1945, he also had a daughter, Alexandra Tyng. When Tyng became pregnant in 1953, to mitigate the scandal, she went to Rome, Italy, for the birth of their daughter.[19] With Harriet Pattison, he had a son, Nathaniel Kahn.

Kahn's obituary in the New York Times, written by Paul Goldberger, mentions only Esther and his daughter by her as survivors. All of his children and their mothers attended the funeral. In 2003 his son with Pattison, Nathaniel Kahn, released a documentary about his father, entitled, My Architect: A Son's Journey. The Oscar-nominated film provides views and insights into the architecture of Kahn while exploring him personally through people who knew him: family, friends, and colleagues. It includes interviews with such renowned architectural contemporaries as Muzharul Islam, B. V. Doshi, Frank Gehry, Ed Bacon, Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, Vincent J. Scully, and Robert A. M. Stern. It also provides insights into Kahn's unusual and complicated family arrangements.

Designs[edit]

Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1966–72) Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut (1951–1953), the first significant commission of Louis Kahn and his first masterpiece, replete with technical innovations. For example, he designed a hollow concrete tetrahedral space-frame that did away with the need for ductwork and reduced the floor-to-floor height by channeling air through the structure itself. Like many of Kahn's buildings, the Art Gallery makes subtle references to its context while overtly rejecting any historical style. Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1957–1965), a breakthrough in Kahn's career that helped set new directions for modern architecture with its clear expression of served and servant spaces and its evocation of the architecture of the past. The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California (1959–1965) was to be a campus composed of three main clusters: meeting and conference areas, living quarters, and laboratories. Only the laboratory cluster, consisting of two parallel blocks enclosing a water garden, was built. The two laboratory blocks frame a long view of the Pacific Ocean, accentuated by a thin linear fountain that seems to reach for the horizon. First Unitarian Church, Rochester, New York (1959–1969), named as one of the greatest religious structures of the twentieth century by Paul Goldberger, the Pulitzer Prize-winning architectural critic.[20] Tall, narrow window recesses create an irregular rhythm of shadows on the exterior while four light towers flood the sanctuary walls with indirect, natural light. Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh (1962–1974) Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, in Ahmedabad, India (1962) National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Dhaka, Bangladesh (1963)[citation needed] Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–1972), awarded the Twenty-five Year Award by the American Institute of Architects in 1997. It is famous for its dramatic atrium with enormous circular openings into the book stacks. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1967–1972), features repeated bays of cycloid-shaped barrel vaults with light slits along the apex, which bathe the artwork on display in an ever-changing diffuse light. Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel, (1968–1974), unbuilt Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (1969–1974) Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York (1972–1974), construction completed 2012 Timeline of works[edit]

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, Dhaka; considered as Kahn's magnum opus

Interior of Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire (1965–72) All dates refer to the year project commenced

1935 – Jersey Homesteads Cooperative Development, Hightstown, New Jersey 1940 – Jesse Oser House, 628 Stetson Road, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania 1947 – Phillip Q. Roche House, 2101 Harts Lane, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 1951 – Yale University Art Gallery, 1111 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1952 – City Tower Project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1954 – Jewish Community Center (aka Trenton Bath House), 999 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing, New Jersey 1956 – Wharton Esherick Studio, 1520 Horseshoe Trail, Malvern, Pennsylvania (designed with Wharton Esherick) 1957 – Richards Medical Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1957 – Fred E. and Elaine Cox Clever House, 417 Sherry Way, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 1959 – Margaret Esherick House, 204 Sunrise Lane, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[21] 1958 – Tribune Review Publishing Company Building, 622 Cabin Hill Drive, Greensburg, Pennsylvania 1959 – Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 1959 – First Unitarian Church, 220 South Winton Road, Rochester, New York 1960 – Erdman Hall Dormitories, Bryn Mawr College, Morris Avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 1960 – Norman Fisher House, 197 East Mill Road, Hatboro, Pennsylvania 1961 – Point Counterpoint II, barge used by the American Wind Symphony Orchestra 1961 - Philadelphia's Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (unbuilt) 1962 – Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India 1962 – Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1963 – President's Estate, Islamabad, Pakistan (unbuilt) 1965 – Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Front Street, Exeter, New Hampshire 1966 – Kimbell Art Museum, 3333 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, Texas 1966 – Olivetti-Underwood Factory, Valley Road, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 1968 – Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel (unbuilt) 1969 – Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, 1080 Chapel Street, New Haven, Connecticut 1971 – Steven Korman House, Sheaff Lane, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania 1973 – The Arts United Center (Formerly known as the Fine Arts Foundation Civic Center), Fort Wayne, Indiana[22] 1974 – Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York City, New York, completed 2012.[23] 1979 – Flora Lamson Hewlett Library of the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California[24] Legacy[edit]

