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Notables of World War I

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  • Rear Admiral Sir Leighton Seymour Bracegirdle (1881 - 1970)
    Rear Admiral Sir Leighton Seymour Bracegirdle KCVO, CMG, DSO, RAN (31 May 1881 – 23 March 1970) was an Australian military commander and an Official Secretary to four Australian governors-general: Sir ...
  • Norman Prince (1887 - 1916)
    He was born in Beverly, Massachusetts. He attended the Groton School, graduated Harvard College, cum laude in 1908 and Harvard Law School in 1911. Prince, under the alias 'George Manor' to concea...
  • Maj. Gen. Beaumont Bonaparte Buck (1860 - 1950)
    Beaumont Buck graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Class of 1885. He served in World War I. He retied as a U.S. Army Major General. The United States in the First World War: An...
  • Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd (1871 - 1947)
    Field Marshal Sir Archibald Armar Montgomery-Massingberd, GCB, GCVO, KCMG, DL (6 December 1871 – 13 October 1947), known as Archibald Armar Montgomery until October 1926, was a senior British Army offi...
  • Major General Robert Lee Howze (1864 - 1926)
    Robert Lee Howze (August 22, 1864 – September 19, 1926) was a United States Army Major General who was a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Indian Wars. Howze graduated from...

World War I (WWI), predominantly called the World War or the Great War was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world's great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy).

Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility. It was the sixth deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in the nations involved.


Causes of the War

Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy.

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist was the proximate trigger of the war. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.


War

On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army.

Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, United States forces entered the trenches and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.


By the war's end, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—had been militarily and politically defeated and ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are generally agreed to be factors contributing to World War II.


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