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Jewish individuals connected to Pinne, Pniewy, in Samter, Posen, Poland

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PINNE: Also known as Pniewy. From the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906, in the Public Domain.

By: Gotthard Deutsch, Louis Lewin

City in the province of Posen, Germany. Jews are first mentioned there in 1553, in connection with a "privilegium" issued by the lord of the manor restricting them in the purchase of leather. In 1624 Juspa Pinner, and from 1631 to 1652 his son-in-law Leiser Pinner, are mentioned as holding various honorary offices in Posen. The community of Pinne, owing to the practise of the Polish kings and nobles of endowing churches with sums exacted from the Jews, became heavily indebted to Catholic churches and hospitals. A divorce case in Pinne in 1764 created a sensation. After the decree had been granted, the man concerned asserted that he had not been the woman's husband, but was another person from Przemysl. This statement led to lengthy discussions, which are given in two contemporary collections of responsa, the controversy continuing until two authorities finally declared the divorce to be illegal. The Jewish tailors of Pinne originally belonged to the Christian tailors' gild, which had received its charter from the lord of the manor; but subsequently they formed a gild of their own, which still existed in 1850.

A "privilegium" was given to the community by the lord of the manor under date of June 10, 1789; but the document refers to rights which had been granted before that time. Its thirty-four articles may be summarized as follows: The rabbi, ḥazzan, teachers, and the cemetery are exempt from taxation by the lord; there shall be unrestricted rights of trade; butchers may sell only in the Jews' street, and shall pay two stone of tallow to the castle; admission of foreign Jews may be granted only by the elders of the community, who shall be elected annually at the Passover; the rabbi shall officiate as lower judge, while the lord of the manor shall be the superior judge; if one party to a case is a Christian, the elders of the Jews shall act as lower judges; criminal cases may be brought only before the court of the castle; Jews may not acquire real estate outside of the ghetto; a tax of 600 gulden a year shall be paid to the castle; Jews may not leave their houses during Catholic processions; assaults on Jews by Christians shall be severely punished.

When the city came under Prussian rule in 1793 it contained 39 Jewish houses in a total of 129, and 219 Jews in a population of 789. There were 86 Jewish families in the town in 1795; more than 350 Jews in 1827; 847 in 1857; 672 in 1871; and 376 in 1895. The reader's prayer-book contains a prayer for Napoleon I. dating from the time when Pinne belonged to the duchy of Warsaw (1807-15).

Since the second half of the eighteenth century the following rabbis have officiated:

Isaac b. Moses;

Solomon b. Isaac;

Naphtali b. Aaron;

Mordecai b. Michael Moses (d. 1823 or 1824);

Dob Bär b. Schragga Philippsthal (until 1832), author of "Naḥale Debash";

Isaac b. Jacob Lewy (until 1834);

Aryeh Löbush Landsberg (1834-39);

Joseph Ḥayyim Caro;

Jacob Mattithiah Munk (1852-55), author of "'Et Sefod";

Oberdorfer (1857-62);

Abraham Isaiah Caro (1864-88), author of an extract in Mecklenburg's "Ha-Ketab weha-Ḳabbalah";

Solomon Goldschmidt (1889-90), author of "Gesch, der Juden in England";

Moses Schlesinger (1890-96), author of "Das Aramäische Verbum im Jerusalemischen Talmud," and editor of Aaron ha-Kohen of Lunel's "Orḥot Ḥayyim";

Louis Lewin (since 1897), author of "R. Simon b. Jochai," "Gesch. der Juden in Inowrazlaw," "Judenverfolgungen im Zweiten Schwedisch-Polnischen Kriege," and "Gesch. der Juden in Lissa."

The community has produced a number of Jewish scholars, among whom may be mentioned Gustav Gottheil and E. M. Pinner.

Bibliography: Louis Lewin, Aus der Vergangenheit der Jüdishen Gemeinde zu Pinne, Pinne, 1903; manuscripts in the archives of the Jewish congregation of Posen.

From International Jewish Cemetery Project: Alternate names: Pniewy [Pol], Pinne [Ger]. 52°31' N, 16°16' E, 30 miles WNW of Poznań (Posen). Jewish population: 707 (in 1837), 225 (in 1910). Gmina Pniewy is an urban-rural administrative district in Szamotuły powiat, Greater Poland Voivodeship in west-central Poland with its seat in the town of Pniewy, 24 km (15 mi) SW of Szamotuły and 46 km (29 mi) W of the regional capital Poznań. The gmina 2006 total population is 11,905 (town Pniewy: 7,464). Apart from the town of Pniewy, Gmina Pniewy contains the villages and settlements of Berdychowo, Buszewko, Buszewo, Chełmno, Dąbrowa, Dębina, Dęborzyce, Jakubowo, Karmin, Kikowo, Konin, Konin-Huby, Koninek, Koszanowo, Lubocześnica, Lubosina, Nojewo, Nosalewo, Orliczko, Podborowo, Podpniewki, Przystanki, Psarce, Psarskie, Rudka, Szymanowo, Turowo, Zajączkowo and Zamorze. The former synagogue remains with the recess for the aron ha-kodesh still visible. [June 2009] US Commission No. POCE000441 (Alternate name: Pinne in German) Pniewy is located in the Pornanskie region at 52º3116º16, 50 km from Poznania. The cemetery is located around 1.5 km S from the town at 22 Stizelecka Street. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with no Jews. Local: Urzad Miasta I Gminy, ul. Dworcowa 37, tel. 150. Regional: region Konserwator Zabytkow, 61-716 Poznan, ul. Kosciuszki 93, tel. 696464. Interested: Karol Nowak, Puiewy, ul. Aneleckz 22, and Tadeusz Wisniewski, prezes Tow. Spoi. Kulturalnego w Pinewach, ul. Migdzychodzka, tel. ?? 169, dom. 168. [almost impossible to read-AS] 1921 Jewish population was 100, 3.6%. The Jewish cemetery was about 1.5 km away from the Conservative congregation. The isolated suburban crown of a hill has no sign or marker, no wall, gate, or fence. Reached by crossing through a forest, access is open to all. No gravestones are visible. The removed stones were used as the foundations of barracks. The municipality owns site used for agriculture. Properties adjacent are residential. Compared to 1939, the cemetery boundaries enclose the same area. It is visited rarely and without maintenance. The cemetery was vandalized during W.W.II. Within the limits of the cemetery are a pre-burial house and the former cemetery guard's house. Very serious threat to the pre-burial house turned into a verandah. Vegetation is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Vandalism is also a very serious threat. Pwiewski Stascomi, Poznan, ul. Prybyszevoskiego ?, who visited the cemetery in 1990 and survey completed survey in August 1991. A 1940 German map was used. Karol Nowak, Puiewy, ul. Aneleckz 22, and Tadeusz Wisniewski, ul. Migdzychodzka were interviewed. Last Updated on Thursday, 25 June 2009 11:16. Accessed October 1, 2017

Holocaust records on Yad Vashem run to ~400 individuals who were connected to Pinne=Pniewy who perished in the Holocaust. A few have Pages of Testimony, a rich source of genealogical information.