360° panorama in the courtyard of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California (1959–65)

Panorama of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Louis Kahn Memorial Park, Eleventh & Pine Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Louis Kahn's work infused the International style with a fastidious, highly personal taste, a poetry of light. His few projects reflect his deep personal involvement with each. Isamu Noguchi called him "a philosopher among architects." He was known for his ability to create monumental architecture that responded to the human scale. He also was concerned with creating strong formal distinctions between served spaces and servant spaces. What he meant by servant spaces was not spaces for servants, but rather spaces that serve other spaces, such as stairwells, corridors, restrooms, or any other back-of-house function such as storage space or mechanical rooms. His palette of materials tended toward heavily textured brick and bare concrete, the textures often reinforced by juxtaposition to highly refined surfaces such as travertine marble.

While widely known for his the poetic sensibilities of his spaces, Kahn also worked closely with engineers and contractors on his buildings. The results often were technically innovative and highly refined. In addition to the influence Kahn's more well-known work has on contemporary architects (such as Muzharul Islam, Tadao Ando), some of his work (especially the unbuilt City Tower Project) became very influential among the high-tech architects of the late twentieth century (such as Renzo Piano, who worked in Kahn's office, Richard Rogers, and Norman Foster). His prominent apprentices include Muzharul Islam, Moshe Safdie, Robert Venturi, Jack Diamond, and Charles Dagit.

Many years after his death, Kahn continues to provoke controversy. Before his Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park at the southern tip of Roosevelt Island was built,[25] a New York Times editorial opined:

There's a magic to the project. That the task is daunting makes it worthy of the man it honors, who guided the nation through the Depression, the New Deal and a world war. As for Mr. Kahn, he died in 1974, as he passed alone through New York City's Penn Station. In his briefcase were renderings of the memorial, his last completed plan.[26]

The editorial describes Kahn's plan as:

...simple and elegant. Drawing inspiration from Roosevelt's defense of the Four Freedoms—of speech and religion, and from want and fear—he designed an open 'room and a garden' at the bottom of the island. Trees on either side form a 'V' defining a green space, and leading to a two-walled stone room at the water's edge that frames the United Nations and the rest of the skyline.

Critics note that the panoramic view of Manhattan and the United Nations building are blocked by the walls of that room and by the trees.[27] Other as-yet-unanswered critics have argued more broadly that not enough thought has been given to what visitors to the memorial would be able to do at the site.[28] The proposed project was opposed by a majority of island residents who were surveyed by the Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation group currently working extensively on the island.[29]

The movement for the memorial, which was conceived by Kahn's firm almost 35 years ago, needed to raise $40 million by the end of 2007; as of July 20, it had collected $5.1 million.[30] There is a merest hint in Architectural Record about the oft-heard argument that the project must be built because it literally, was Kahn's last;[31] this is rebutted by those who say the plans are not enough like Kahn's other work to be touted as a memorial to Kahn as well as FDR.[32]

In popular culture[edit] Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Lewis Spratlan, with collaborators Jenny Kallick and John Downey (Amherst College class of 2003), composed the chamber opera Architect as a character study of Kahn. The premiere recording was due to be released in 2012 by Navona Records.

Kahn was the subject of the Oscar-nominated documentary film My Architect: A Son's Journey, presented by Nathaniel Kahn, his son.[33]:127 Kahn's complicated family life inspired the "Undaunted Mettle" episode of Law & Order: Criminal Intent.

In the film Indecent Proposal, character David Murphy (played by Woody Harrelson), referenced Kahn during a lecture to architecture students, attributing the quote "Even a brick wants to be something" to Kahn.

Architecturally-inspired ice cream sandwich maker Coolhaus, based in Los Angeles, California, named a cookie and ice cream combination after Kahn. Dubbed "Louis Ba-kahn", the sandwich consists of chocolate chip cookies and Brown Butter Candied Bacon ice cream.[33]:126[34]

http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/archives/image.html?start=1400&fq=...

לואי קאהן

' (באנגלית: Louis Isadore Kahn, נולד בשם איצ'ה לייב שמואלובסקי; ‏ 20 בפברואר 1901 – 17 במרץ 1974) היה אדריכל אמריקאי יהודי נודע, מחשובי האדריכלים המודרניסטים האמריקאים.

זוכה מדליית הזהב המלכותית מטעם המכון המלכותי לאדריכלים בריטים ומדליית הזהב של מכון האדריכלים האמריקאי.

