Prof. Dr. Joseph Joachim

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Joseph Joachim

Hungarian: Joachim József
Birthdate: (76)
Birthplace: Kittsee, Burgenland, Österreich
Death: August 15, 1907 (76)
Berlin, Deutschland
Immediate Family:

Son of Julius Joachim and Fanny Joachim
Husband of Amalie Joachim
Father of Johannes Johann Joachim; Hermann Joachim; Marie Joachim; Josepha Fels; Paul* Philipp Joachim and 1 other
Brother of Friedrich Joachim; Regina Joachim; Julie Singer; Johanna Joachim; Heinrich Henry Joachim and 2 others

Occupation: hegedűművész, karmester, zeneszerző
Managed by: Randy Schoenberg
Last Updated:

About Prof. Dr. Joseph Joachim

Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. He is widely regarded as a great and significantly influential violinist of the late 19th century.


Joseph Joachim was born in Kittsee (Kopčany / Köpcsény), near Bratislava and Eisenstadt, in today's Burgenland area of Austria. He was the seventh of eight children born to Julius and Fanny Joachim. His father was a wool merchant. Joachim was born Jewish, and spent his infancy as a member of the Kittsee Kehilla (Jewish community), one of Hungary's prominent Siebengemeinden ('Seven Communities') under the protectorate of the Esterházy family.

Early career

In 1833 his family moved to Pest, where he studied violin with Stanislaus Serwaczynski, the concertmaster of the opera in Pest. (Serwaczynski later moved to Lublin, Poland, where he taught Wieniawski). In 1839, Joachim continued his studies at the Vienna Conservatory (briefly with Miska Hauser and Georg Hellmesberger, Sr.; finally — and most significantly — with Joseph Böhm). He was taken by his cousin, Fanny Wittgenstein (grandmother of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein) to live and study in Leipzig, where he became a protégé of Felix Mendelssohn. In his début performance in the Leipzig Gewandhaus he played the Otello Fantasy by Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. The twelve-year-old Joachim's 1844 performance of the Beethoven Violin Concerto in London (under Mendelssohn's baton) was a triumph, and helped to establish that work in the repertory. Joachim remained a favorite with the English public for the rest of his career.


Following Mendelssohn's death in 1847, Joachim stayed briefly in Leipzig, teaching at the Conservatorium and playing on the first desk of the Gewandhaus Orchestra with Ferdinand David. In 1848, Franz Liszt took up residence in Weimar, determined to re-establish the town's reputation as the Athens of Germany. There, he gathered a circle of young avante-garde disciples, vocally opposed to the conservatism of the Leipzig circle. Joachim was amongst the first of these. He served Liszt as concertmaster, and for several years enthusiastically embraced the new "psychological music", as he called it. In 1852 he moved to Hanover, at the same time dissociating himself from the musical ideals of the 'New German School' (Liszt, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, and their followers, as defined by journalist Franz Brendel) and instead making common cause with Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms. His break with Liszt became final in August 1857, when Joachim wrote to his former mentor: "I am completely out of sympathy with your music; it contradicts everything which from early youth I have taken as mental nourishment from the spirit of our great masters."

Joachim's time in Hanover was his most prolific period of composition. During this time, he frequently performed with Clara Schumann and with Brahms, both in private and in public. In 1860 Brahms and Joachim jointly wrote a manifesto against the "progressive" music of the 'New German' School, in reaction to the polemics of Brendel's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. This manifesto met with a mixed reception, being heavily derided by followers of Wagner.[citation needed]

On May 10, 1863 Joachim married the contralto Amalie Schneeweiss (stage name: Amalie Weiss) (1839-99). Amalie gave up her own promising career as an opera singer and gave birth to six children. She did continue to perform in oratorios and to give lieder recitals. In 1865 Joachim quit the service of the King of Hanover in protest, when the Intendant of the Opera refused to advance one of the orchestral players (Jakob Grün) because of the latter's Jewish birth.[1] In 1866, Joachim moved to Berlin, where he became founding director of the Royal Academy of Music. There, he founded an orchestra, and, in 1869, the Joachim String Quartet, which quickly gained a reputation as Europe's finest. Other members of the Quartett were Carl Halir (2nd violin), Emanuel Wirth (viola) and Robert Hausmann (cello).

