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Profiles

  • Marie Curie, Nobel Prizes in Physics (1903) and Chemistry (1911) (1867 - 1934)
    Marie Skłodowska Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish–French physicist–chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes ...
  • David Barend le Roux (1840 - 1921)
    Death -
  • Maria Elizabeth Jordaan, a1b1c3d9e2f1 (1879 - 1901)
    Anna died of Pernicious Anemia in the Anglo Boer War Concentration cam. More information of the different kinds of Anemia can be read in the project at VAB MHG J765
  • Clarinda Clarissa Callahan (1855 - 1941)
    Name: Clara Baumgardner Event Type: Residence Residence Date: 27 Dec 1876 Residence Place: Clearfield, Clearfield, Pennsylvania, USA Denomination: Methodist Organization Name: West Side United Method...
  • John H Tomlinson (1861 - 1950)
    Reference: MyHeritage Family Trees - SmartCopy : Feb 6 2018, 5:38:42 UTC Reference: Find A Grave Memorial - SmartCopy : Feb 6 2018, 5:49:24 UTC

Anemia



Anemia, also spelled anaemia, is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include: feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, which may include: confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, or increased thirst. Anemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale. Additional symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause.

There are three main types of anemia:

  1. that due to blood loss,
  2. that due to decreased red blood cell production, and
  3. that due to increased red blood cell breakdown.
  • Causes of blood loss include trauma and gastrointestinal bleeding, among others.
  • Causes of decreased production include iron deficiency, a lack of vitamin B12, thalassemia, and a number of neoplasms of the bone marrow.
  • Causes of increased breakdown include a number of genetic conditions such as sickle cell anemia, infections like malaria, and certain autoimmune diseases.
  • It can also be classified based on the size of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin in each cell. If the cells are small, it is microcytic anemia. If they are large, it is macrocytic anemia while if they are normal sized, it is normocytic anemia.
  • Bone marrow and stem cell problems – may prevent the body from producing a sufficient amount of red blood cells
  • Other conditions which cause a decreased amount of hormones necessary for the production of red blood cells, such as kidney disease, cancer and lupus

Evidence of anemia goes back more than 4000 years. The word anaemia is from Greek, meaning without blood (an=without, heam =blood).

Morbidity and Mortality in Anemia

Anemia prognosis depends on the underlying cause of anemia. However, the severity of the anemia, its etiology, and the rapidity with which it develops can each play a significant role in the prognosis. Similarly, the age of the patient and the existence of other co-morbid conditions influence outcome. Higher mortality rates are almost always observed in patients with anemia.

  • Aplastic anemia – In the early 1930’s aplastic anemia was considered almost inevitably fatal. However, the morbidity and mortality of this disease have decreased dramatically since the introduction of bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemiaPernicious anemia is associated with intestinal-type gastric cancer, low vitamin B12 intake. There are also a variety of neurologic problems associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. It is also associated with aqn increased risk of osteoporosis which can result in hip and spine fractures.
  • Folic acid deficiency anemia – This type of anemia of often found in pregnancy and can contribute to problems with the placenta. It is also associated with colon cancer.
  • Thalassemia (Mediterranean anemia)– is a form of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorder characterized by abnormal formation of hemoglobin. Iron excess in patients with thalassemia is associated with early death if untreated as the risk of cardiac disease increases as the patient’s age increases.
  • Sickle cell anemia – The greatest burden of sickle cell anemia is in sub-Saharan Africa and estimates suggest that 50-80 % of these patients will die before adulthood.
  • Iron deficiency anaemia – Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, and is the only nutrient deficiency which is also significantly prevalent in Industrialized Countries. Infectious diseases frequently exacerbate it.

Famous People with or died from Anemia:

Additional Reading:

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