תוכן עניינים 1 קורות חיים 1.1 קריירה 1.2 חייו הפרטיים 1.3 מותו 2 עבודתו האדריכלית ומאפייניה 2.1 עבודות נבחרות 3 קישורים חיצוניים 4 הערות שוליים קורות חיים קאהן נולד לבלה רבקה לבית מנדלוביץ' וללייב שמואלובסקי בפרנו, אסטוניה, אז חלק מן האימפריה הרוסית, במשפחה ענייה. בינקותו עברו הוריו לקורסארה שבאי היומאה. בשנת 1906 היגרה המשפחה לארצות הברית, בגלל חשש האב מפני גיוסו לצבא הרוסי. בשנת 1914 קיבל אזרחות אמריקנית ובשנה שלאחר מכן שינה האב את שמו ל"לאופולד קאהן". לואי הצעיר נאלץ לעזור בפרנסת המשפחה, תחילה במכירת ציורים שלו ומאוחר יותר בנגינה בפסנתר באולמות ראינוע.

קריירה את הכשרתו קיבל לואי קאהן באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, שם נלמד מקצוע האדריכלות במתכונת שמרנית ובהתאם למסורת אדריכלות הבוז-אר (Beaux-Arts). לאחר סיום לימודיו ב-1924 פנה לעבוד כשרטט במשרד מקומי. ארבע שנים לאחר מכן יצא לסיור אדריכלי באירופה, בו התרשם בעיקר מביצורים מימי הביניים, ביניהם חומות העיר קרקסון בצרפת ומבצרים עתיקים אחרים בסקוטלנד.

בשנת 1932 הקים קאהן יחד עם חברו האדריכל דומיניק ברנינגר את "קבוצת המחקר האדריכלי" (ARG), לשם "מחקר קבוצתי של שיכון ופינוי שכונות עוני". הקבוצה הייתה למעשה חבורה רופפת של אדריכלים צעירים, רובם מובטלים. חברי הקבוצה התעניינו באוונגרד האירופאי ובאג'נדות חברתיות פופוליסטיות, והיו מחסידי הסגנון הבינלאומי שעשה אז את צעדיו הראשונים בארצות הברית. התוכניות שהוליד הפרויקט המרכזי של הקבוצה לא מומשו, כולל תוכנית הדיור הציבורי של קאהן שהוגשה לרשות העבודות הציבוריות, והקבוצה התפרקה פחות משלוש שנים לאחר הקמתה[1].

בשנים הבאות השתתף קאהן בפרויקטים שונים, חלקם הגדול שיכונים ומבני דיור ציבורי שתכנן עבור רשות השיכון של פילדלפיה. בין השאר שיתף פעולה עם אדריכלים דוגמת ג'ורג' האו, מחלוצי הסגנון הבינלאומי בארצות הברית, ואוסקר סטורונוב, איתו קיים שותפות פורה שנמשכה בין 1942 ל-1947.

ב-1947 החל קאהן את קריירת ההוראה שלו במשרת הוראה באוניברסיטת ייל.

ב-1950 נסע קאהן לרומא ושהה באקדמיה האמריקאית ברומא. לשהותו ברומא ולסיורים שערך באיטליה, יוון ומצרים הייתה השפעה עצומה עליו והיא היוותה נקודת מפנה בקריירה שלו ובאדריכלות שיצר. עד אז תכנן במסגרת המקובלת של הסגנון הבינלאומי של אותה תקופה; לאחר השנה שהעביר באיטליה חזר קאהן לשורשי המודרניזם המוקדם, תוך שהוא מעניק לו פרשנות אישית שקיבעה את מעמדו כאדריכל יצירתי ומשמעותי.

ב-1956 קיבל משרת פרופסור ב-MIT ושנה לאחר מכן חזר לאוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, הפעם כפרופסור, ובה לימד עד סוף חייו.

חייו הפרטיים נישא לאסתר לבית ישראלי, עוזרת-מחקר באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה, ולשניים נולדה בת משותפת, סו אן. במקביל לנישואיו ניהל מאוחר יותר מערכת יחסים עם האדריכלית אן טינג, עמה עבד בפילדלפיה. ממערכת יחסים זו נולדה בשנת 1954 הבת אלכסנדרה. קאהן ניהל מערכת יחסים נוספת עם אדריכלית הנוף הארייט פטיסון. ממערכת יחסים זו נולד בשנת 1962 הבן נתניאל.