In 1884, Joachim and his wife separated after he became convinced that she was having an affair with the publisher Fritz Simrock. Brahms, certain that Joachim's suspicions were groundless, wrote a sympathetic letter to Amalie, which she later produced as evidence in Joachim's divorce proceeding against her. This led to a cooling of Brahms and Joachim's friendship, which was not restored until some years later, when Brahms composed the Double Concerto in A minor for violin and cello, Op. 102, as a peace offering to his old friend.

In Berlin on August 17, 1903, Joachim recorded five sides for The Gramophone & Typewriter Ltd (G&T), which remain a fascinating and valuable source of information about 19th-century styles of violin playing. He is the earliest violinist of distinction known to have recorded.[citation needed]

Joachim's portrait was twice painted by Philip de Laszlo. A portrait of Joachim was painted by John Singer Sargent and presented to him at the Jubilee celebration of his English debut in London in 1904.

Joachim remained in Berlin until his death from actinomycosis in 1907. He is survived by relatives in the United States, mainly the Bass family.[citation needed]

The famous Joachim Quartett. From left to right: Robert Hausmann (Cello), Josef Joachim (1. Violin), Emanuel Wirth (Viola) and Carl Halir (2. Violin)


Among the most notable of Joachim's achievements were the revivals of Bach's Sonatas and partitas for solo violin, BWV 1001-1006, and particularly of Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61. Joachim was among the first to play Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor, which he studied with the composer. Joachim played a pivotal role in the career of Brahms, and remained a tireless advocate of Brahms's compositions through all the vicissitudes of their friendship. He conducted the English premiere of Brahms's Symphony No. 1 in C minor.

A number of Joachim's composer colleagues, including Schumann, Brahms, Bruch, and Dvořák composed concerti with Joachim in mind, many of which entered the standard repertory. Nevertheless, Joachim's solo repertoire remained relatively restricted. Despite his close friendship with Brahms, Joachim performed his Violin Concerto in D major only six times in his career. He never performed Schumann's Violin Concerto in D minor, which Schumann wrote especially for him, or Dvořák's Violin Concerto in A minor. The most unusual work written for Joachim was the F-A-E Sonata, a collaboration between Schumann, Brahms, and Albert Dietrich, based upon the initials of Joachim's motto, Frei aber Einsam (free but lonely). Although the sonata is rarely performed in its entirety, the third movement, the Scherzo in C minor, composed by Brahms, is still frequently played today.


Joachim's own compositions are less well known. He has a reputation as a composer of a short but distinguished catalogue of works. Among his compositions are various works for the violin (including three concerti) and overtures to Shakespeare's Hamlet and Henry IV. He also wrote cadenzas for a number of other composers' concerti (including the Beethoven and Brahms concerti). His most highly regarded composition is his Hungarian concerto (Violin Concerto No 2 in D minor, Op. 11).

Joseph Joachim.

List of compositions

Original compositions

Op. 1, Andantino and Allegro scherzoso, for violin and piano (1848): dedicated to Joseph Böhm

Op. 2, Three Pieces, (circa 1848-1852), Romanze, Fantasiestück, Eine Frühlingsfantasie for Violin or Viola and Piano

Op. 3, Violin Concerto in One Movement in G minor (1851); dedicated to Franz Liszt

Op. 4, "Hamlet" Overture (1853)

Op. 5, Three Pieces for Violin and Piano: Lindenrauschen, Abendglocken, Ballade; dedicated to Gisela von Arnim

Op. 6, "Demetrius" Overture (Herman Grimm, dedicated to Franz Liszt)

Op. 7, "Henry IV" Overture (1854)

Op. 8, Overture to a Comedy by Gozzi (1854)

Op. 9, Hebrew Melodies, for Viola and Piano

Op. 10, Variations on an Original Theme, for Viola and Piano (1855)

Op. 11, Violin Concerto No. 2 in D minor "in the Hungarian Manner" (1861)

Op. 12, Notturno for Violin and Orchestra in A Major (1858)

Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major (1875)

Op. 13, Elegiac Overture "In Memoriam Heinrich von Kleist" (ca. 1877)

Op. 14, Szene der Marfa from Friedrich Schiller's unfinished drama "Demetrius" (ca. 1869)

WoO, Ich hab' im Traum geweinet for voice and piano, pub. Wigand, 1854.

