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DUKES and MARCHESI of SPOLETO

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  • Ansprand, duke of Spoleto (c.649 - c.749)
    Agiprand of Spoleto Agiprand was briefly the Duke of Spoleto between 742 and 744.In late 741, Thrasimund II refused to return to Pope Gregory III those cities he had promised him and Gregory's successo...
  • Lupus, duke of Spoleto (c.665 - 752)
    Lupus of SpoletoLupus ruled the Duchy of Spoleto from 745 to 752 relatively independent of royal authority in the reigns following that of Liutprand.He made many donations to the Abbey of Farfa and had...
  • Hildeprand, duke of Spoleto (b. - aft.788)
    Hildeprand was the Duke of Spoleto from 774 to 789. When Theodicius of Spoleto died fighting at the Siege of Pavia in 774, the Lombards of the Duchy of Spoleto elected Hildeprand their duke and quickl...
  • Theodic, duke of Spoleto (b. - bef.776)
    Theodicius was the Duke of Spoleto from 763 to 773. Though it is often stated that he died at the Siege of Pavia (774), he was still alive on 9 June 776, when Charlemagne confirmed the properties of th...

DUKES and MARCHESI of SPOLETO

Aim:

To create a place to link the often unrelated Dukes of Spoleto. I have used Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands as an initial template. Please feel free to join and add / edit in links and other Primary Sources

From Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands:

FAROALD [I] [570]-584. Paulus Diaconus records that "Faraold primus Spolitanorum dux" invaded "Classem" with an army of Lombards[850].

1. THEUDELAPIUS (-[641]). Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of "Ariulfus dux", two sons of Faroald fought to succeed, the victor being "Teudelapius"[851]. He succeeded as THEUDELAPIUS Duke of Spoleto. Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Spoletium…Theudalaupo" and the accession of Atto, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to 641[852].
2. son . Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of "Ariulfus dux", two sons of Faroald fought to succeed, the victor being "Teudelapius"[853].

1. ARIULF [590/91]-[600/01]. Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Ariulfus dux", specifying that he had succeeded "Farualdo aput Spoletium" and had defeated the Romans in Camerino[854]. He succeeded in 584 as ARIULF Duke of Spoleto.

1. ATTO (-[665]). Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Spoletium…Theudalaupo" and the accession of Atto, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to 641[855]. He succeeded Theudelapius as ATTO Duke of Spoleto.

Two brothers, parents not known, although the name Faroald provides an indication of a family relationship with Faraold I Duke of Spoleto:

1. TRASIMONDO [Transamundus] (-703). Count of Capua. Paulus Diaconus records that "Transamundum…Capuæ comes" was installed as TRASIMONDO Duke of Spoleto after helping Grimoald Duke of Benevento to secure the Lombard throne[856], the event probably being dated to [665]. m (663) --- of Benevento, daughter of GRIMOALD King of the Lombards, Duke of Benevento & his first wife ---. Paulus Diaconus records that King Grimoald arranged the marriage of "sua filia, Romualdi altera sorore" to "Transamundum…Capuæ comes"[857]. Duke Trasimondo & his wife had one child:

a) FAROALD (-after 720). Paulus Diaconus names "Farualdus, eius filius [Transamundo duce Spolitanorum]" when recording that he succeeded as duke on the death of his father[858]. He succeeded his father in 703 as FAROALD II Duke of Spoleto. He seized Classis but restored it to the Romans of the orders of Liutprand King of the Lombards. He was deposed by his son and forced to become a cleric[859]. m ---. Duke Faroald II & his wife had one child:

i) TRASIMONDO (-after 742). Paulus Diaconus names "Faraoldum ducem filius suus Transamundus" when recording his rebellion against his father[860]. He deposed his father and succeeded as TRASIMONDO II Duke of Spoleto. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Transmundus…dux Spoletanus et filius quondam Faroaldi ducis" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Gethulii" to Farfa[861]. He rebelled against Liutprand King of the Lombards, but fled to Rome when the king marched against him. He returned to Spoleto in 740, killed Hilderic, and again rebelled against the king. Liutprand expelled him in 742 and forced him to become a cleric[862].

2. WACHILAP . Paulus Diaconus names "Wachilapus germanus Transamundi" when recording that he ruled Spoleto jointly with his brother[863].

1. HILDERIC (-murdered 740). He was appointed HILDERIC Duke of Spoleto in 739 when Trasimund II rebelled and was driven out by Liutprand King of the Lombards, but was himself killed by Trasimund when he returned to Spoleto in 740.

1. AGIPRAND, son of --- (-744). Paulus Diaconus records that Liutprand King of the Lombards installed "Agiprandum suum nepotem" as AGIPRAND Duke of Spoleto[864], although the source does not specify his parentage. Dux of Clusium in 742, he was sent by King Liutprand to escort Pope Zacharias on his return from Interamna and restore to him en route certain cities which the Lombards had seized[865].

1. LUPUS (-751). He succeeded in [745] as LUPUS Duke of Spoleto. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Luponis ducis" donated "casalem…Turris" to Farfa[866].