מותו ב-17 במרץ 1974 נפטר קאהן מהתקף לב בתא שירותים בתחנת פן בניו יורק, כאשר היה בדרכו חזרה מהודו. גופתו נמצאה רק לאחר ימים ספורים וזוהתה על ידי הדרכון שהיה עימו. בשל חוסר תיאום משטרתי, חלפו שלושה ימים עד שדבר מותו נודע למשפחתו ולמשרד שלו.

עבודתו האדריכלית ומאפייניה התהליך הסגנוני שעבר קאהן משקף את התפתחות האדריכלות המודרנית: בתחילה סגנון מקושט, קרוב לנאו קלאסיציזם, שמשתמש בטכנולוגיות הבניה החדשות ועליהן מעמיס מוטיבים עתיקים מגוונים. בהמשך פניה לעבר הסגנון הבינלאומי, הלבן והפשוט, ולבסוף מעבר לבטון החשוף ולעושר הצורני של הברוטליזם.

עם זאת, סגנונו האישי של קאהן והשפה האדריכלית הייחודית שפיתח, שזכו להערכה רבו וקבעו את מעמדו כאדריכל חדשן ומרכזי, ניכרים רק בשלב הברוטליסטי המאוחר יותר של פעילותו, לאחר ביקורו ברומא ותחילת קריירת ההוראה. עבודותיו של קאן התייחסו בעיקר לנושא האור ולזרימתו לתוך המבנה וכן התאפיינו במשחקי חלל ומסה. בין תלמדיו של קאהן נמנים שני אדריכלים בעלי שם עולמי: משה ספדיה ורוברט ונטורי.

ב-1971 במהלך הרצאה באוניברסיטת פנסילבניה אמר את ציטוטו המפורסם המשקף בעיניו את ההתייחסות הראויה של האדריכל לחומרים עמם הוא עובד:"אם תחשוב על לבנה, תאמר ללבנה, "מה תרצי להיות, לבנה?" והלבנה תאמר לך, "אני אוהבת קשת". ואם תאמר ללבנה "תראי, קשתות הן יקרות, ואני יכול להשתמש בקורת בטון מעלייך. מה את חושבת על זה, לבנה?" והלבנה אומרת, "אני אוהבת קשת". וזה חשוב, אתה מבין, שתכבד את החומר שאתה משתמש בו. ותוכל לעשות זאת אם תכבד את הלבנה ותאדיר את הלבנה במקום להקטין אותה."

רוב המבנים בתכנונו נמצאים בארצות הברית, אך הוא תכנן מספר פרויקטים במדינות נוספות, ביניהן הודו ובנגלדש, כאשר המפורסם ביותר הוא בניין הממשל הבנגלי בעיר דאקה. בישראל תכנן קאהן הצעה לבניית בית הכנסת החורבה, שלבסוף נדחתה, וכן השתתף בתכנון בניין הפקולטה להנדסה ע"ש וולפסון באוניברסיטת תל אביב, עליו זכה בשנת 1984 בפרס רוקח.

עבודות נבחרות 1951 – University Art Center 1954 – Trenton Bath House 1957 – Richards Medical Center 1959 – Salk Institute 1959 – Esherick House 1959 – First Unitarian Church of Rochester 1960 – Erdman Hall Dormitories 1960 – Norman Fisher House 1963 – Institute of Public Administration 1962 – National Assembly Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1967 – Exeter Library 1967 – Kimbell Art Museum 1969 – Yale Center for British Art 1973 – פארק ארבע החירויות על שם רוזוולט קישורים חיצוניים ויקישיתוף מדיה וקבצים בנושא לואי קאהן בוויקישיתוף אוסף לואי קאהן, ארכיון אדריכלות, אוניברסיטת פנסילבניה אמילי ט. קופרמן, ביוגרפיה של לואי קאהן

באתר Philadelphia architects and building לואי קאהן , באתר "Find a Grave" (באנגלית) לואי קאהן , באתר אנציקלופדיה בריטניקה (באנגלית) Great Buildings on-line, with links Factsheet Honoring Kahn at his centennial, with photographs Drawings for the Kimbell Art Museum , Beaux-Arts training as applied to Modernism My Architect , biographical movie (IMDb , 2003) Space is the place , a personal collection of photographs taken at various Kahn buildings Yale University Art Gallery – Louis I. Kahn building , information from the Yale University Art Gallery on the renovations being done to highlight Kahn's original intentions for the YUAG building. https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%90%D7%99_%D7%A7%D7%90...
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Louis Kahn's Timeline

1901
March 5, 1901
Kuressaare, Saaremaa, Estonia
1974
March 17, 1974
Age 73
New York, United States
????
Montefiore Cemetery Jenkintown Montgomery County Pennsylvania