Scene from Schiller's Demetrius (1878)

WoO, Rain, rain and sun, Merlin's Song (Tennyson), pub. C. Kegan & Co., 1880.

Melodrama zu einer Schillergedenkfeier (unpublished, autograph in Hamburg Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek)

Overture in C major (Konzertouvertüre zum Geburtstag des Kaisers) (1896)

Two Marches for orchestra

Andantino in A minor, for violin and orchestra (also for violin and piano)

Romance in B flat major, for violin and piano

Romance in C major, for violin and piano

Variationen über ein irisches Elfenlied for piano

Variations for Violin and Orchestra in E minor (ca.1879); dedicated to Pablo Sarasate

Joseph Joachim (1853) by Adolph Menzel


In 1855 Joachim made a version for full orchestra of Schubert's Grand Duo in C major for piano duet (D. 812), which many scholars at that time considered (probably incorrectly) to be a draft or piano reduction of a lost symphony.

He also made a virtuosic transcription for violin and piano of all 21 of Brahms's Hungarian Dances.

He produced numerous editions of music, many in collaboration with Andreas Moser.


Beethoven, Concerto in D major, Op. 61

Brahms, Concerto in D major, Op. 77

Kreutzer, Concerto No. 19 in D minor

Mozart, Aria from Il re pastore, Concerto in D major, K. 218, and Concerto in A major, K 219

Rode, Concerto No. 10 in B minor, and Concerto No. 11 in D major

Spohr, Concerto in A minor, Op. 47 (Gesangsszene)

Tartini, Sonata in G minor (Devil's Trill)

Viotti, Concerto No 22 in A minor

[edit]Recordings of Joachim's compositions

Joseph Joachim at age 53.

Violin Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 11 "In the Hungarian Style":

Rachel Barton Pine (Violin), Carlos Kalmar (Conductor), Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Cedille Records: CDR 90000 068 (liner notes)

Elmar Oliviera (Violin), Leon Botstein (Conductor), London Philharmonic, IMP

Aaron Rosand (Violin), Louis de Froment (Conductor), Luxembourg Radio/Television Symphony Orchestra, Vox Catalog #: 5102

Violin Concerto No. 3

Takako Nishizaki (Violin), Meir Minsky (Conductor), Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, Naxos #: 8554733

Hamlet Overture, Op. 4

Meir Minsky (Conductor), Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, Naxos #: 8554733

Elegische Ouvertüre, Op. 13

Meir Minsky (Conductor), Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, Naxos #: 8554733

Andantino and Allegro scherzoso, Op. 1: Andantino

Marat Bisengaliev (Violin), John Lenehan (Piano), Naxos #: 553026

Romance in B flat major

Marat Bisengaliev (Violin), John Lenehan (Piano), Naxos #: 553026

Hebrew melodies, Op. 9

Anna Barbara Dütschler (Viola), Marc Pantillon (Piano), Claves #: 9905

Heinrich IV Overture, Op. 7 (2 pianos, arr. Johannes Brahms)

Duo Egri-Pertis, Hungaroton #: 32003

Variations for Viola and Piano, Op. 10

Numerous recordings

Variations for Violin and Orchestra in E minor

Vilmos Szabadi (Violin), László Kovács (Conductor), North Hungarian Symphony Orchestra, Hungaroton #: 32185

[edit]Joachim's own discography

J. S. Bach: Partita for Violin No. 1 in B minor, BWV 1002: 7th movement, Tempo di Bourée, Pearl Catalog: 9851 (also on Testament (749677132323)).