1. RATCHIS, son of PEMMO Duke of Friulia & his wife Ratperga --- (-after 757). Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[867]. A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Achis filius Pimon" when recording that he succeeded "Utprand" and ruled for five years[868]. King Liutprand appointed him Duke of Friulia, after the dismissal of his father, although Ratchis persuaded the king to accept his father back into favour[869]. He attacked the Slavs living in Carniola and also accompanied the king on his expedition against Spoleto and Benevento[870]. He was chosen as RATCHIS King of the Lombards when King Hildeprand was deposed in 744. He besieged Perugia where he was visited by Pope Zacharias, a few days later abdicating his throne and leaving with his wife and children for Rome where he was ordained as a priest[871]. He was sent to the monastery of Montecassino in 749[872]. One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus records that King Ratchis reigned for 4 years and 9 months[873]. After the death of King Aistulf in Dec 756, Ratchis unsuccessfully tried to seize the throne from Desiderius[874]. He succeeded his brother in 757 as RATCHIS Duke of Spoleto.

2. AISTULF [Aistulfus] (-756). Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[875]. A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Aistulfus frater eius" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Achis" and ruled for eight years[876]. "Astulphus" is named brother of Ratchis in the Benedicti Chronicon, although their father is named as King Liutprand[877]. He tried to attack King Liutprand after the latter tried to arrest his supporters following the dismissal of his father[878]. He succeeded in 749 as AISTULF King of the Lombards. He succeeded in 751 as AISTULF Duke of Spoleto.

1. ALBOIN (758). He succeeded in 757 as ALBOIN Duke of Spoleto.

1. DESIDERIUS, son of --- (-Corbie after 774). A Lombard dux, King Aistulf sent him to command Lombard troops in Tuscia, where he learnt of the king's death in Dec 756 and assembled troops to seize the throne[879]. He succeeded in 758 as DESIDERIUS Duke of Spoleto, until 759. With the support of Fulrad and Frankish troops, as well as the promise of Roman soldiers from Pope Stephen II (III), he prevailed over his rival Ratchis and installed himself as DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards[880].

1. GISULF (-761). He succeeded in 759 as GISULF Duke of Spoleto.

1. THEODICIUS (-before 9 Jun 776). "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the properties of Farfa monastery by charter dated 9 Jun 776, including property which "Theodicius dux…restituit…et…Hildeprandus dux noster fecit"[881]. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodicius…dux" donated "casalem Paternionem qui pertinet ad curtem Germanicianam" to Farfa[882].

1. HILDEPRAND (-after 788). He fled to Rome when Charles I King of the Franks invaded Italy in 773. Pope Hadrian I appointed him in 774 as HILDEPRAND Duke of Spoleto, subject to the see of Rome[883]. He fought successfully against imperial troops in Italy. "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the properties of Farfa monastery by charter dated 9 Jun 776, including property which "Theodicius dux…restituit…et…Hildeprandus dux noster fecit"[884]. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Hildeprandus…dux" donated "gualdum…Tancia…in territorio Reatino" to Farfa[885]. "Ildeprandus…dux ducatus Spoletani" confirmed the possessions of Farfa monastery, in the presence of "…Lupo comes de Firmo…Lupo comes de Esculo…Halo comes…", by charter dated Dec 776[886]. The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Hildeprandus…Dux Ducatus Spoletino" donated "ecclesiam sancti Donati in territorio Cumino" to Volturno monastery by charter dated May 778[887]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "Hildebrandus dux Spolitanus" submitted to Charles I King of the Franks "in villa…Virciniacum" in 779[888]. A charter dated Jul 781 of "Karolus…rex Francorum atque Langobardorum" relating to Farfa names "Hildeprandus…dux", and is witnessed by "Halo…comes"[889]. “Hildeprand...dux ducatus Spoletini” donated property to Montecassino by charter dated 9 Apr “regnante domino nostro Karolo...rex Francorum atque Langobardorum, anno regni eius in Italia...nono” [782][890]. He was succeeded by the Frank Winichis as dux of Spoleto[891].

1. WINICHIS [Winigisus], son of --- (-822). Of Frankish origin, he was sent by Charles I King of the Franks in 788 with Frankish troops to check the activities of Hildeprand dux of Spoleto and Grimoald dux of Benevento. He defeated the Byzantine troops under Theodoros in Calabria[892]. He was later appointed dux of Spoleto to succeed Hildeprand. He escorted Pope Leo III to safety in Spoleto after he was rescued following the assaults on him 25 Apr 799[893]. "Bebroardus comes palacii in cancellis finibus Spoleti" confirmed possessions of Farfa by charter dated Aug 800 in the presence of "Guinichisii ducis…"[894]. He was besieged by Grimoald Duke of Benevento at Lucera, surrendered in 802 and was "held in honourable captivity", but released in 803[895]. Einhard records that "Grimaldus Beneventanorum dux" captured "Winigisum comitem Spoletii" at "Luceria" and released him the following year[896]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Winigisus dux Spolitanus" was besieged and captured by "Grimoldo" in 803[897]. Bernard King of Italy sent Winichis to suppress a revolt by the Romans when Pope Leo III was dying in 815[898]. He retired in 822 and became a monk, dying soon after. Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[899]. The Royal Frankish Annals also record that he was succeeded as dux of Spoleto by Suppo Count of Brescia[900].

1. ADALHARD (-[Aug] 824). He was appointed ADELHARD Duke of Spoleto in Mar 824. Einhard's Annales record the appointment of "Adalhardus comes palatii, qui iunior vocabatur" after the death of "Suppo dux Spolitinus" and that he died after 5 months[901].

