The Mendoza family was a powerful line of Spanish nobles. Members of the family wielded considerable power, especially from the 14th to the 17th centuries in Castile. The family originated from the town of Mendoza in the province of Álava in the Basque countries. The province became part of the Kingdom of Castile during the reign of Alfonso XI (1312–1350), and the Mendozas participated in Castilian politics afterward, with its scions becoming advisers, administrators, and clerics. According to converso defender Lope de Barrientos they were of Jewish descent and came from the same stock as another great aristocratic family, the Ayala.
The Tower of Mendoza in Álava
Álava was a mountainous region bounded by the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, and Navarre in the 13th and 14th century. It had been loosely controlled by Navarre earlier, and retained its own distinctive customs and traditions. The town of Mendoza and the province of Álava itself was also a battlefield, where the clashing noble families of the area settled their disputes for generations.
In 1332, the Mendozas had already been there at least a century, struggling with the rival clans such as Ayala, Orozco, and Velasco. They traced themselves as a stem of the House of Haro, another powerful clan of the Basque countries.
Once the region joined Castile, this interclan warfare generally ended, as they now jostled for position and privilege in Castile at large. By virtue of the Mendozas' status as knights and free men, they became Castilian nobility with the annexation (hidalgos). All members of the noble class were knights, administrators, or lawyers, and served in the administration of the realm. The largest family's responsibility was to form and maintain a local army that could make available if called by the king. The highest nobility became direct vassals of the king.
Castile, Spain - The House of Mendoza
Gonzálo Yáñez de Mendoza
The first Mendoza to occupy a high position in Castile was Gonzálo Yáñez de Mendoza. During the Reconquista, he fought in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340 and the siege of Algeciras in 1344 against the Muslim kingdoms of Spain.
He served as chief huntsman to King Alfonso XI and settled in Guadalajara, which he ruled after marrying the sister of Íñigo López de Orozco. Orozco, another person originally from Álava, had received the post of mayor as a reward for his military services to the king. This pattern would later be replicated in the family several times: by serving the king in war, they would receive prestigious positions. Using these positions, they would then marry into power and wealth.
Pedro González de Mendoza
The son of Gonzálo, Pedro González de Mendoza (1340–1385) participated in the Castilian Civil War. He aided the fortunes of his family greatly by siding with his stepbrother Henry II over Pedro the Cruel, as Henry's line eventually won the war. Pedro was taken prisoner by Edward, the Black Prince in the Battle of Najera, a crushing defeat for Henry's forces, but was eventually released after Edward left Pedro's side to return to England.
Pedro was remembered as a hero for his actions in the Battle of Aljubarrota, another crushing Castilian defeat. When King John I's horse died, Pedro gave him his horse so that he could flee. Pedro was then slain in the battle with no way to escape. Still, his services were remembered, and the Mendoza family continued to grow in power and wealth.
Pedro was also a poet whose works include examples of the Galician tradition, a serrana, and coplas of a Jew's love.
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (1367 – June 1404) was the Admiral of Castile and tenth head of the House of Mendoza. He was the son of Pedro González de Mendoza I and Aldonza López de Ayala. He was married to Leonor Lasso de la Vega, head of the powerful House of Lasso de la Vega.
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza inherited the fortunes of his father Pedro. He married the illegitimate daughter of King Henry II, and later married Leonor Lasso de la Vega an exceptionally powerful and well-connected widow and head of house of the prestigious House of Lasso de la Vega. That marriage united both families and their titles under the House of Mendoza.
King Henry III appointed him Admiral of Castile, and he fought against Portugal as commander of the fleet. Still, of the three engagements he commanded, his forces lost in all of them. When he died, he was considered among the richest men in Castile.
Diego was born in the city of Guadalajara. In the spring of 1379, while only a child, his father successfully convinced King Henry II of Castile shortly before Henry's death that Diego was to be married with Henry's illegitimate daughter María. A lavish wedding was soon held.
His father died in the Battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385), though he saved the life of King John I of Castile which substantially aided the family's standing. Diego's ascendancy was quick. King John granted him the title of Admiral of Castile. Shortly afterward, in the reign of King Henry III, Diego fought against the Portuguese fleet for possession of the Strait of Gibraltar as part of his duties as admiral. In reward for this and other expressions of loyalty, King Henry made multiple donations and grants to him, and gave Diego rule over the town of Tendilla in 1395.
His first wife María died in childbirth, though their daughter Aldonza de Mendoza, the future Countess of Arjona, lived.
Diego married again in 1394 and chose Leonor Lasso de la Vega, a descendant of the rich and powerful counts of La Vega. In August 1398, their son Íñigo López de Mendoza was born. Iñigo would become the first Marquis of Santillana.
The Admiral made a will in El Espinar (Segovia) in April 1400, before a new campaign against the Portuguese began. After returning safely, he added a codicil dated May 5 of 1404 in Guadalajara. He died shortly afterward in Guadalajara, the city of his birth. His widow had to plead for her son's rights to her stepdaughter doña Aldonza, and before that to Alfonso Enriquez, to whom Henry III had given the title of Admiral of Castile.