Brahms: Hungarian Dances (21) for Piano 4 hands, WoO 1: No. 1 in G minor (arr. Joachim), Opal Recordings (also on Testament (749677132323)).

Brahms Hungarian Dance No. 2 in D minor (arr. Joachim), Grammophon Catalogue # 047905; HMV, D88.

Joachim: Romance in C major, Op. 20, Pearl Catalog: 9851

Original pressings are single-sided and have a flat red G&T label. Later reeditions have a black G&T label (or, from 1909, a label showing the 'His Master's Voice' trade-mark), and those made for the German market are double-sided. They are better in quality.

[edit]Joachim's students

Joseph Joachim and the young Franz von Vecsey. Note the strongly incurving, arthritic first finger of his left hand. The chair in which he is sitting was a special present to him. He willed it to Donald Francis Tovey, and it is now owned by the University of Edinburgh Museum.[2]

Leopold Auer, Violinist and teacher, studied with Joachim in Hanover.

Willy Burmester

Will Marion Cook

Carl Courvoisier (12 November, 1846-1908), author of Technics of Violin Playing on Joachim's Method, London: The Strad Library, No. I, 1894.

F. Fleischhauer (b. 24 July, 1834), Hofconcertmeister in Meiningen.

Sam Franko

Richard Gompertz (b. 27 April, 1859), professor of violin at the Royal College of Music, London.

Karel (Carl) Halíř (1859-1909), Bohemian violinist, member of the Joachim Quartet.

Gustav Hille

Willy Hess

Richard Himmelstoß (b. 17 June 1843), concertmaster in Breslau.

Gustav Holländer (b. 15 February, 1855), solo violinist.

Jenő Hubay Violinist, composer.

Bronisław Huberman[3]

Karl Klingler Violinist of the Klingler Quartet and Joachim's successor at the Berlin Hochschule. Klingler was the teacher of Shinichi Suzuki.

Joseph Kotek - Yosif / Josef, Russian violinist. (1855-1885)

Bernhard Listemann Concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. [4]

Pietro Melani

Waldemar J. Meyer (1853-1940)

Andreas Moser (1859-1925) Violinist and assistant to Joachim. Moser wrote the first biography of Joachim. He helped recover original scores of J.S. Bach's Sonate e Partite per violino solo, and collaborated with him on numerous editions.

Tivadar Nachèz, (Budapest 1859 - Lausanne 1930)

Henri Petri, concertmaster in Leipzig.

Enrico Polo, (1868 - 1953).

Maud Powell, American violinist[5]

Willibald Richter, (1860-1929), German-born English pianist, organist and teacher. Student, friend and accompanist of Joachim. Student of Haupt, Lebert, Liszt, Mischalek and Oscar. Founded College of Music at Leicester.

Camillo Ritter, teacher of William Primrose

Ossip Schnirlin, (? - 1937)

Maria Soldat-Röger

Theodore Spiering, American violinist. Born in St. Louis, lived in Chicago. Concertmaster (1909-1911), New York Philharmonic.

Franz von Vecsey, Studied with Hubay, then Joachim. Dedicatee of the Sibelius violin concerto.

Alfred Wittenberg

Other pupils are mentioned by Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski in his "Die Violine und Ihre Meister."

[edit]Joachim's instruments

Joseph Joachim.

As a child, Joachim played a Guarneri del Gesù, which he gave to Felix Schumann after he acquired his first Stradivarius.

In his Hanover years, Joachim played on a Guadagnini made in 1767.[6]

He later bought a 1714 Stradivarius, which he played until 1885.[7]

He exchanged this instrument for a 1713 Stradivarius, which was later acquired by Robert von Mendelssohn and lent for life to Joachim's student Karl Klingler.

A 1714 Stradivarius "de Barreau/Joachim" which he bought in 1881 and sold in 1897, later owned by Richard von Mendelssohn, Baron Knoop, and Karl Klingler..[8]

A 1698 Joachim Stradivarius is held by the Royal Academy of Music[9]

A violin, the ex-Joachim Stradivarius of 1715 is currently held by the Collezione Civica del Comune di Cremona.[10] It was presented to Joachim on the occasion of his Jubilee celebration in 1889.