SUPPO [I], son of --- (-[5 Mar] 824[902]). Of Frankish origin. Count of Brescia, Parma, Piacenza, Modena and Bergamo in 817. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Rathaldo episcopi et Suppone comite Brixiensi" as missi [in 817][903]. He was instrumental in suppressing the revolt of Bernard ex-King of Italy[904]. He was installed as SUPPO I Duke of Spoleto in 822[905]. Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[906]. Einhard's Annales record the announcement of the death "III Non Mar" of "Suppo dux Spolitinus"[907]. He was succeeded as Duke of Spoleto by "Adalhard the younger", who died "after holding the office for barely five months"[908].

m ---. The name of the Duke Suppo's wife has not yet been identified. However, the fact that their son was named Adelgis suggests a Lombard origin. Duke Suppo [I] & his wife had two children:

1. MARINO (-[Aug/Sep] 824). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Count of Brescia. He succeeded in [Aug] 824 as MARINO Duke of Spoleto. "Mauring Count of Brescia" was elected to succeed Adalhard as Duke of Spoleto, but died "within a few days"[909]. Einhard's Annales record the appointment of "Moringus Brixiæ comes" as Duke of Spoleto after the death of "Adalhardus" but that he died within a few days[910]. Neither of these sources specify the relationship between Mauring and Duke Suppo I.
2. ADELGIS [I] (-after 861). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded in 824 as ADELGIS I Duke of Spoleto, Count of Parma. m ---. The name of the Duke Adelgis's wife has not yet been identified. Duke Adelgis & his wife had three children:

a) SUPPO [II] . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded his father as SUPPO II Duke of Spoleto. m ---. The name of the Duke Suppo's wife has not yet been identified. Duke Suppo & his wife had five children:

i) ADELGIS [II] . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded his father as ADELGIS II Duke of Spoleto. "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "in vico…Rovereto…in comitatu Regiensi" to "Roperto vasso…Adelgisi comitis", at the request of "…Adelgisi…comitis", by charter dated 20 Oct 890[911].
ii) WIFRED . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Count of Piacenza. He supported Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy against Berengario I King of Italy in 922[912].
iii) BOSO . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Probably Count of Parma. He revolted against Berengario I King of Italy in 913[913].
iv) ARDING . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Bishop of Brescia.
v) BERTILA (-executed before Dec 915). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "Mercoriatico in territorio [comitatu] Regiensi" to "Iohanne presbiter", at the request of "Berchtilæ…coniugis et consortis regni nostri", by charter dated 3 Nov 890[914]. Berengario I King of Italy "conjugis nostreque Regni consortis Berchtile" granted property "in comitatu Veronense" to "Anselmo…Comite, nostroque Compatre et Consiliario" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[915]. She was executed for alleged adultery. m ([880/3 Nov 890]) as his first wife, BERENGARIO [I] Marchese of Friulia, son of EBERHARD Marchese of Friulia & his wife Gisela [Carolingian] ([840/45]-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924).

b) EGFRED . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
c) ARDING . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.

1. MARINO (-before Jun 872). m ---. The name of Marino´s wife is not known. Marino & his wife had one child:

a) SUPPO [III] (-[878/79]). Marchese of Spoleto. He was archiminister and consiliarius of Emperor Louis II King of Italy[916]. Count Suppo was referred to in 870 as consobrinus of the empress's wife[917]. The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Suppo Dux filius quondam Maurini" donated property "in loco…Paterno in civitate Pinnensi" to Casauria by charter dated Jun 872[918]. An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[919]. He was deposed. m --- [of Friulia], daughter of Comte UNRUOCH & his wife Engeltrude --- . The wife of Suppo III is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[920] as the daughter of Unruoch but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. It is probably speculative, based on the name of his son who was called "consanguineus" of Berengar I King of Italy in the latter´s charter dated 12 May 890. Suppo [III] & his wife had one child:

i) UNRUOCH (-after 12 May 890). "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "in comitatu Parmense in gastaldiato Bismantino" to "Unroch consanguineus noster filius quondam Supponi…marcionis", at the request of "…Vualtfredi…marchionis", by charter dated 12 May 890[921]. m ---. The name of Unruoch´s wife is not known. Unruoch & his wife had one child:

(a) RODOLFO (-after 17 Mar 945). A charter dated 17 Mar 945 records a judgment in favour of "Rodulfus filius quondam Unrochi Comes" relating to a dispute with the bishop of Reggio[922].

1. ---.

a) SUPPO [IV] (-after 942). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Count of Modena.

2. ARDING . Uncle of Suppo IV. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Bishop of Modena[923].

[Two possible siblings:]

1. ENGELBERGA (-[896/901]). "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" names "sponsam nostram Angilbergam" in a charter dated 5 Oct [860] by which he granted Campo Miliacio in the county of Modena to her[924]. Engelberga´s origins are unknown. According to some secondary sources[925], she was the daughter of Adalgis [I] Count of Parma, Duke of Spoleto [Supponidi] (see above). Jean-Noël Mathieu highlghts that this is supported only by Count Suppo [III] being referred to in 870 as consobrinus of the emperor´s wife[926]. The origin of Empress Engelberga is discussed briefly by Odegaard, who dismisses the proposed Supponidi connection but proposes no alternative theory[927]. Some clue is also suggested by Emperor Karl III who confirmed grants to "Angilbergam…Hludouuici…imperatori consobrini nostri coniugem augustam, dilectam sororem nostram" by charter dated 23 Mar 880[928]. In addition, Emperor Karl refers to Engelberga's daughter as "neptam nostram Hermingardam…filioque suo Hludouuico nepoti nostro et sororibus eius"[929]. Jean-Noël Mathieu suggests that these references could mean that Engelberga was the uterine half-sister of the emperor, the daughter of his mother Emma by an otherwise unknown first marriage[930]. However, this assumes that "soror" and "neptis" should be interpreted in these documents in their strictest sense, although a wide variety of meaning is attributed to the terms in contemporary sources. Another possibility is that Engelberta was related to Emperor Karl III through his wife Richardis, who was the daughter of Graf Erchanger (see FRANCONIA). The different possibilities are too numerous and uncertain for further speculation about Engelberga´s parentage to be worthwhile. Engelberga´s over-bearing manner triggered her arrest and that of her husband at Benevento in Aug 871, although their release was negotiated within a month by the bishop of Benevento[931]. "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[932]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 868. Suspected of supporting the usurpation of her son-in-law King Boso, she was imprisoned in a convent in Alemania by Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks, but returned to Italy with his permission in Oct 882[933]. Abbess of San Sisto at Piacenza in 896. m (betrothed 851 before 5 Oct, [852]%29 Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy, son of Emperor LOTHAR I King of Lotharingia & his wife Ermengarde de Tours ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).

2. [--- . If “neptem”, in the source quoted below, can be interpreted as niece, one of the parents of Ingena was the sibling of Engelberga. The term can of course indicate a more remote family relationship.] m ---. One child:

a) INGENA . Cayro quotes an unspecified source which records that “Magenolfus clericus“ married “Ingenam neptem imperatricis” (referring to the wife of Emperor Louis II)[934]. m MAGENOLFO, son of ---.

LAMBERT, son of WIDO Comte et Marquis de Nantes & his wife --- (-Ticino 30 Dec 836). The primary source which confirms the parentage of Lambert has not yet been identified. He succeeded as Count of the Breton march. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[935]. He was expelled from Aachen with his uncle Werner in 814 by King Louis I after the death of Emperor Karl I, Werner being killed in the conflict which followed[936]. The forces of "Count Lambert" defeated and killed Wihomarc who had rebelled in Brittany in 825[937]. "Lambert" was one of the supporters of the rebellion of co-Emperor Lothar I in 833/34, and consequently lost his position in the Breton march[938]. The Annales Fuldenses record fighting with "Mahtfredo et Lantberto", during which battle "Uodo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[939]. In 834 he was sent to Italy where Lothar gave him land and installed him as LAMBERT I Marchese and Duke of Spoleto. The Annales Fuldenses record the earthquake at Ticino in Italy "837 III Kal Ian" in which "plures ex primoribus Italiæ" were killed including "Lantbertus et Hugus"[940]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][941].

m [--- of Italy, daughter of PEPIN I King of Italy & his mistress ---. According to Winkhaus[942], one of the last four daughters of Pepin King of Italy married Lambert Comte de Nantes, but the source on which this is based has not been identified.]

Comte Lambert & his wife had [eight] children:

1. LAMBERT (-killed in battle 1 May 852, bur Savenai). The Chronicon Fontanellensis names "Lambertus comes et Wernarius frater eius" when recording that they fought in Brittany[943] but the primary source which specifies Lambert's parentage explicitly has not yet been identified. He established himself as Comte de Nantes in 843, asserting his independence from Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, and distributed the honores of the Breton march among his supporters. - COMTES de NANTES.
2. DODA (-after [846]). "Soror Lamberti…Doda" is named "S Clementis civitatis Nanneticæ Monasterio…Abbatissa" in an undated passage[944]. Abbess of Saint-Clément at Nantes and at Craon [846]. The Chronicle of Nantes names "Lamberti soror…Doda" as abbess of St Clement, Nantes[945].
3. GUIDO [Wido] (-[860]). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He accompanied Emperor Lothar north of the Alps in 840 and was granted Kloster Mettlach, but renounced it in 842 before returning to Italy[946]. He was invested in 842 as GUIDO I Duke and Count of Spoleto, Lord of the Abruzzi. He supported his brother-in-law Siconulf Prince of Salerno in his war with Radelchis Prince of Benevento[947]. m ([843/44]) ---. The name and origin of Guido´s wife is not known. Duke Guido & his wife had three children:

a) LAMBERT ([845/50]-880 before 8 Jul). The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Lamberto filio Guidonis senioris"[948]. He succeeded his father in 860 as LAMBERT II Duke of Spoleto-Camerino. Together with the duke of Benevento, he rebelled against Emperor Louis II King of Italy. He captured Capua in 866, installing himself as Prince of Capua. As the opponent of Pope Nicholas I, he plundered Rome in 867. He rebelled against Emperor Louis again in 870/71, captured in Benevento, and deposed. He was reinstated by Emperor Charles II "le Chauve" in 876 in the western part of the Duchy of Spoleto, named "defensor patrimonii Petri" and adopted by Pope John VIII[949]. However, the Annales Fuldenses record that "Lantbertus Witonis filius et Adalbertus Bonifacii filius" entered Rome in 878 and captured Pope John[950]. m ---. The name of Duke Lambert's wife has not yet been identified. Duke Lambert & his wife had one child:

i) GUIDO (-[882/83]). The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Guido iunior" and specifies that he succeeded Lambert in Spoleto and Camerino, but does not give his relationship to his predecessor[951]. He succeeded his father in 880 as GUIDO II Duke of Spoleto. He complained to Pope John VIII about the lack of support he received from Emperor Karl III[952].

