Sir Isaac Newton

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Sir Isaac Newton

Lithuanian: Seras Izaokas Niutonas
Birthdate: (84)
Birthplace: Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England
Death: March 31, 1727 (84)
Kensington, London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Place of Burial: City of London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Isaac Newton Sr. and Hannah Smith
Half brother of Mary Pilkington; Benjamin Smith and Hannah Barton

Occupation: English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton, PRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 [OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726]) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's theoretical prediction that the Earth is shaped as an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, thus convincing most Continental European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.

Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. Newton's work on light was collected in his highly influential book Opticks, first published in 1704. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.

Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian, who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and who, unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1700) and Master (1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).

Lucasian Professor 1669

Fellow of the Royal Society 1672

President of the Royal Society 1703-1727

Lunar features Crater Newton

Paris street names Rue Newton (16th Arrondissement)

The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

(Source: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~radfordfamily/aqwn19.htm#890)


"Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest English mathematician of his generation, was born on Christmas day 1642 (the same year that the great astronomer and scientist, Galileo, died)

Behind the organ in Colsterworth church almost out of sight is a sundial carved by Sir Isaac Newton when he was a boy. It was donated to the church by Mr. Christopher Turnor of Stoke Rochford Hall. The Turnor's purchased Woolsthorpe Manor from the Newton family heir in 1733. The sundial was found in an out-building at the Manor house, but was concealed from sight by a coal shed.

The Newton family of Woolsthorpe Manor, Woolsthorpe (near Colsterworth) were farmers in Lincolnshire for many generations, having gradually built up an estate in Woolsthorpe. The estate began with a purchase of land made by John Newton of Westby not far from Woolsthorpe. John (Isaac's great grandfather) farmed sheep on the land and did well for himself. In 1623 Isaac's grandfather Robert Newton added to the land by purchasing a nearby farm along with Woolsthorpe Manor house.

In 1639 Isaac's father, also called Isaac Newton, inherited both farms as a marriage dowry. Isaac senior married Hannah Ayscough in April 1642 and six months later Isaac senior died leaving a pregnant widow. Hannah went into labour earlier than expected, and on Christmas day 1642 Sir Isaac Newton was born, a very small and very weak child not expected to survive.

When Isaac was three years old his mother re-married, Barnabas Smith, a vicar from North Witham - the couple never lived at Woolsthorpe Manor.

His mother went on to raise a second family nearby but Isaac remained at Woolsthorpe and spent an introverted and isolated childhood in the care of his grandmother. He went to school at Grantham until he was seventeen then his mother is said to have ordered him back home to tend the estate. It was Hannah's brother-in-law from her second marriage (Rev. William Ayscough) who saw Isaac had no potential as a farmer, and he talked her into sending him back to school and eventually she agreed.

In 1661 Isaac Newton left Lincolnshire to continue his studies at Trinity College Cambridge in 1661,

However, in 1665 and 1666 he was forced to return to Woolsthorpe to escape the plague.

It was at Woolsthorpe Manor that Isaac Newton formulated three great discoveries - the principle of differential calculus, the composition of white light and the law of gravitation.

"It was a summer afternoon in 1665 and Sir Isaac Newton was taking tea under the apple trees in the family gardens at Woolsthorpe Manor in Lincolnshire, England.

By chance, an apple fell from an overhanging branch, hitting him on the head and sparking the "a-ha" moment for his law of gravitation"

He later observed, 'In the two plague years I was in the prime of my age for invention and minded mathematics and philosophy more than at any time since'.

He returned to Trinity College in 1667.

In 1679 Isaac's mother became very ill and Isaac went home to personally nurse her. However the time they had together was short, his mother died in June 1679 and Isaac returned to Cambridge.

["The psychological strangeness of (Sir Isaac) Newton is mentioned, his extreme introversion, and the trauma of his mother abandoning him as a child, with his father already dead, and the rage this caused him later ...." - Source: "Introduction to Isaac Newton's life, work, and thought 20 September 2011 | by robert-temple-1 (United Kingdom)"]

After 1696 Isaac rarely visited Woolsthorpe despite rumours that he intended to retire to there.

In 1705 Isaac was knighted by Queen Anne for his service to science.

Sir Isaac Newton died in London on 20 March 1727, his body is buried in Westminster Abbey.

He left the Woolsthorpe estate valued at 32,000 pounds to his relations. The National Trust purchased it in 1942.

The experiment set in a bedroom closet shows how Isaac Newton managed to refract light through a prisim, making a very pretty glistening bright rainbow effect on the opposite wall. In another bedroom where Isaac was born is a plaque that reads "Nature and nature's law lay hid in night: God said, Let Newton be! and all was light". ...the famous apple trees standing in the orchard, these were made famous by Sir Isaac Newton's law of gravitation. These are just two of the many great discoverys made by Sir Isaac Newton at Woolsthorpe Manor."


English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, theologian and one of the most influential men in human history. His Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.

In mechanics, Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he built the first "practical" reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Newton was also highly religious (though unorthodox), producing more work on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.

Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.

Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.

At the time of Newton's birth, England had not adopted the latest papal calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father.

Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.

According to E.T. Bell and H. Eves:

Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King's School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school. At King's, he lodged with the local apothecary, William Clarke and eventually became engaged to the apothecary's stepdaughter, Anne Storer, before he went off to the University of Cambridge at the age of 19. As Newton became engrossed in his studies, the romance cooled and Miss Storer married someone else. It is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but Newton had no other recorded "sweet-hearts" and never married.

In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy.

The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87,000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton, first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply, but since republished in mass paperback format. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology, detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity.

The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt, followed by a short advertisement. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order, beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. The majority of the treatise, however, is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. These chapters are titled:Chap. I. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks.

