Battle of Mons Graupius
Part of Roman conquest of Britain - the first major battle recorded in Scotland. Information about the Battle comes from the writings of the Roman historian, Tacitus, the son-in-law of Agricola, in his work on Agricola.
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Date: AD 83 (or 84)
North-east Scotland - the exact location of the battle remains a matter of debate. To the north of the Tay as Agricola's army was based at Inchtuthil.
- Roman Empire
- Strength; 17,000-30,000+
- Losses; 360
- The Britons / Caledonians. The people were split into many lowland tribes and clan-like septs within the highlands and were generalised by the Romans as the “Caledonians”.
- Strength; 5,000-30,000+
- Losses; 10,000
Commanders and leaders
The Roman Empire
- Gnaeus Julius Agricola - Roman governor in Britain from AD 77-83/84
- Galgacus or Calgacus - "the Swordsman" - leader of the Caledonii and a confederation of northern clans. Sometimes Calgaich. Galgacus was a chief of the northern native tribe named Caledonii by the Roman invaders. Galgacus is the first Scot to be named in written history.
In 82 AD Agricola marched his army north intent on conquest, searching for of glory and seeking assimilation. He undertook a wide ranging burning campaign of “frightfulness”. The tribes of the north neither submitted to Agricola nor embarked on open battle against his army, the size of which was staggering. Instead they undertook guerrilla warfare, targeting dispersed units of the invading force.
Casualties and losses
- Aulus Atticus
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References, Sources and Further Reading
- Scotland - The History of a Nation by Magnus Magnusson