b) GUIDO (855-River Taro 12 Dec 894, bur Parma Cathedral). The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Lambertum ducem et fratrem eius Guidonem" in 876[953]. The Gesta regum Francorum names "Wito filius Lantberti" when recording that he proposed himself in 888 as king of "Galliam Belgicam necnon Provinciam"[954]. He became Duke of Camerino in 876, and succeeded his nephew in [882/83] as GUIDO III Duke of Spoleto[955]. He was called to France by nobles opposed to Emperor Charles III "le Gros", and consecrated King of France at Langres by Bishop Gilon in [Jan/Feb] 888. He returned to Italy after the election of Eudes as King of France 29 Feb 888. He was elected GUIDO I King of Italy at Pavia 12 Feb 889, in opposition to Berengario Marchese di Friulia. During this time he transferred the duchy of Spoleto to his [cousin] Duke Guido IV. Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 Feb 891 by Pope Stephen V[956]. "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[957]. He died after a blood haemorrhage. m ([875/76]%29 AGELTRUDA of Benevento, daughter of ADELCHIS Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-after 27 Aug 923). Herimannus names "Angildruda" widow of Guido and mother of Lambert, but does not give her origin[958]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. "Vuido…imperator augustus" confirmed earlier donations to the church of Parma by "coniugi nostræ Ageltrudi" by charter dated 21 Feb 891[959]. The Annales Fuldenses name "Ageldrudis vidua Widonis" in 896[960]. A document dated 1 Dec 898 records a peace agreement reached between Berengar King of Italy and "Ageltrudæ relicta quondam Widoni imperatoris" and "filio eius Lamberto [imperatoris]"[961]. Duke Guido & his wife had two children:

i) LAMBERT ([876]-near Marengo 15 Oct 898, bur Piacenza). Lambert is named as son of Guido in the Guidonis Chronica[962]. His father appointed him as LAMBERT associate King of Italy in May 891, and 30 Apr 892 he was crowned co-Emperor by Pope Formosius[963]. "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[964]. "Lanbertus cæsar imperator augustus" granted property "in comitatu et pago Placentino" to "fideli nostro Amalgiso", at the request of "Evurardus comes" and with the advice of "Sigefredi comitis", by charter dated Jan 895[965]. Supported by his mother, Lambert took advantage of the illness of Emperor Arnulf and was recognised as King of Italy by Pope Stephen VI in 896, confirmed at the Synode of Ravenna in May 898[966]. He died following a fall from his horse[967].

c) ROTHILDIS (-after 27 May 884). A letter of Pope John VIII dated 879 addressed to “Bosoni...principi” records hearing of his activities in Provence from “Adalberto...marchionis seu Rotildæ comitissæ coniugis eius”[968]. Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the charter dated 27 May 889 under which "Vuido…rex" donated property to the bishop of Fiesole at the request of [her son] "Adalbertus…nepos noster et marchio"[969]. m (before 863) as his second wife, ADALBERTO I Marchese of Tuscany, son of BONIFAZIO [II] & his wife --- (-after 884).

4. WERNER [Warnarius] (-executed 853). The Chronicon Fontanellensis names "Lambertus comes et Wernarius frater eius" when recording that they fought in Brittany and that Werner was captured by "Gausberto comite"[970]. Comte en Bretagne.
5. [--- . The identity of the father of Guido IV Duke of Spoleto and his sister Ita is not known. Their descent from Lambert I Marchese and Duke of Spoleto is confirmed by the Chronica Mon. Casinensis which records that Ita´s grandson "Gisulfus…Salernitanus princeps filius Guaimarii" donated property possessed by "Lambertus dux et marchio…in comitatu Marsicano, et Balva, et Forcone, et Amiterno, necnon et marchia Firmana et ducatu Spoletino" to the monastery[971]. The estimated birth date attributed to Ita means that it is unlikely that she could have been the daughter of a brother of Emperor Guido. The most likely possibility is therefore that they were the children of one of the emperor´s paternal uncles, possibly the same person as one of the other possible sons of Lambert I who are shown in this document. m ---.] Two children:

a) GUIDO (-murdered Rome early 897). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded his [cousin] in [888/89] as GUIDO IV Duke of Spoleto. He expelled the Byzantines from Benevento in 895, forcing them back to Bari, and established himself as GUIDO Prince of Benevento[972]. He returned to Spoleto in 897 and offered Benevento to his brother-in-law Guaimar Prince of Salerno, who was captured and blinded on his way to the city[973]. He was killed by Alberico, who later succeeded as Marchese of Spoleto.
b) ITTA ([865]-after [897/98]). The Chronicon Salernitanum quotes a letter addressed to "Guaimario principi", when Benevento was threatened by the Byzantines, requesting help from "Guidoni cognato vestro…sororem suam vestramque coniugem", the same passage later referring to "Guido marchio" [Guido IV Duke and Marchese of Spoleto] and "suæque sorori Idte", dated to 896 in the margin of the MGH edition of the text[974]. The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Idte uxore præfati principis senioris" (referring from the context to "Guaimarii principis") refused the marriage of her daughter to Landolf, son of Atenulf Count of Capua, on the basis that she was "ex regali stegmate orta", dated to [897/98] from the context[975]. The date of her marriage is based on the assumption that her daughter was nubile at the time, and is also consistent with the dates attributed to her son Guaimar. Her estimated birth date follows from her assumed marriage date. Her having inherited property in Spoleto, which she transmitted to her descendants, is confirmed by the Chronica Mon. Casinensis which records that her grandson "Gisulfus…Salernitanus princeps filius Guaimarii" donated property possessed by "Lambertus dux et marchio…in comitatu Marsicano, et Balva, et Forcone, et Amiterno, necnon et marchia Firmana et ducatu Spoletino" to the monastery[976]. m GUAIMAR of Salerno, son of GUAIFAR Prince of Salerno & his wife --- (-901). He succeeded his father in 880 as GUAIMAR I Prince of Salerno.