This article incorporates text translated from the Spanish Wikipedia article Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (almirante mayor de Castilla), licensed under the GFDL.
Mendoza Descendants of Exilarchs
Juana de Mendoza y de Orozco
Juana de Mendoza married Alonso Enríquez (1354 - 1429) who was Lord of Medina de Rioseco and Admiral of Castile.
Alonso Enriquez de Castilla
Alonso Enriquez de Castilla Guadalcanal, 1354 - Guadalupe, Cáceres, 1429). He was the son of Fadrique Alfonso, 25th Master of the Order of Santiago, and an unnamed lady.
His father was murdered on 29 May 1358 in the Alcázar of Seville, on the orders of his brother Peter. Alonso was the founder of the lineage of Enriquez, and is the first Admiral of Castile of his family since 1405, and first lord of Medina de Rio Seco.
- Alonso's paternal grandparents were King Alfonso XI and Leonor de Guzman.
- He was a brother of Pedro Enriquez de Castilla, Count of Trastámara, Lemos, Sarria, Constable of Castile and beadle greater Santiago.
- His other sisters were Eleanor of Castile and Angulo Enriquez of Cordova, who married the Marshal of Castile Diego Gomez Sarmiento.
- He was the paternal grandson of King Alfonso XI the Just, a nephew of King Henry II and cousin of King Juan I.
The Portuguese Fernando Lopez wrote in connection with events that occurred in 1384, where the Admiral was called the son of a Jew. Diego de Castilla also records that Alonso mentioned that he was the son of a Jewish Guadalcanal called Paloma.
In 1389, John I of Castile gave Alonso the area around Aguilar de Campos. In later years, he managed to extend his territory. Until 1402, he served the King as a commander and administered the castle of Medina de Rioseco.
In 1387, Alonso married Juana de Mendoza y de Orozco. It is conjectured that it must have been at the behest of his wife, which, upon the death of her brother, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, who held the post of Admiral of Castile, that the title of Admiral passed on to her husband. Alsonso ended up being the most famous admiral in the family, winning many sea battles.
In 1407, he defeated the combined fleet of Tunis (Hafsid), Granada (Nasrid) and Tlemcen (Capital city of the Zianid kingdom). This was his last major sea battle. Afterward, he inspected the fleet and led military actions on land, such as the capture of Antequera in 1410. He was deeply involved in the court politics and social life.
The poet and biographer Fernán Pérez de Guzmán, a contemporary of Alonso's, described him as medium sized, chubby, red-haired, discrete and not a talker.
The historian Esteban de Garibay (1533–1600) described him as hot-tempered and quickly irritated.
Some ocassionally referred to Alonso Enríquez as the son of a "pig" (family of converted Jews),
Nuptials and offspring
The result of his marriage to Juana de Mendoza were born thirteen children:
- ▪ Fadrique Enriquez (first-born, c. 1388) married to Mariana Fernandez de Cordoba and Ayala.
- ▪ Enrique Enríquez de Mendoza (died c. 1489) parent of Toledo and Enriquez Enriquez de Guzman, Count of Alba de Liste title since August 8, 1451 by John II of Castile.
- ▪ Pedro Enriquez who died as a child and not be confused with Pedro Enriquez de Quinones, son of his brother Frederic Enriquez (which descend Enríquez de Ribera, and Marquis of Tarifa since 1514).
- ▪ Beatriz Enríquez (? -1439) Who married Pedro de Portocarrero and Cabeza de Vaca, lord of Moguer, son of Martin Fernandez Portocarrero, lord of Moguer IV, and Eleanor Cabeza de Vaca. She was buried in the Convent of Poor Clares of Mudejar style Moguer.
- ▪ Leonor Enríquez married in 1410 and Rodrigo Pimentel Alonso Téllez de Meneses, Count of Benavente II.
- ▪ Aldonza Enríquez. He married in 1410 with Rodrigo Alvarez Osorio.
- ▪ Isabel Enriquez (? -1469). Married Juan Ramirez de Arellano, lord of the Cameros.
- ▪ Inés Enríquez. Married Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, lord of Almazan.
- ▪ Blanca Enriquez married to Pedro Nunez de Herrera, lord of Herrera and second Lord of Pedraza. A daughter of this marriage, Elvira de Herrera y Enríquez, married Pedro Fernández de Córdoba, Lord of Aguilar V, being parents, among others, Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the Great Captain.
- ▪ Married Constanza Enriquez Juan de Tovar, Lord of Berlanga.
- ▪ Maria Enriquez (? -1441), Married to Juan de Rojas and Manrique, lord of Monzón Campos and fit in 1431, mayor of Castile and doncel Hijosdalgo the king, who took part in the Battle of La Higueruela in The Vega of Granada, next to John II of Castile and the Constable Alvaro de Luna.