Another 1715 Stradivarius, the Joachim-Aranyi.[11]

Another 1715 Stradivarius, later owned by George Eastman[12]

A 1722 Stradivarius, later owned by Burmester, Mischa Elman and Josef Suk.[13]

Another 1722 Stradivarius, also owned by the Mendelssohn family.[14]

A 1723 Stradivarius[15]

A 1725 Stradivarius, later owned by Norbert Brainin[16] Currently played by Rainer Küchl.

A 1727 Stradivarius, currently owned by Suntory, Ltd. and currently on loan to Mayuko Kamio.[2][17]

The Ex Joachim, Joseph Vieland Viola by Gasparo da Salo, Brescia, before 1609 is held by the Shrine to Music No. 3368,[18][19]

According to the Henley Atlas of Violin Makers, during the time he spent in France, Joachim performed on a violin made by French luthier Charles Jean Baptiste Collin-Mezin.

A violin by Francesco Ruggeri bearing the label Nicolaus Amati[20]

Joachim also played a Guarneri del Gesu, loaned by the Wittgenstein family, perhaps a 1737 Guarneri del Gesu?[21]

A Johannes Theodorus Cuypers anno 1807 was bought by Joachim in the mid 19th century and taken on tour throughout Europe. There is also evidence that the instrument was played by Joachim in a recital in Paris a half century later, in 1895. The same instrument was also played by Fritz Kreisler in a 1955 Carnegie Hall concert.[22]

A 1747 Pietro Guarneri[23]

A 1767 Guadagnini[6]

A 1775 Guadagnini[24]

A Carlo Testore violin[25]

Among Joachim's bows was a Tourte, previously owned by Ernst.


The English poet Robert Bridges wrote a sonnet about Joachim in his first major work of poetry The Growth of Love.[26]


Joseph Joachim

Adolph Kohut, Josef Joachim. Ein Lebens- und Künstlerbild. Festschrift zu seinem 60. Geburtstage, am 28. Juni 1891, Berlin: A. Glas, 1891.

Johannes Joachim and Andreas Moser (eds.), Briefe von und an Joseph Joachim, 3 vols., Berlin: Julius Bard, 1911-1913

Andreas Moser (ed.), Johannes Brahms im Briefwechsel mit Joseph Joachim, 2nd ed., Berlin: Deutsche Brahms-Gesellschaft, 1912.

Letters From and To Joseph Joachim, selected and translated by Nora Bickley with a preface by J. A. Fuller-Maitland, New York: Vienna House, 1972.

Andreas Moser, Joseph Joachim: Ein Lebensbild, 2 vols. Berlin: Verlag der Deutschen Brahms-Gesellschaft, vol. 1: 1908; vol. 2: 1910.

Andreas Moser, Joseph Joachim: A Biography, translated by Lilla Durham, introduction by J. A. Fuller Maitland, London: Philip Wellby, 1901.

J. A. Fuller-Maitland, Joseph Joachim, London & New York: John Lane, 1905.

F. G. E., Joseph Joachim, Musical Times, 48/775 (September 1, 1907): 577-583.

Hans Joachim Moser, Joseph Joachim, Sechsundneunzigstes Neujahrsblatt der Allgemeinen Musikgesellschaft in Zürich, Zürich & Leipzig: Hug & Co., 1908

Karl Storck, Joseph Joachim: Eine Studie, Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger, n.d.

Anne Russell, Joachim, The Etude, (December, 1932) 884-885.

Siegfried Borris, Joseph Joachim zum 65. Todestag, Oesterreichische Musikzeitschrift XXVII (June 1972): 352-355.

Barrett Stoll, Joseph Joachim: Violinist, Pedagogue, and Composer, Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1978.