6. [---. m ---.] [One child]:

a) [KONRAD (-before 926). "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[977]. Interpreting the relationships referred to in this document is difficult. If patruus is given is strict meaning of paternal uncle, it is impossible to see how Konrad could have been paternal uncle to one donor while cousin to the other, when the donors were father and son. It is assumed therefore that the relationship was one generation removed, although this solution is not ideal unless "patruus" and "patruelis" are assumed to refer to Guido and Lambert in that order rather than the order in which they are named in the document. m ERMENGUNDE, daughter of --- (-after 1 May 892). "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[978].]

7. [---. m ---.] One child:

a) GUNFERIO . Seigneur d'Erbauges, in Brittany. The Chronicle of Nantes records how "Lambertus" granted "Gunferio nepoti suo, regionem Herbadillicum" after he became comte de Nantes[979]. The precise relationship between the two men has not yet been identified.

8. [ITTA (-after [Nov/Dec] 849). The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Sikenolfus…suæ coniugis Ittæ" when recording that she survived her husband[980]. The origin of Prince Siconulf's wife is not known. Erchempert names "Guido dux Spoletanorum, Siconulfi cognatus" when recording that the former attacked the latter, dated to [843/43][981]. The Chronicon Salernitanum also names "Sikenolfus…suum cognatum Guidonem" when recording the same event[982]. This has been interpreted in two ways. Hlawitschka and Bougard proposed that the relationship indicated was that Guido of Spoleto had married a sister of Siconulf, daughter of Sico I Prince of Benevento[983]. On the other hand, Taviani Carozzi and Settipani considered that the correct interpretation was that Siconulf´s wife was Guido´s sister[984], and therefore Itta di Spoleto. Stasser approves the principle argument in favour of the latter hypothesis, which is based on the Chronicon Salernitanum recording the marriages of three of the daughters of "Sico princeps" and adding that the author could not remember the husbands of the others[985], and the unlikelihood that a marriage of one daughter with Guido of Spoleto would have been forgotten. The difficulty with both hypotheses is the assumption that "cognatus" should be interpreted only as meaning "brother-in-law", although the word could indicate a more remote family relationship. m SICONULF Prince of Salerno, son of SICO I Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-Salerno [Nov/Dec] 849).]

1. ALBERICO (-[923/24]). An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[986]. He killed Guido IV Duke of Spoleto in 897, and installed himself as Marchese di Spoleto. m as her first husband, MAROZIA, daughter of TEOFILACTO Senator of Rome & his wife Theodora --- (-in prison [932/37]). Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[987]. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", was mother of "Albericum" by "Alberico marchione"[988]. The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[989]. She married secondly Guido Marchese of Tuscany, and thirdly ([932]%29 as his third wife, Ugo King of Italy. Liudprand names "Maroziam scortum Romanam" as wife of Guido[990], and in a later passage names "Marozia, scortum impudens satis" when recording her marriage to King Ugo after the death of her second husband[991]. The Memorial of "Maroza" states that she died "Jan VII indic IX"[992]. Alberico & his wife had three children:

a) ALBERICO ([905]-954). "Albericum" is named as son of Marozia by "Alberico marchione" by Liutprand, who specifies that he controlled Rome after he drove his stepfather King Ugo from the city[993]. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", was mother of "Albericum" by "Alberico marchione"[994]. Patrician and Princeps of the Romans. A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[995]. The Annales Farfenses record the death in 954 of "Albericus princeps Romæ"[996]. m (936) ALDA of Italy, daughter of UGO King of Italy & his second wife Hilda --- ([925]-954). Her parentage is confirmed by Liutprand naming Alda as daughter of King Ugo and "Lotharii regis nati sui germanam", when recording her marriage to Alberico[997]. Alberico had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

i) OCTAVIANO ([939]-14 May 964). Flodoard names him as son of "Albrico patricio Romanorum defuncto" when recording his succession to his father[998]. He was elected Pope JOHN XII 955. The Benedicti Chronicon records that "ex concubinam filium…Octabianus" was elected as Pope John XII, after the death of "Albericus", and after the death of Pope Agapitus, adding that he was "quasi homo ferus"[999]. The Benedicti Chronicon records that Pope John was obliged to resign the papacy by Emperor Otto I and retired to Campania"ex concubinam filium…Octabianus" was elected as Pope John XII, after the death of "Albericus", and after the death of Pope Agapitus, adding that he was "quasi homo ferus"[1000].

b) CONSTANTINO (-after 14 Jan 945). A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[1001].
c) SERGIO (-after 14 Jan 945). A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[1002].

ANSCARIO di Ivrea, son of ADALBERTO I Marchese d'Ivrea & his second wife Ermengarde of Tuscany (-murdered [940/41]). Anscario is named as brother of Berengar by Liutprand, who specifies that he was born "ex Adelberto Hermengarda regis Hugonis soror"[1003]. He was installed by Ugo King of Italy in [923/24] as ANSCARIO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto e Camerino. Ugo [de Provence] King of Italy sent an armed force to attack Anscario whom he accused of plotting against him. Anscario was defeated, killed by Saribono, and his body thrown into a ravine. After his death, the Duchy of Spoleto passed as a reward to his assassin, and then to Hubert, illegitimate son of King Ugo & his mistress Wandelmoda [Anscario's possible half-sister].