- ▪ Mencia Enriquez (? -1480), Who married in 1430 with Juan Fernandez Manrique de Lara, Count de Castañeda since 1436
- ▪ Rodrigo Enriquez, whom his mother in his will of 1431 leaves some property, calling him "my son, the Archdeacon Rodrigo Enriquez." He was buried in the Cathedral of Palencia.
- Out of wedlock had an illegitimate son:
- ▪ Juan Enriquez, whom his father, before going to Seville, he left as captain general of the fleet as it was a "tried and true knight."
López de Mendoza
Don Íñigo López de Mendoza y de la Vega, Marquis of Santillana (August 19, 1398 – March 25, 1458) was a Castilian politician and poet who held an important position in society and literature during the reign of John II of Castile.
He was born at Carrión de los Condes in Old Castile to a noble family which figured prominently in the arts. His grandfather, Pedro González de Mendoza I, and his father, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Admiral of Castile, were both poets with close ties to the great literary figures of the time: Chancellor Lopez de Ayala, Fernán Pérez de Guzmán and Gómez Manrique.
His mother, Doña Leonor de la Vega, was a wealthy heiress belonging to the House of de la Vega.
Lopez de Mendoza's father died when he was five years old, which brought his family into financial difficulties. Part of his childhood was spent living in his grandmother's household, and in the home of his uncle, the future Archbishop of Toledo.
As a youth, he spent time in the court king Alfonso V of Aragón, where he was exposed to the work of poets in the Provençal, Valencia and Catalan traditions, the classic Humanist works of Virgil and Dante Alighieri, and the lyricism of troubadours such as Enrique de Villena.
In 1412, Don Íñigo married a wealthy heiress, Catarina Suárez de Figueroa. With this union, he acquired great fortune and became one of the most powerful nobles of his time. His sixth son from the marriage would one day become Cardenal Mendoza.
As a politician, Don Íñigo remained loyal to Juan II throughout his life, for which he was richly rewarded with land and the title of Marquis of Santillana in 1445, after the First Battle of Olmedo. When his wife Doña Catarina de Figueroa died, the Marquis retired to his palace of Guadalajara to spend the rest of his life in peaceful study and contemplation.
Lopez de Mendoza was a great admirer of Dante Alighieri and his work is categorized within the allegorical-Dantesque School. He also assimilated Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio's Humanism.
He is especially remembered for his "serranillas", which are small poems that focus on commonplace subjects. He also wrote pastoral novels inspired by French tradition, and was originator of the Castilian Sonnet.
- Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Duke of the Infantado
- Pedro Lasso de Mendoza, señor del valle del Lozoya
- Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st count of Tendilla
- Mencía de Mendoza, married Pedro Fernández de Velasco, 2nd Count of Haro
- Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza y Figueroa, Conde de la Coruña
- Pedro González de Mendoza, cardinal and confidant of Queen Isabella I of Castile
- Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, señor de Colmenar, El Cardoso y El Vado
- María de Mendoza, married Pero Afán de Ribera, Conde de los Molares
- Leonor de la Vega y Mendoza, married Gastón I de la Cerda, 4th Count de Medinaceli
- Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza, señor de Tamajón
- Obras, edited by José Amador de los Rios (Madrid, 1852)
- Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo, Antologia de poetas liricas castellanos (Madrid, 1894), vol. v. pp. 78–144
- B. Sanvisenti, I Primi Influssi di Dante, del Petrarca e del Boccaccio suite letteratura spagnuola (Milan, 1902), pp. 127–186.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Pedro González de Mendoza
Pedro González de Mendoza (May 3, 1428 – January 11, 1495) was a Spanish cardinal and statesman. He was born at Guadalajara in New Castile, the chief lordship of his family. He was the fourth son of Íñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana, deceased 1458, and one of the cadet brothers of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1. duque of l'Infantado and Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st count of Tendilla. The house of Mendoza claimed to descend from the lords of Llodio in Alava, and to have been settled in Old Castile, in the 11th century.
One chief of the house had been greatly distinguished at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Another, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, his grandfather, (circa 1365 - 1404), had been Admiral of Castile in the reign of Henry III of Castile "The Infirm".
King Pedro I of Castile, assassinated March 1369, had endowed his great grandfather Pedro González de Mendoza, killed at the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, with the lordships of Hita in the province of Guadalajara, and Buitrago.
The road to greatness of the Mendozas was completed by this earlier Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, who sacrificed his life to save John I of Castile at the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385. The cardinal's and the 1st duke of Infantado father, Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st marquis of Santillana-- to use the title he was awarded in the last years of his life --, was a poet, and was conspicuous during the troubled reign of John II of Castile, deceased 1453.
Loyalty to the Crown was the traditional and prevailing policy of the Mendoza family. Pedro González de Mendoza, named thus by his father Íñigo to name him as the one killed by the Portuguese troops at Aljubarrota, the future cardinal, was sent into the Church mainly because he was a younger son and that he might be handsomely provided for. He had no vocation, and was an example of the worldly, political and martial prelates of the 15th century.
