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H1 (Mitochondrial DNA)

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This project is a meeting place for users who share the H1 Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, which means they are related along their maternal lines. Users in this group may want to share their family trees with each other to find overlaps and merge duplicate profiles in order to join or expand the World Family Tree and discover new relatives.

H1 is a mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that is very diverse and fairly widespread. It is strongly represented in Europe today although it extends into North Africa and Asia. Members of the H1 haplogroup share a common matrilineal (direct maternal) ancestor, who lived around 9,900 years ago or possibly earlier, most likely in southwest Europe.

Introduction to Mitochondrial DNA and Haplogroups

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small, circular chromosome that all humans have in their body's cells. A mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mt-haplogroup) identifies the group of people that have inherited a specific set of changes (mutations) in their mitochondrial DNA. Because children's mtDNA is only inherited from their biological mother, it is passed along a matrilineal (direct maternal) lineage. DNA mutations accumulate in every lineage, and the specific set of mutations that has accumulated in the H1 mt-haplogroup marks its members as having a common matrilineal ancestor in whom all those mutations first appeared.

The most recently born woman from whom all living humans can trace their matrilineal lineage is called the "mitochondrial most recent common ancestor" (mtMRCA), nicknamed "mitochondrial Eve." She was a member of mt-haplogroup L. The mtDNA mutations that arose in her descendants, and accumulated in lineages, can be visualized as the branching of a tree. A diagram of those branches is called the human mt-phylogenetic tree.

About Mitochondrial Haplogroup H1

The H1 mtDNA haplogroup descended from mt-haplogroup H, which in turn is descended from HV, etc., tracing back to mitochondrial Eve. H1 is listed at as part of the R branch. The path from R to H1 is:

R > R0 > HV > H > H1

H1 is one of the most widely represented and diverse mtDNA haplogroups in Europe, although its members can also be found in North Africa and extending into Asia. As of February 2017, lists 63 subgroups (called "subclades") descended directly from H1 in the mtDNA haplogroup hierarchy, generally labelled H1a to H1cj. Most of these have subclades of their own, and there are more than 106 H1 subclades total that have been identified. Because there are more than 26 subclades directly descended from H1, the labeling system goes from H1a to H1z, then to H1aa, H1ab to H1az, H1ba, H1bb, etc.

The woman who founded the H1 mt-haplogroup lineage lived about 9,900 years ago or maybe earlier, most likely in southwestern Europe, possibly in a society descended from the Magdalenian culture. The present day distribution of H1 was strongly shaped by the most recent ice age, during which humans in western Eurasia were limited to distinct "refugia" that were free from ice. The members of mt-haplogroup H from which H1 descended are believed to have been mostly in the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge. When the ice retreated, a large population increase among H1 descendants led to rapid diversification of lineages, and the star-like expansion of the mt-phylogenetic tree descending from the H1 haplogroup. (source)

Haplogroup H1 is defined by the mutation G3010A (also called rs3928306) in the mitochondrial DNA coding region. The mutation lies within the mitochondrial 16S-RNA gene (OMIM), which encodes an RNA molecule that's important for making mitochondrial proteins.

H1 mtDNA Haplogroup Research

If you are a member of the H1 mtDNA haplogroup, and your mitochondrial DNA testing was done at Family Tree DNA, you are encouraged to join the H1 mtGenome project there. The administrators of that project will group members by subclade (H1a, H1b, etc.) and also look for more recently emerging subclades that haven't yet been characterized. By joining, you will help advance H1 mtDNA haplogroup research.

Other valuable websites for H1 mt-haplogroup research are:

H1 mt-DNA Haplogroups at Geni

There is an H1 (mtDNA) project that was created at Geni before this automatically generated mt-haplogroup project existed.

The following listing shows the haplogroups derived from H1 that have been represented at Geni with their own projects. It's a snapshot from the mt-DNA Geni Index project page, taken 2017-Feb-04, and may have expanded since then. The number of Geni profiles in each mt-haplogroup project on that day is shown. Note that the totals given are not cumulative, and people are also a member of all their ancestral mt-haplogroups. So while there are 4,116 profiles specifically associated with the H1 mt-haplogroup, the actual total number of H1 profiles at Geni when the snapshot was taken was the sum of the numbers for every project on this list: 18,117 profiles.