1. TEOBALDO (-936). "Tedbaldus…proxima Hugoni regi affinitate coniunctus" is named Marchese di Spoleto and Camerino by Liutprand[1004]. His precise relationship to Ugo King of Italy has not yet been identified. He succeeded in 928 as TEOBALDO Marchese of Spoleto.

1. SARIBONO (-[942/43]). He murdered Duke Anscario in [940/41] and succeeded as SARIBONO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto.

1. UBERTO, illegitimate son of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Wandalmodis --- ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]). Liudprand names "Hubertum" as son of King Ugo by Wandelmoda[1005]. He was installed by his father as UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany in 937. Conte palatino 941-945. He succeeded as UBERTO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto and Camerino [942/43]-early 945, succeeding Saribono who had murdered Anchario di Ivrea, previously Duka e Marchese di Spoleto. As one of the chief vassals of Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy of Italy, he joined Pope John XII in requesting the intervention of Otto I King of Germany to curb Berengario's excesses. Hubert was expelled from Tuscany after 13 Feb 962, but later reinstated. Founder of the Badia at Florence.

HUCBALD, son of --- (-before 1 Mar 893). Of Frankish origin from the Rhine area, he settled in Tuscany. Palatine of Emperor Louis II[1006]. "Karolus…imperator augustus" ordered "Hubaldo comes" to protect Wintiola and Casalias, donated to the canons of the church of St Antonin & Victor at Piacenza, by an undated charter, inserted in the compilation among charters dated 881[1007].

m ANDABERTA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her name and marriage has not yet been identified.

Hucbald & his wife had three children:

1. INGELRADA (-[8 Sep 896/27 Sep 899]). "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[1008]. m (before 14 Dec 870) MARTIN Duke of Ravenna, son of --- (-before Sep 896).
2. BERTA (-before 1 Mar 893). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence 852.
3. HUCBALD (-after 893). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Conte in Bologna and Romagna. He was a supporter of Emperor Guido Duke of Spoleto 888/93[1009]. m ---. The identity of Hucbald's wife has not yet been identified. Hucbald & his wife had two children:

a) BERTA . The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence before 1 Mar 892.
b) BONIFAZIO (-[Jul/Dec] 953). Bonifazio is named as son of "Hubaldus" by Liudprand[1010]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hubaldus Bonifacii pater" specifying that he was later "Camerinorum et Spoletinorum marchio"[1011]. Marchese in the area of Bologna/Modena 924/936. Conte di Bologna. He succeeded in [Jul/Nov] 945 as BONIFAZIO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto. Consiliarius of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy[1012]. m ([921/17 Jul 923]) WALDRADA of Upper Burgundy, daughter of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa --- (-[10 Feb] --). "Waldradam sororem suam [=rex Rodulfus]" is named as wife of "Bonefatio comiti"[1013]. The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Valdrada comitissa"[1014], which may refer to the wife of Bonifacio. Marchese Bonifazio & his wife had three children:

i) TEOBALDO ([923/25]-[Jul 957/961]). A manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" records "Bonefatius et Tebaldus filius eius duces"[1015]. He succeeded in 945 as TEOBALDO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto. m WALDRADA, daughter of ---. Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which her son "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris" for the souls of "Domna Gualdrada…Comitissa…et Domno Teobaldo…Dux et Marchio, genitore et genitrice meis…"[1016]. The fact that she bore the same name as her supposed mother-in-law, wife of Teobaldo´s father Bonifazio, suggests some error in one or other of the sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the Teobaldo himself or his father. However, as will be seen above, Bonifazio´s marriage to Waldrada of Upper Burgundy is dated to the early 920s, which is not inconsistent with the marriage of Waldrada of Burgundy´s parents in the range [880/85] as shown in the corresponding document which shows her parentage. The estimated birth date ranges assigned in the present document to Teobaldo, to Teobaldo´s son Adalberto, and to Adalberto´s children would not be consistent with Teobaldo´s wife having been the daughter of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy. In conclusion, it would appear that the apparent anomaly of the wives of both father and son sharing the same name should be accepted at face value. Teobaldo & his wife had [two possible] children:

(a) ADALBERTO ([945/55]-after [1011]). "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "Domna Gualdrada…Comitissa…et Domno Teobaldo…Dux et Marchio, genitore et genitrice meis…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum", by charter dated 981[1017]. Conte di Bologna. - CONTI di BOLOGNA.
(b) [GUILLA [Willa] (-30 Aug before 1007 bur Florence[1018]). She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[1019] as the possible daughter of Duke Teobaldo but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissa Giuliam" as wife of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" and her death "penultime die Aug"[1020]. The Poema de Vita Comitissæ Mathildis names "Guillia dicta Ducatrix" as the wife of "Tedaldi"[1021], and it is supposed that the speculation concerning her Spoletan origin is based on this source. m (before [985]%29 TEDALDO Conte di Canossa, son of ADALBERTO ATTO Signor di Canossa, Conte di Mantua & his wife Ildegarda (-8 May [1012], bur Canossa).]

ii) WILLA di Spoleto (-after her husband). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. She founded the abbey of Florence after her husband died[1022]. "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted immunities to the convent of San Ponziano at Lucca founded by "matrona Wuillia mater Hugonis marchionis" by an undated charter, with other charters dated 998 in the compilation[1023]. m ([945]%29 UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany, illegitimate son of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Wandalmodis --- ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]).
iii) EVERARDUS . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Bishop of Arezzo 979.