In 1452 at the age of twenty-four, he was chosen by the king John II to be bishop of Calahorra, but did not receive the pope's bull till 1454. As bishop of Calahorra he was also señor, or civil and military ruler, of the town and its dependent district. In his secular capacity he led the levies of Calahorra in the civil wars of the reign of Henry IV. He fought for the king at the second battle of Olmedo on August 20, 1467, and was wounded in the arm.
During these years he became attached to Mencia de Lemos, a Portuguese lady-in-waiting of the Consort queen, a Portuguese princess. She bore him two sons, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar Mendoza, who was once selected to be the husband of Lucrezia Borgia, and another, who was named Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito in Italy, not to be confounded with other people mentioned also above and who was the grandfather of the princess of Eboli of the reign of Philip II of Spain (see Antonio Perez).
By Inés de Tovar, a lady of a Valladolid family, he had a third son (Juan Hurtado de Mendoza y Tovar) who afterwards emigrated to France.
In 1468 Pedro became Bishop of Sigüenza. In 1473 he was created cardinal, was promoted to the archbishopric of Seville and named chancellor of Castile. During the last years of the reign of King Henry IV. he was the partisan of the Princess Isabella, afterwards queen, while his eldest brother Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 2nd marquis of Santillana, remained however faithful to king Henry IV of Castile, till his rather controverted death in December 1474.
Pedro, the cadet brother, fought for her at the Battle of Toro on March 1, 1476 when her oldest half brother, the king Henry IV, had died already. He had a prominent part in placing her on the throne; and served her indefatigably in her efforts to suppress the disorderly nobles of Castile. In 1482 he became Archbishop of Toledo.
This transfer of loyalties of the oldest brother and head of the whole family, Diego, after Henry's death in December 1474, was duly rewarded by Queen Isabella I of Castile, Queen successor since December 1474 awarding Diego the title of Duke of the Infantado or Duke of l'Infantado on 22 July 1475. The title would be awarded the Grandee of Spain in 1519 by king Charles I of Spain, a.k.a. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
During the conquest of Granada he contributed largely to the maintenance of the army. On January 2, 1492 he occupied the town in the name of the Catholic sovereigns. Though his life was worldly, and though he was more soldier and statesman than priest, the "Great Cardinal", as he was commonly called, did not neglect his duty as a bishop. He used his influence with the queen and also at Rome to arrange a settlement of the disputes between the Spanish sovereigns and the papacy. He was an advocate of Christopher Columbus.
Though he maintained a splendid household as archbishop of Toledo, and, provided handsomely for his children, he devoted part of his revenue to charity, and with part he endowed the college of Santa Cruz at Valladolid University. His health broke down at the close of 1493.
Queen Isabella visited and nursed him on his deathbed in Guadalajara. It is said that he recommended her to choose as his successor the Franciscan Jimenez de Cisneros, a man who had no likeness to himself save in political faculty and devotion to the authority of the Crown.
With Leonor de la Cerda, the cardinal had the following offspring:
- Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar y Mendoza, (1466–1523), 1st Count of the Cid and 1st Marquis of Cenete.
- The life of the cardinal, by Salazar de Mendoza, Cronica del gran cardinal Don Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza (Toledo, 1625), is discursive and garrulous but valuable.
- See also Prescott, History of Ferdinand and Isabella.
According to converso defender Lope de Barrientos they were of Jewish descent and came from the same stock as another great aristocratic family, the Ayala.
(Norman Roth, "Conversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain," University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1995, p. 333)
"Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito (in full, Spanish: Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Lemus, primer conte di Melito e di Aliano, Gran Giustiziere del Regno di Napoli) (1468–1536) was a Castilian general and administrator. He served in the Italian Wars, and was later appointed Viceroy of Valencia where he fought the rebel Germanies in the Revolt of the Brotherhoods.
Diego was the second son of Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza and Mencia de Lemos, making him a member of the powerful Mendoza family. As Cardinal Mendoza was already a Cardinal, Diego was born out of wedlock. He was born and raised in the castle of Manzanares el Real.
He joined the army and fought in the Granada War. After it completed in 1492, Mendoza advanced in rank and served in the Second Italian war, where he distinguished himself serving under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, "el Gran Capitán." He played an important role in the Battle of Ruvo and in the taking of Melito in the Kingdom of Naples, for which he was appointed Count of Mélito in 1506.
As viceroy of Valencia
In 1520, he was appointed Viceroy of Valencia. Valencia was at the time unsettled by plague and flood, and the germanies (guilds) were taking control of the city of Valencia from the weak royal government there. Mendoza, a Castilian, was not well-received, and he provoked the Germanies by siding with the nobility and refusing to seat lawfully-elected representatives from the populace that favored the Germanies.
