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Jewish Families from Bil’che-Zolote, Ukraine

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This project seeks to collect all of the Jewish families from the town of Bil’che-Zolote, Ukraine, also known as Bilcze Złote, Bil'che-Zolotoye, Bilcze, Bil'che, Bil'cha.

Gesher Galicia - Bil’che-Zolote

JewishGen - Bil’che-Zolote

We need YOUR help to add members of family to this village/town. Please first join the project in order to add profiles. If you need help of any sort contact Pam Karp.

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Background

Bilche Zolote (Ukrainian: Більче-Золоте) (Bilcze Zlote, Bilche Zolotoye), a village in Ukraine, is located within the Borshchiv Raion (district) of the Ternopil Oblast (province), about 460 kilometers (290 mi) driving distance southwest of Kiev, and about 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) west of the district seat of Borshchiv.

Founded in the early 10th Century, Bilche Zolote has been ruled at various times by the Kievan Rus, Lithuania, Austria, Russia, Poland, the Soviet Union, Germany, Carpatho-Ukraine, and Ukraine.

Verteba and Priest's Grotto Caves

The Verteba Cave (Ukrainian: Вертеба) located on the outskirts of Bilche Zolote village gets its name from the Ukrainian word for "crib" (Ukrainian: вертеп, vertel). Verteba is one of the largest caves in Europe, measuring 7.8 kilometers (4.8 mi) in length, with a total of 6000 cubic meters.

It consists of maze-like passageways, often separated by thin walls, as well as broad galleries. The walls of the cave are smooth and dark, with rare incrustations of calcium carbonate appearing. There are also small stalactites, and unusual stalagmites that have the appearance of barrels, all of which are coated in an opaque watery liquid known as moonmilk.

During the German occupation of this area in World War II, Verteba Cave was used by two separate groups as a hiding place. In 1942 a total of 26 Ukrainian Jews, including seniors and children, as well as three entire families, hid in this cave for six months from the Nazi Holocaust. However, they eventually had to abandon Verteba cave, due to the fact that it was poorly vented, and they were unable to breathe because of the buildup of smoke from their cooking fires, it had no supply of fresh water, and because it was not safe.

In May 1943, the Gestapo launched a surprise raid into Verteba Cave while the Jews were asleep. In the following chaos, most of them escaped further into the cave, however the Nazis captured eight of the Jews, and began leading them out of the cave at gunpoint. Fortunately, six of the eight managed to escape from their captors, but the other two were never seen again, and were presumably killed.

Some escaped and managed to hide in a barn owned by a friendly Ukrainian in Bilche Zolote for the next few days until they could find a permanent hiding place. At that point two of them were guided by a local Ukrainian to a nearby cave that had not been explored, and which was known only by a handful of local farmers. So, with their ranks filled with a few more Jews who joined them (bringing the total to 38 individuals of all ages), they relocated to the more hospitable Priest's Grotto Cave (also known also as Ozerna Ukrainian: Озерна, meaning "lake"), located about 8 kilometers (five miles) away, near the village of Strilkivtsi (Ukrainian: стрілківці).

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Priest's Grotto Cave

This had the advantages of being less well-known, more isolated, and had a good airflow through its chambers, which would keep smoke from building up to toxic levels. The cave got its name Ozerna from the fact that it had an underground lake, which provided the refugees a safe and clean source of water.

  • These Jewish families managed to live underground for two years while 95% of the Ukrainian Jews were exterminated. This was the longest documented case of humans living in a cave without leaving.
  • Because they did not have enough candles or light sources to illuminate the darkness for long periods of time, they lived in absolute pitch blackness except for two or three times a day, when a single candle would be lit to help them prepare their meals.
  • As time dragged on, many of them ended up sleeping for most of the time, in what they later described as a sort of hibernation. Eventually, one day in early April 1944, one of the Jewish men found a bottle lying on the floor beneath the entrance to the cave. Inside was a message from a friendly Ukrainian farmer, which read: "The Germans have already gone."
  • A few days later, the entire group of Jews hiding in the cave finally left their refuge. Standing in the bright sunshine, 4 year old Pepkala asked her mother to put out the bright candle, because it hurt her eyes too much. She was referring to the sun, which she could not remember having seen.
  • In 1993 a young American spelunker named Christos Nicola was exploring caves in this region when he discovered the remains of these Jews in the Verteba cave. He then spent 10 years conducting research, until he was able to locate many of the people who were still alive who had hid in this and the Priest's Grotto caves. These survivors and their families now live in Montreal, Canada, and New York and Florida in the U.S.
  • The fascinating story of Nicola's discovery and search, as well as that of the survivors who lived in these caves, was featured in the June/July 2004 issue of the National Geographic Adventure Magazine, as well as numerous other journal articles, and an award-winning book published in 2007 that Nicola helped to write, targeted for a young adult audience. National Geographic staff writer and photographer Peter Lane Taylor, who co-authored "The secret of Priest's Grotto" with Nicola, recently created a production company named Frontier Media Ventures, and has worked on a documentary, exhibit, and feature motion picture film about Nicola and the Priest's Grotto Jews.

The documentary was released in 2012 as No Place on Earth.

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The second group that used the cave during World War II was the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, or U.P.A. (Ukrainian: Українська повстанська армія), a Ukrainian nationalist partisan organization that struggled for self-rule and freedom from outside control, including that of the Germans and Soviet Union.

This group ultimately failed to gain independence for Ukraine, and were eventually defeated by the Soviet Union through its use of infiltration, terror, and attempts to win over the hearts and minds of the indigenous western Ukrainians who provided the U.P.A. support and shelter. By the mid 1950s, the U.P.A. no longer existed except for isolated individuals or small groups who were soon wiped out. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the U.P.A. is regarded in a much better light than it had been during Soviet control. Today there is a monument in Bilche Zolote dedicated to the U.P.A.

Notable natives and residents

  1. L. Bondarchuk (Ukrainian: Л. Бондарчук) - entrepreneur and social activist.
  2. I. Verhratskyy (Ukrainian: І. Верхратський) - linguist, naturalist.
  3. R. Gankevich І. (Ukrainian: Р. Ганкевич) - religious and social activist.
  4. M. Gerasimchuk (Ukrainian: М. Герасимчук) - author, journalist.
  5. Fr. I. Danylchuk (Ukrainian: O. І. Данильчук) - author.
  6. M. Sohatskyy (Ukrainian: М. Сохацький) - historian, archaeologist and political figure.
  7. M. Tchaikovsky Kozitska (Ukrainian: М. Чайковська-Козіцька) - Polish painter.
  8. Safron, V. Levitsky (Ukrainian: В. Софронів-Левицький) - author.

More information

Verteba Caves Borschiv Oblast Museum which houses some of the archeological finds from that area Bilche Zolote Trypillian Culture

Source

Wikipedia

Christo Nicola home page