1. PANDOLF, son of LANDOLF IV Prince of Capua & his wife Ivantie --- (-Mar 981). The Annales Beneventani record that "Pandolfus filius eius [=Landolfus princeps]" was installed as Prince of Benevento in 944[1024]. He succeeded his father in 961 as PANDOLF I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua. According to the "Catalogus Principum Capuæ", "Landulfus III et Pandulfus Capiteferreus eius frateri" ruled jointly after the death of their father before dividing their territories, Pandolf ruling in Capua and Landolf in Benevento[1025]. On his accession, Pope John XII sent a papal army south apparently with the intention of seizing Capua, but Gisulf I Prince of Salerno sent help to Capua and the papal forces dispersed[1026]. Pandolf supported Emperor Otto I against the papacy, sheltering the emperor's nominee Pope John XIII when he was temporarily driven from Rome in [966], and was rewarded by being installed as Marchese of Camerino and Duke of Spoleto[1027]. He led Emperor Otto's forces in the invasion of Apulia in 969 but was captured and briefly taken prisoner to Constantinople[1028]. The bishoprics of Capua and Benevento were made into archbishoprics in [967] and 969 respectively[1029]. The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[1030]. He reinstated Gisulf I Prince of Salerno in [973/74] after the latter was deposed in a palace revolution[1031]. On his death, the principality of Benevento separated from Capua. The Annales Beneventani record the death of Prince Pandolf in Mar 981[1032].

1. TRANSMUNDO [I] [di Chieti], son of ATTONE [I] & his wife Adelgunda --- (-[989/Easter 993]). His parentage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus…"[1033]. Conte di Teate, Conte di Chieti. Duke and Marchese of Spoleto 983.

2. UGO (-after Jan 1028). Duke and Marchese of Spoleto. The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio" and in the presence of "Atto comes filius Trasmundi comitis et Ugo comes filius Ameczonis comitis…Guibertus qui appellabatur comes" by charter dated Jan 1028[1034].

1. UGO di Bologna, son of BONIFAZIO di Bologna Marchese of Tuscany & his wife --- (-before 14 Jan 1056). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Conte di Bologna. He was installed [Jul/Nov 1037/Feb 1043] as Duke of Spoleto.

2. WARNERIO (-after 1119). "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights of St Maria, Pomposa in property "quod Ugo marchio filius Huberti dedit" at the request of "marchionis Warnerii atque…marchionis Burchardi" by charter dated 7 Oct 1095[1035]. Marchese di Spoleto 1106. The bishop of Camerino granted "castellum Sancti Severini" to "W. Marchioni et A. Comitisse jugalibus" by charter dated 1119[1036]. m ALTRUDA, daughter of --- (-after 1119). The bishop of Camerino granted "castellum Sancti Severini" to "W. Marchioni et A. Comitisse jugalibus" by charter dated 1119[1037].

1. WELF [VI], son of HEINRICH "dem Schwarzen" Duke of Bavaria [Welf] & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] ([16 Dec 1114/15 Dec 1116]-Memmingen 14/15 Dec 1191, bur Steingaden). The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild[1038]. In 1152, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany invested Welf as Duke of Spoleto and Marchese of Tuscany, and with Sardinia and the lands formerly held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, as a means of acquiring Welf support after his election[1039]. Vogt von Zwiefalten 1152. Von Ravensburg 1152. Short of money, Welf gradually returned his Italian lands to Emperor Friedrich I, and from 1173 ceased to use his Italian titles. Welf VI also agreed to make Emperor Friedrich his successor in the Welf lands around Ravensburg[1040]. The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "dux Guelfo VI fundator monasterii Staingadensis"[1041]. The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVIII Kal Jan" of "Welfo dux, Welfonum ultimus filius Heinrici ducis"[1042].

a) WELF [VII] (-Siena 12 Sep 1167, bur Steingaden). The Annales Sindelfingenses name "Welphonem iuniorem" as son of "Welphoni de Spoleto" and his wife Uta, specifying that he besieged Tübingen "1165 VIII Id Sep"[1043]. Duke of Spoleto 1160. He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of 1167[1044]. The Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica records the death in 1167 of "Welfo filius Welfonis" during the emperor's Italian campaign[1045]. The necrology of Weingarten records the death "II Id Sep" of "Welf dux iunior"[1046].

1. KONRAD von Urslingen (-1202). The Rappoltsteinisches Urkundenbuch lists numerous charters which name Konrad von Urslingen (without providing further family details) dated between 6 Mar 1172 and 1199, as well as a letter of Pope Innocent III recording his death in 1202[1047]. Duke of Spoleto. “Chonradus dux Spoleti” witnessed the charter dated 20 Jun 1183 issued by Emperor Friedrich I for Kloster Salem[1048]. m ---. The name of Konrad’s wife is not known. Konrad & his wife had children:

a) REINHOLD von Urslingen, son of KONRAD von Urslingen Duke of Spoleto & his wife --- (-before 3 Dec 1253). Duke of Spoleto. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Raynaldus dux Spoleti cum imperiali gente" besieged "dominos Popliti in Capitinnano" and afterwards entered "Marchiam" while "Bertoldus frater eius" remained "circa Nursie provinciam" , in 1226[1049]. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that Pope Gregory IX excommunicated "Raynaldum…ducem Spoleti et Bertoldum fratrem eius" in 1230 (4 Apr inserted in the margin of the edition consulted)[1050]. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Rayndaldus dictus dux Spoleti" was captured on the emperor´s orders "aput Fogiam" in May 1231[1051]. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Bertoldus" surrendered "Introducum" in Jul 1233 and that he and his brother went into exile[1052].

References

https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CENTRAL%20ITALY.htm#_Toc246900380

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