Chap. II. Of the Empire of Egypt.

Chap. III. Of the Assyrian Empire.

Chap. IV. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes.

Chap. V. A Description of the Temple of Solomon.

Chap. VI. Of the Empire of the Persians.

According to John Conduitt's introductory letter, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. By modern standards there are many inaccuracies found throughout the work, likely a result of the limited source material that was available during Isaac Newton's lifetime. However despite this, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is believed to have been originally intended as the last book of Principia, The System of the World.

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. When Newton saw an apple fall, he found

In that slight startle from his contemplation –

'Tis said (for I'll not answer above ground

For any sage's creed or calculation) –

A mode of proving that the earth turn'd round

In a most natural whirl, called "gravitation;"

And this is the sole mortal who could grapple,

Since Adam, with a fall or with an apple.

English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;

God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.


Scientist, Mathematician

Isaac Newton is regarded as one of the greatest scientists and mathematicians in history. He described 3 laws of motion that also govern the entire earth and the celestial bodies surrounding it.


Isaac Newton's life can be divided into three quite distinct periods. The first is his boyhood days from 1643 up to his appointment to a chair in 1669. The second period from 1669 to 1687 was the highly productive period in which he was Lucasian professor at Cambridge. The third period (nearly as long as the other two combined) saw Newton as a highly paid government official in London with little further interest in mathematical research.

Isaac Newton was born in the manor house of Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire. Although by the calendar in use at the time of his birth he was born on Christmas Day 1642, we give the date of 4 January 1643 in this biography which is the "corrected" Gregorian calendar date bringing it into line with our present calendar. (The Gregorian calendar was not adopted in England until 1752.)

Isaac Newton came from a family of farmers but never knew his father, also named Isaac Newton, who died in October 1642, three months before his son was born. Although Isaac's father owned property and animals which made him quite a wealthy man, he was completely uneducated and could not sign his own name.


Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived." His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. Newton was also highly spiritual. He was an unorthodox Christian, and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics, the subjects he is mainly associated with. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism, fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders.

Apie Seras Izaokas Niutonas (Lietuvių)

Izaokas Niutonas

Izaokas Niutonas (angl. Isaac Newton; 1643 m. sausio 4 d. [pagal J.K.: 1642 m. gruodžio 25 d.] – 1727 m. kovo 31 d. [pagal J.K.: kovo 20 d.]) – anglų fizikas, matematikas, astronomas, alchemikas, filosofas.

Savo veikale „Matematiniai gamtos filosofijos pagrindai“ (Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica) aprašė visuotinę trauką ir, per savo aprašytus judėjimo dėsnius, padėjo pagrindus klasikinei mechanikai. Be mechanikos ir optikos, Niutonas atliko tyrinėjimus šiluminės fizikos, chemijos, geografijos, istorijos srityje.

Pasak Niutono, kūnas, kaip konkretus daiktas, yra kupinas savo materialumo galios – inercijos. Tas inercijos savitaigos santykis su kitu kūnu gimdo trauką – poveikį tam kūnui. Bet ir anas kūnas turi tokią pat galią ir veikia savo linkme. Kiekvienas kūnas, traukia kitą jėga, tiesiai proporcinga jų masėms ir atvirkščiai proporcinga atstumo tarp jų kvadratui. Štai kodėl vienas kitą traukiantys kūnai gali niekada nepritraukti kito, jeigu atstumas tarp jų leidžia jiems rasti pusiausvyrą. Tokią pusiausvyrą yra vienas kito atžvilgiu radę Mėnulis ir Žemė, tokią pusiausvyrą vienas kito atžvilgiu yra radę Saulė ir jos planetos. Biografija Namas kuriame gimė Izaokas Niutonas

Gimė mažame miestelyje, Linkolnšyro grafystėje, neturtingo fermerio šeimoje. 12 metų Niutonas buvo nusiųstas į miesto mokyklą, po to į vieną Kembridžo universiteto koledžą, kurį baigė 1665 m., įgydamas bakalauro laipsnį. 1664–1667 m. Anglijoje siaučiant maro epidemijai, Niutonas iš Kembridžo grįžo į gimtinę – Vulstorpą, kur pragyveno beveik dvejus metus ir padarė didžiausius savo atradimus.[1]

1669 m. Niutono mokytojas I. Barou (1630–1677 m.) perdavė jam Kembridžo universiteto fizikos ir matematikos katedrą. Čia Niutonas sėkmingai sprendė įvairias traukos, optikos ir matematikos problemas. Jis atrado šviesos dispersiją, tyrinėjo šviesos interferenciją ir kitas optikos problemas, o tyrimų rezultatus išdėstė dvejuose memuaruose.

1672 m. Niutonas buvo išrinktas Londono karališkosios draugijos nariu, o 1703 m. tapo jos prezidentu. Apibendrinęs pirmtakų darbus ir savo tyrinėjimus mechanikos srityje, Niutonas parašė įžymųjį veikalą „Matematiniai gamtos filosofijos pagrindai“, kuris išleistas 1687 m. liepos 5 d.

1695 m. Niutonas persikėlė gyventi į Londoną, kur buvo paskirtas monetų rūmų prižiūrėtoju, vėliau – direktoriumi. 1705 m. jam buvo suteiktas riterio titulas. Šaltiniai

KARAZIJA, Romualdas. Įžymūs fizikai ir jų atradimai. Kaunas: Šviesa, 2002, 51 p. ISBN 5-430-03260-3.

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Sir Isaac Newton's Timeline

1643
January 4, 1643
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England
January 4, 1643
Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom
1672
1672
- 1726
Age 28
London, England
1703
1703
- 1726
Age 59
London, England
1727
March 31, 1727
Age 84
London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
????
City of London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom