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Competitors for the Crown of Scotland

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  • Robert Pinkney (deceased)
    Sources Competitors for the Crown of Scotland at English Monarchs, accessed May 9, 2015 Wikipedia: Competitors for the Crown of Scotland
  • Patrick Galithly (deceased)
    Sources Wikipedia: Competitors for the Crown of Scotland Wikipedia: Patrick Galithly
  • Roger de Mandeville (aft.1240 - d.)
    Roger de Mandeville was a prominent 13th-century noble. He was a son of Agatha, daughter of Robert Wardone and Aufrica de Say. Upon the death of the Margaret, Maid of Norway in 1290, Roger became one...
  • Kong Eric Magnusson av Norge (1268 - 1299)
    Eirik II Magnusson (født 1268, død 15. juli 1299) var konge av Norge i perioden 1280-1299. Eirik var eldste sønn av Magnus Lagabøte. Et fall fra hesteryggen påførte ham muligens en hjerneskade og sid...
  • Floris V, graaf van Holland (1254 - 1296)
    Floris V, Count of Holland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Count Floris V of Holland and Zeeland (June 24, 1254–June 27, 1296), "der Keerlen God" (God of the Peasants), is one of the most imp...

With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland, who had been appointed to govern the realm during the young Queen's minority, drew up the Treaty of Birgham, a marriage contract between Margaret and the five-year-old Edward of Caernarvon, heir apparent to the English throne. The treaty, amongst other points, contained the provision that although the issue of this marriage would inherit the crowns of both England and Scotland, the latter kingdom should be "separate, apart and free in itself without subjection to the English Kingdom". The intent, clearly, was to keep Scotland as an independent entity.

Queen Margaret died in early October in Orkney on her way to Scotland, leaving the throne vacant. The Guardians called upon her fiancé's father, Edward I of England, to decide between various competitors for the Scottish throne in a process known as the Great Cause.

To avoid the catastrophe of open warfare between the Bruce and Balliol, the Guardians and other Scots magnates asked Edward I to intervene.[4] Edward seized the occasion as an opportunity to gain something he had long desired — legal recognition that the realm of Scotland was held as a feudal dependency to the throne of England.

In line with this desire, Edward demanded in May 1291 that his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland be recognised before he would step in and act as arbiter. Edward arranged for a court to be set up to decide which of the claimants should inherit the throne. It consisted of 104 auditors plus Edward himself as president. Edward chose 24 of the auditors while the two claimants with the strongest cases — Bruce and Balliol — were allowed to appoint forty each.

Edward gave judgment on the Scottish case on November 17, 1292 in favour of John Balliol, with his son Edward becoming heir designate. This decision had the support of the majority of Scots nobles and magnates, even a number of those appointed by Bruce as auditors.

The Competitors

The following men put themselves forward as candidates for the Scottish throne:

  1. John Balliol, son of Devorguilla, daughter of Margaret, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I. He pleaded primogeniture in legitimate, cognatic line.
  2. Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, son of Humphrey, son of Humphrey, son of Humphrey, son of Henry, son of Margaret, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I. He didn't make a claim for the throne as it would be a conflict of interest but had the strongest claim after John Balliol.
  3. Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, son of Isabella, second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I. This Robert Bruce was regent of Scotland sometime during the minority of King Alexander III and was occasionally recognized as a tanist of the Scottish throne. In the succession dispute, he pleaded tanistry and proximity in degree of kinship to the deceased King.
  4. John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, son of John Comyn, son of Richard Comyn, son of William Comyn, son of Hextilda, daughter of Bethoc, daughter of King Donald III.
  5. Patrick Dunbar, 7th Earl of Dunbar, son of Patrick, 6th Earl of Dunbar, son of Patrick, 5th Earl of Dunbar, son of Ada, natural daughter of King William the Lion. His other claim was as the agnate of the House of Dunkeld, being (a) the closest agnate, and (b) a candidate based on tanistry of agnates of the house where Alexander III belonged to. He descended, in an allegedly legitimate unbroken male line, from a younger brother of King Duncan I of Scotland (who allegedly also was a younger son of Bethóc, the male line being that of Lords of Dunbar, originally Earls of Northumbria, later Earls of Dunbar (see Earl of March). His son became recognized as the Earl of the Scottish Marches. Also, an additional claim in his favour was that made by his wife, Marjory, daughter of Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, allegedly descended from King Donald III.
  6. Patrick Galithly, son of Henry Galithly, natural son of King William the Lion.
  7. John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, son of Henry de Hastings, son of Ada, third daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I.
  8. Roger de Mandeville, son of Agatha, daughter of Aufrica, daughter of William de Say, son of Aufrica, natural daughter of King William the Lion.
  9. Robert de Pinkeney, son of Alicia, daughter of Marjorie, an alleged natural daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I.
  10. William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros, son of Robert de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros, son of William de Ros, of Hamlake, son of Isabella, natural daughter of King William the Lion.
  11. Nicholas de Soules, son of Ermengarde, daughter of Marjorie, natural daughter of King Alexander II.
  12. William de Vesci, Baron de Vesci, son of William de Vesci, son of Margaret, natural daughter of King William the Lion.
  13. Floris V, Count of Holland, son of William II, Count of Holland, son of Floris IV, Count of Holland, son of William I, Count of Holland, son of Ada, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I. He claimed that Earl David of Huntingdon had renounced his hereditary rights to throne of Scotland.
  14. Eric II, King of Norway, father of Queen Margaret and son-in-law of King Alexander III.

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