The viceroy's palace was attacked, and only barely held out after two hours assault. Mendoza and the government fled into the countryside, and the open warfare phase of the Revolt of the Brotherhoods began.
Mendoza was initially defeated by the agermanats at the Battle of Gandia in June 1521, but royalist troops triumphed elsewhere, and he eventually returned with reinforcements into the city of Valencia in November 1521. He acted with moderation against the defeated rebels, but the arrival in 1523 of the new Viceroy Germaine of Foix, widow of Ferdinand of Aragon, saw the punishment of the rebels intensify.
Diego was married to Ana de la Cerda y Castro, granddaughter of Gastón de la Cerda, 4th Count of Medinaceli. He died in Toledo in 1536.
- This article incorporates text translated from the Spanish Wikipedia article Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Lemos, licensed under the GFDL.
- Bonilla, Luis (1973). Las Revoluciones Españolas En El Siglo XVI. Madrid: Colección
- Universitaria de Bolsillo Punto Omega. pp. 197–221.
Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli
Doña Ana de Mendoza y de la Cerda, Princess of Eboli, Duchess of Pastrana, (in full, Spanish: Doña Ana de Mendoza y de la Cerda ), (29 June 1540 – 2 February 1592) was a Spanish aristocrat, suo jure 2nd Princess of Mélito, 2nd Duchess of Francavilla and 3rd Countess of Aliano. She was considered one of Spain's greatest beauties, despite having lost an eye in a mock duel with a page when she was young.
Ana, also known as Princess of Eboli, Countess of Mélito and Duchess of Pastrana, married Rui Gomes da Silva, 1st Prince of Éboli when she was twelve years old (1552), by recommendation of Prince Philip. Her husband was Prince of Éboli and minister to the King. She was considered one of the more accomplished women of her time, and although she had just one eye, Ana was regarded as one of the most beautiful ladies in Spain.
Ana had ten children by this marriage:
- Diego (c.1558–1563)
- Ana de Silva y Mendoza (1560–1610) married 1572 to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia;
- Rodrigo de Silva y Mendoza (1562–1596), 2nd duke of Pastrana;
- Pedro de Silva y Mendoza (c. 1563);
- Diego de Silva y Mendoza (1564–1630), 1st marquis of Alenquer
- Ruy de Silva y Mendoza (1565–), 1st marquis of La Eliseda
- Fernando de Silva y Mendoza, later Pedro González de Mendoza (1570–1639)
- Maria de Mendoza y Maria de Silva (c. 1570)
- Ana de Silva y Mendoza (1573–1614)
After her husband's death in 1573, she spent three years in a convent, but returned to public life in 1576, forming an alliance at Court with the King's undersecretary of state, Antonio Pérez (1540–1615). They were accused of betraying state secrets which led to her arrest in 1579. Ana died 13 years later in prison on 2 February 1592.
Appearances in fiction
There was a character called Princess Eboli based on Ana in Schiller's play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien, and Verdi's opera Don Carlos. She is also the subject of Kate O'Brien's novel That Lady, and the 1955 film adaptation of O'Brien's novel, That Lady. La Tuerta, a stage play charting the life of Ana de Mendoza was performed at Bedlam Theatre as part of The Edinburgh Fringe Festival in August 2008. Julia Ormond played her in La Conjura de El Escorial (2008) and Belén Rueda in the TV film La Princesa de Éboli (2010).
Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones
Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones, (born Guadalajara, Kingdom of Castile, 1440 – died Granada, Spain 20 July 1515) was the first Marqués de Mondéjar, and second Conde de Tendilla. He was known as El Gran Tendilla, and was a Spanish noble of the House of Mendoza. He was the son of Íñigo López de Mendoza y Figueroa, the first Conde de Tendilla, and the grandson of the poet Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana.
As a child, Íñigo was educated along with his brother, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones who would later become a cardinal, in the palatial house of his grandfather. He would also receive instruction in political and military matters from his father, the ambassador to Pope Pius II in the council of Mantua and from his uncle, the powerful cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza.
Succeeding his father in 1479 as Conde de Tendilla, he entered the Royal Court at Toledo in 1480 to show his loyalty to the Catholic Monarchs and offered his services for the ongoing conquest of Granada. It was in the Granada War that he first showed his military prowess.
His nephew, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar y Mendoza, the son of Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza, who educated Íñigo, served under him during this time. He was there named Alcaide de Alhama de Granada and was made, at his own expense, to defend those lands against the armies of Muley Hacén from 1484–85.
In 1486, the Catholic Monarchs named Íñigo ambassador to Pope Innocent VIII. During his tenure, he accomplished a very ambitious agenda which included: pushing for a peace treaty between the Pope and the Kingdom of Naples, renewing the Papal Bull favoring the Crusade of 1482, reforming the church, and giving the power to appoint Bishops to the King. He was also able to get the pope to recognize the illegitimate children of his uncle, the cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza.
