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  • Frank Powers Strong (1857 - 1948)
    son of James Stewart Strong, Esq. & his wife Maria Ewing Powers, daughter of Charles Powers & his wife Frank married Cecilia Ford, daughter of Charles Ford of Colborne, Ontario. Their child was: 1. Ele...
  • The Hon. Charles-Eusèbe Casgrain (1825 - 1907)
    of Charles (80174355), Thomas Chase (died in Ottawa in 1916). son of Charles Eusebe SR and Anne Elizabet Baby (she was the dtr of James Baby). Brother of Phillipe, Marie Elizabeth, Auguste Eugene, Henr...
  • David Ford Jones (1818 - 1887)
  • Lt-Col George Stewart (1825 - d.)

Between 1866 and 1871, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Republican organization who were based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on Britain to withdraw from Ireland. They divided Catholic Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians. The Protestant Irish were generally loyal to Britain and fought with the Orange Order against the Fenians. While the U.S. authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms, there is speculation that some in the U.S. government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at actions that could have been construed as Canadian assistance to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. There were five Fenian raids of note and all of them ended in failure.

Main wings

  • The Roberts wing led by William Roberts
  • The Mahony wing led by John O'Mahony

Sources and references