Brigitte Massin, Les Joachim: Une Famille de Musiciens, Paris: Fayard, 1999. ISBN 2-213-60418-5

Otto Biba, "Ihr Sie hochachtender, dankbarer Schüler Peppi" Joseph Joachims Jugend im Spiegel bislang unveröffentlicher Briefe, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 1, Nr. 3, Juli 2007, 200-204.

Beatrix Borchard, Stimme und Geige: Amalie und Joseph Joachim, Biographie und Interpretationsgeschichte, Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2005.

Beatrix Borchard, Groß-männlich-deutsch? Zur Rolle Joseph Joachims für das deutsche Musikleben in der Wilhelminischen Zeit, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 1, Nr. 3, Juli 2007, 218-231.

Dietmar Shenk, Aus einer Gründerzeit: Joseph Joachim, die Berliner Hochschule für Musik und der deutsch-französische Krieg, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 1, Nr. 3, Juli 2007, 232-246.

Ute Bär, Sie wissen ja, wie gerne ich, selbst öffentlich, mit Ihnen musicire! Clara Schumann und Joseph Joachim, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 1, Nr. 3, Juli 2007, 247-257.

Gerhard Winkler (ed.) Geigen-Spiel-Kunst: Joseph Joachim und der "Wahre" Fortschritt, Burgenländische Heimatblätter, Jg. 69, Nr. 2, 2007.

Robert W. Eshbach, Der Geigerkönig: Joseph Joachim as Performer, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 1, Nr. 3, Juli 2007, 205-217.

Robert W. Eshbach, Verehrter Freund! Liebes Kind! Liebster Jo! Mein einzig Licht. Intimate letters in Brahms's Freundeskreis, Die Tonkunst, Jg. 2, Nr. 2, April 2008, 178-193.

Robert W. Eshbach, Free but Lonely: The Education of Joseph Joachim 1831-1866; forthcoming.

[edit]External links

Joseph Joachim's autograph and handwritten note to Marianne Scharwenka (Violinist and wife of Philipp Scharwenka)

Bach Adagio g-minor played by Joseph Joachim 1903 at YouTube

Joachim Romanze in C played by Joseph Joachim 1903 at YouTube

Brahms Hungarian Dance No. 1 played by Joseph Joachim 1903 at YouTube

Brahms Hungarian Dance No. 2 played by Joseph Joachim 1903 at YouTube

Short biography of Joseph and Amalie Joachim

Free scores by Joseph Joachim in the International Music Score Library Project


^ Moser (1901) 202-6

^ The University of Edinburgh Museums, Galleries & Collections

^ Bronislaw Huberman

^ [1]


^ a b violin by Giovanni Battista Guadagnini, 1767 (ex-Sennhauser; ex-Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1714 (Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1714 (De Barrau; Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1698 (Kortschak; Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1715 (Cremonese; Harold Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1715 (Joachim; Aranyi)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1715 (David Hochstein; Nowell, Joachim)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1722 (Joachim; Elman)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1722 (Laurie)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1723 (Joachim; Wanamaker, Arbos)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1725 (Chaconne; Hammig)

^ violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1727

^ Bowed Stringed Instruments Made Before 1800 at the National Music Museum at

^ viola by Gasparo di Bertolotti da Salò, before 1609

^ violin by Francesco Ruggieri (ex-Joachim)

^ violin by Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, 1737 (Joachim)


^ violin by Pietro (of Venice) Guarneri, 1747 (ex-Joachim)

^ violin by Giovanni Battista Guadagnini, 1775 (ex-Joachim)

^ violin by Carlo Antonio Testore

^ Robert Bridges at

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Prof. Dr. Joseph Joachim's Timeline

June 28, 1831
Kittsee, Burgenland, Österreich
September 12, 1864
Age 33
Hannover, Niedersachsen, Deutschland
January 24, 1866
Age 34
Hannover, Niedersachsen, Deutschland
January 31, 1868
Age 36
Hannover, Niedersachsen, Deutschland
February 16, 1869
Age 37
Berlin, Deutschland
May 7, 1877
Age 45
Berlin, Deutschland
June 26, 1881
Age 49
Strobl, Salzburg, Österreich
August 15, 1907
Age 76
Berlin, Deutschland