Pope Innocent VIII gifted the Conde with a sword which can still be seen on display today at the Museum of Lázaro Galdiano in Madrid. While in Rome, Conde Íñigo befriended the humanist Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, with whom he would have a lifelong friendship, bringing him to Spain as a tutor for his children.
In August of 1487, he returned to military campaigning, this time against the Nazarí Kingdom of Granada after being named the High Adelantado of Andalucía. He fought in many actions here under the command of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba.
After the defeat of Boabdil and conquest of Granada in winter of 1492, King Ferdinand named Íñigo Governor of Alhambra and Captain General of Granada. During his tenure as governor, Conde Íñigo subdued the first Moorish uprising in Granada (1500–1502), which was brought about by the forced mass conversions enacted by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros. He later would command troops against further uprisings in Alpujarras along with King Ferdinand and the "Gran Capitan", Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba.
After the death of Isabella I of Castile in 1504, Íñigo was one of the only nobles, along with the future Duke of Alba who controlled Castile, who remained faithful to King Ferdinand. Infighting against the supporters of Philip I of Castile broke out. Conde Íñigo also fell our of favor with his cousin Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar y Mendoza, the Marquesado del Venete and with the "Gran Capitan".
In September of 1512, Íñigo obtained the title of Marqués de Mondéjar from Ferdinand II of Aragon. The title was later nominally ratified by the queen, Juanna la Loca.
Marriage and descendants
Íñigo's first wife was Maria Lasso de la Vega y Mendoza. Maria was from the House of Lasso de la Vega and brought as her dowry, part of the village of Mondéjar. Maria died childless in 1477 and Íñigo took up his second wife, Francisca de Pacheco y Portocarrero, daughter of Juan Pacheco, the first Marquis de Villena. The couple had seven children together:
- María de Mendoza, born in 1489, married the Conde de Monteagudo in 1503.
- Luis Hurtado de Mendoza y Pacheco, the future Third Conde de Tendilla also became a friend and advisor to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
- Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, the first Viceroy of New Spain and the second Viceroy of the Perú.
- María Pacheco, wife of Juan López de Padilla, the comunero.
- Bernardino de Mendoza y Pacheco, Captain of the galleys of the Mediterranean.
- Francisco de Mendoza y Pacheco, Bishop of Jaén.
- Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, poet, prose writer and ambassador of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones died in Granada on 20 July 1515 having a few days before given his final testament to Juan de Luz, son of an artillery man and resident of the Alhambra Gonzalo de Luz.
The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created about twenty years after the Spanish conquest of Mexico with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. It contains a history of the Aztec rulers and their conquests, a list of the tribute paid by the conquered, and a description of daily Aztec life, in traditional Aztec pictograms with Spanish explanations and commentary.
The codex is named after Antonio de Mendoza, then the viceroy of New Spain, who may have commissioned it. It is also known as the Codex Mendocino and La coleccion Mendoza, and has been held at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University since 1659. It was taken off of public exhibition on December 23, 2011.
The Codex Mendoza was hurriedly created in Mexico City, to be sent by ship to Spain. The fleet was attacked by French privateers, and the codex, along with the rest of the booty, taken to France. There it came into the possession of André Thévet, cosmographer to King Henry II of France. Thévet wrote his name in five places on the codex, twice with the date 1553.
It was later bought by the Englishman Richard Hakluyt for 20 French francs. Some time after 1616 it was passed to Samuel Purchase, then to his son, and then to John Selden. The codex was deposited into the Bodleian Library at Oxford University in 1659, 5 years after Selden's death, where it remained in obscurity until 1831, when it was rediscovered by Viscount Kingsborough and brought to the attention of scholars.
Mendoza Family - Seville & London
Pariarch De Mendoza (c1624 - ) Seville, Spain.
- David De Mendoza ( c1650 - 1731)
- Daniel De Mendoza (1683 - 1755) and Esther Mendoza.
- Aaron 'Daniel' Medoza (1710 - )
Children of Daniel De Mendoza and Esther Mendoza-:
- i. +Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza, b. 1710, Seville, Spain, d. date unknown, Aldgate, London England.
- ii. Solomon De Mendoza], b. 1712, d. date unknown.
- iii. Abigail Mendoza], b. 1714, d. date unknown.
- iv. Rivka 'Rebecca' Mendoza, b. 1716, d. date unknown.
- v. Rachel Mendoza, b. 1722, d. date unknown.
- vi. Blanca Mendoza, b. 1724, d. date unknown.
- vii. Jacob De Mendoza, b. 1730, d. 1791.
Daniel De Mendoza 1683 - 1755
- i. +Daniel De Mendoza, b. 1683, Seville, Spain, d. 28 Oct 1755, Amsterdam North Holland, Netherlands.
- ii. Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza (b. 1710, d. date unknown)
Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza (son of Daniel De Mendoza and Esther Mendoza) was born 1710 in Seville, Spain, and died date unknown in Aldgate, London England. He married Benvenida Tubi on 1730 in Bevis Marks Synagogue London87, 88, daughter of Abraham Tubi and Ribca wife of Abraham Tubi.
Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza
AARON MENDOZA. b.abt 1710, Author. In 1730 published one of the first books produced by a Jew in England, with illustrations in his own hand. His book is all about the ritual slaughter laws, and makes a lot of reference to a famous text, written by another famous Rabbi, Joseph Caro, in the 15th century.
Married Benvenida TUBI or TOBI who was born in Liverno, Italy abt. 1730. He was a shochet and a very religiously observant person an authority on the laws of kashrut.
Children of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi:
- i. Daniel Mendoza, b. 1730, London, England, d. date unknown.
- ii. Male ? 1 Mendoza, b. 1731, London, England, d. date unknown.
- iii. +Abraham Mendoza, b. 1732, London, England, d. 1805, London, England.
- iv. +Solomon 'Aaron' Mendoza, b. 1735, London, England, d. 1815, London, England.
- v. Abigail Mendoza, b. 1738, London, England, d. date unknown.
- vi. +Hagar (Agnes) Mendoza, b. 1740, London, England, d. 1810, London, England.
- vii. +Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza, b. 1744, London, England, d. 1779, London, England.
- viii. David Mendoza, b. 1747, London, England, d. date unknown.
- ix. +Judith Mendoza, b. 1749, London, England, d. date unknown.
- x. Male ? 2 Mendoza, b. 1751, London, England, d. date unknown.
Abraham Mendoza (son of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi) was born 1732 in London, England, and died 1805 in London, England. He married Esther Lopez on 24 May 1752 in London, England.
Children of Abraham Mendoza and Esther Lopez:
- i. Benvenida Mendoza, b. 1752, London, England, d. date unknown, London, England.
- ii. Aaron Mendoza, b. 1758, London, England, d. 1835, London, England.
- iii. Isaac Mendoza, b. 1760, London, England, d. 1808, London, England.
- iv. Sarah Mendoza, b. 1760, London, England, d. 1760, London, England.
- v. Daniel Mendoza, b. 05 Jul 1764, London, England, d. 03 Sep 1836, London, England.
- vi. Rapheal Mendoza, b. 1772, London, England, d. 1773, London, England.
- vii. Miriam Mendoza, b. 1774, London, England, d. date unknown, London, England.
Solomon 'Aaron' Mendoza
Solomon 'Aaron' Mendoza (son of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi) was born 1735 in London, England, and died 1815 in London, England. He married Sarah 'Jacob' Torrez Figaroa on 1763 in London, England, daughter of Jacob Torrez Figaroa.
Solomon 'Aaron' Mendoza and Sarah 'Jacob' Torrez Figaroa: Marriage: 1763, London, England.
Children of Solomon 'Aaron' Mendoza and Sarah 'Jacob' Torrez Figaroa:
- i. Sarah Mendoza, b. 1771, London, England, d. date unknown.
- ii. Jacob Mendoza, b. 1778, London, England, d. date unknown.
- iii. Aaron Mendoza, b. 1758, London, England, d. 1835, London, England.
Hagar (Agnes) Mendoza
Hagar (Agnes) Mendoza (b. 1740, d. 1810) (daughter of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi) was born 1740 in London, England, and died 1810 in London, England.
She married Joseph Nunes~Martinez on 1763 in Bevis Marks Synagogue, WE London England, son of Abraham deJoseph Nunes
Martinez and Abigail Rodrigues~Ribeiro.
Children of Hagar (Agnes) Mendoza and Joseph Nunes~Martinez:
- i. Abraham Nunes~Martinez, b. 1765, London, England, d. date unknown.
- ii. +Abigail Nunes~Martinez, b. 1767, London, England, d. date unknown, London, England.
- iii. Benvenida Nunes~Martinez, b. 1768, London, England, d. date unknown.
- iv. Sarah Nunes~Martinez, b. 1771, London, England, d. date unknown.
- v. Jacob Isaac Nunes~Martinez, b. 1774, London, England, d. date unknown.
- vi. Israel Nunes~Martinez, b. 1777, London, England, d. date unknown.
Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza (b. 1744, d. 1779)
Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza (son of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi) was born 1744 in London, England, and died 1779 in London, England. He married Judith Mendoza on Abt. 1760 in London, England, daughter of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi.
Children of Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza and Judith Mendoza:
- i. Son iii (twin 2of2) Mendoza, d. 1768.
- ii. Son ii (twin 1of2) Mendoza, d. 1768.
- iii. Aaron 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 1760, d. 1816.
- iv. Elhazar Mendoza, b. 26 Apr 1772, London, England, d. 1843.
- v. Mordecai 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 23 Jan 1774, d. date unknown.
- vi. +David 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 18 May 1776, East End, London, England, d. Dec 1846, East End, London, England.
Judith Mendoza (b. 1749, d. date unknown)
Judith Mendoza (daughter of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi) was born 1749 in London, England, and died date unknown. She married Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza on Abt. 1760 in London, England, son of Aaron 'Daniel' Mendoza and Benvenida Tubi.
Children of Judith Mendoza and Moses 'Aaron' Mendoza:
- i. Son iii (twin 2of2) Mendoza, d. 1768.
- ii. Son ii (twin 1of2) Mendoza, d. 1768.
- iii. Aaron 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 1760, d. 1816.
- iv. Elhazar Mendoza, b. 26 Apr 1772, London, England, d. 1843.
- v. Mordecai 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 23 Jan 1774, d. date unknown.
- vi. +David 'Moses' Mendoza, b. 18 May 1776, East End, London, England, d. Dec 1846, East End, London, England.
Mendoza/Daniels Family Tree
- Mendoza Family Tree of Abraham William Daniels, Australia
- Mendozas in Daniels' family tree.
- Mendoza, Aaron(b. 1758, d. 1835)
- Mendoza, Aaron 'Daniel'(b. 1710, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Aaron 'Moses'(b. 1760, d. 1816)
- Mendoza, Abigail(b. 1714, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Abigail(b. 1738, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Abraham(b. 1732, d. 1805)
- Mendoza, Benvenida(b. 1752, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Blanca(b. 1724, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Daniel(b. 1730, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Daniel(b. 05 Jul 1764, d. 03 Sep 1836)
- Mendoza, David(b. 1747, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, David 'Moses'(b. 18 May 1776, d. Dec 1846)
- Mendoza, Elhazar(b. 26 Apr 1772, d. 1843)
- Mendoza, Esther(d. 1855)
- Mendoza, Esther(b. Abt. 1685, d. May 1774)
- Mendoza, Hagar (Agnes)(b. 1740, d. 1810)
- Mendoza, Isaac(b. 1760, d. 1808)
- Mendoza, Jacob(b. 1778, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Judith(b. 1749, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Judith(b. 1799, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Male ? 1(b. 1731, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Male ? 2(b. 1751, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Miriam(b. 1774, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Mordecai 'Moses'(b. 23 Jan 1774, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Moses 'Aaron'(b. 1744, d. 1779)
- Mendoza, Rachel(b. 1722, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Rapheal(b. 1772, d. 1773)
- Mendoza, Rivka 'Rebecca'(b. 1716, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Sarah(d. 1873)
- Mendoza, Sarah(b. 1760, d. 1760)
- Mendoza, Sarah(b. 1771, d. date unknown)
- Mendoza, Solomon 'Aaron'(b. 1735, d. 1815)
- Mendoza, Son ii (twin 1of2)(d. 1768)
- Mendoza, Son iii (twin 2of2)(d. 1768)
- Lopez de Mendoza, Inigo
- Hurtado De Mendoza, Diego
- Mendoza, Fray Inigo De
- Cardinal Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, prelate of Spain and canceler mayer of the kingdom.
Livorno Italy - Mendoza Family
The history of the Jews in Livorno, (Liorne or Liorna in Ladino) Italy reaches back about 500 years. The Jewish community of Livorno, although the youngest among the historic Jewish communities of Italy, was for some time the foremost because of the wealth, scholarship, and political rights of its members.
The rabbinate of Livorno, continually acquiring new learned members from the East, and through its connections with the Sephardim of Amsterdam and London, was widely known for its scholarship. Many of the merchants also devoted themselves to study, taking up under the guidance of their rabbis medicine, astronomy, philosophy, and the classics, in addition to Jewish science.
Through its connection with the East, Livorno was always a center for cabalists, especially at the time of the Shabbethaian controversies; and even in the nineteenth century cabalists and mystics found support and encouragement in the city. Many Jews also emigrated to Egypt, France and Libya in order to capitalize on their nations foreign investment.
In some cases, such as the Mendoza and the Mosseri family, whole families moved, thus creating Jewish communities in primarily Islamic states.
- Mendoza is a surname of Basque origin, also occurring as a place name. It means Cold Mountain, from words in the Basque language, mendi (mountain) and (h)otz (cold) + definite article '-a' (Mendoza being mendi+(h)otza). When related to Spain, it usually applies to the descendants of the Mendoza family, an old basque noble family originally from Alava.
The spelling of place names in basque has varied from the original 'mendotza' to 'mendontze' in the 1890s, 'mendoche' in the 1920s, 'mendotxe' in the 1980s to the restored original of 'mendotza' being the current. Many of the Mendoza family were of converso origin.
The Mendoza Family in the Spanish Renaissance (1350-1550 by Helen Nader)
The Mendoza and their admiring biographers have left us a wealth of archival and secondary materials for the study of intellectual and social history. The Mendoza's poetic works, which have long been considered classics (they have been included in Castilian anthologies ever since the early fifteenth century), are available in modern editions. Francisco Layna Serrano, Historia de Guadalajara y sus Mendozas en los siglos XV y XVI, 4 vols., Madrid, 1942.