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  • Raja Merong Mahawangsa (700 - d.)
    Family Tree Chart Merong Mahawangsa is a legendary warrior and a ruler who is said to be the first king of Langkasuka, or modern day Kedah. His tale is mentioned in the Kedah Annals, where it mentions ...
  • Maharaja Parameswara (Raja Iskandar Shah) (1344 - 1414)
    Parameswara (1344 – 1414) (also called Iskandar Shah) was a Malay Hindu prince (from Palembang district of Srivijaya Empire) who founded Melaka around 1402. The historical Malay literary work, Sejarah ...

The Kedah sultanate is one of the oldest unbroken independent kingship lines in the ‘Malay world’, with 1,000 years of history, and arguably one of the oldest in the Islamic world.

This project aims to examine key geopolitical and spiritual attributes of Malay kingship that have traditionally cemented the ruler, the peoples, and the environment.

Malay DNA Project

History of the Malay DNA - based on the Human Genome Project

Malay History & Culture

  1. Sejarah Realiti Nagara Kedah
  2. Empayar Islam Benua Siam Kedah
  3. Sejarah Nagara Kedah



Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa حكاية مروڠ مهاوڠسا, also known as The Kedah Annals, is a work of Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of the Kedah, a state in Malaysia. The work is thought to have been written in the late 18th century or some time in the 19th century. Though there are historical accuracies, there are many incredible assertions. The era covered by the text ranged from the opening of Kedah by Merong Mahawangsa, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great of Macedonia till the acceptance of Islam.

Merong Mahawangsa

Merong Mahawangsa is a legendary warrior and a ruler who is said to be the first king of Langkasuka, or modern day Kedah. His tale is mentioned in the Kedah Annals, where it mentions him as a hero who became the first king of Langkasuka.

Some say that Merong was a descendant of Alexander the Great or Dhul-Qarnayn. More recent legends have also surfaced that say that he was a Hindu prince by the name of Maran Mahavamsam. "Maha" means "great" in Sanskrit while "vamsam" means "lineage or descent". . . . Continued

Merong and his descendants

Descendants of Merong Mahawangsa Family Tree Chart .

Below is the list of the eight rulers of Langkasuka, Merong and his descendants, according to the Kedah Annals:

  • King Merong Mahawangsa: A ruler from Rome who later settled in Bujang Valley and founded the Kingdom of Langkasuka. He is said to be a descendant to Alexander the Great. He was a Hindu king. Merong have three sons, Merong Mahapudisat, Ganjil Sarjuna, and Seri Mahawangsa, and a daughter, Raja Puteri, who is the second youngest in the family. He was later succeeded by his eldest son, Merong Mahapudisat. Merong then left to Rome, leaving his son the ruler of Langkasuka.
  • King Merong Mahapudisat: He became the king of Langkasuka after his father, Merong Mahawangsa went back to Rome. He was the eldest son. Legends say that he was also the first king of Siam.
  • King Ganjil Sarjuna: He was crowned king after his brother's death. He was the second eldest in the family. He founded the Gangga Negara kingdom.
  • Raja Puteri (in English, King Princess): She became the King of Langkasuka after her brother Ganjil Sarjuna died. She is the youngest daughter in the family. She was also the first ruler of Pattani.
  • King Seri Mahawangsa: He became the king of Langkasuka after his brother, Ganjil Sarjuna died.
  • Seri Maha Inderawangsa: He is the son of Seri Mahawangsa. He was called "King Bersiong" because of his cannibalistic behaviour of drinking human blood. He was the original successor of Seri Mahawangsa, but because of his behaviour, his father had no choice but to imprison him. He fled to Mount Jerai, where he remained hidden for a long time and later had a son, who was called Phra Ong Mahapudisat. Before his father's death afterwards, Seri Mahawangsa asked his soldiers of Langkasuka to hunt down and kill him. He was later found and was ambushed. His son, Phra Ong Mahapudisat was spared because he had royal blood.
  • King Phra Ong Mahapudisat: After Seri Mahawangsa's death, Langkasuka needed a successor that had a royal blood. Phra Ong Mahapudist was crowned king after his father's death.
  • Phra Ong Mahawangsa: He was the only son of Phra Ong Mahapudisat. He was originally Hindu, but when Islam first came to the Malay Peninsula, he became a Muslim, changed his name into Sultan Mudzafar Shah, and the Kingdom of Langkasuka into the Kedah Sultanate.
  1. A film made by KRU Studios named "The Malay Chronicles: Bloodlines" tells the life and adventures of Merong Mahawangsa.
  2. A Thai film named "Queens of Langkasuka" mentioned the Kingdom of Langkasuka being attacked by a rebellion allied with pirates.
  3. A Royal Malaysian Navy Vessel named KD Mahawangsa is named after Merong Mahawangsa's honor.

Tang Dynasty Tradition

The Advent of Islam in South China:

Descendants of Merong Mahawangsa Family Tree Charts

Malaysia: Land of the Nine Kings

The Siamese Kedah Pasai Ma is opened by Raja Merong Mahawangsa, grandchildren to Emperor Sai Tee Sung of the Tang Dynasty. They are descendents of Muslim who received Islam by Ibn Waqas who comes to China to propagate Islam (around 650M). Emperor Sai Tee Sung is the father to Emperor Shiekh Huang Ti Rom Chin Ser Wong. Sai Tee Sung ordered his son to build a mosque in “Khen Jang”. Source

The advent of Islam in South China makes a fascinating study. The earliest Muslims came to these parts by sea. Arab traders were known to have sailed to China even during the period beyond historical records. Records exist from 5th century A.D. (Tang Dynasty 618-907) which shows the route from Siraf in the Persian Gulf to Muscat in the Gulf of Oman, thence to the South Indian (Malabar) coast. From there the route continued to Ceylon (Sarandip), to Nicobar group of islands, to straits of Malacca, then round the South coast of the Malay Peninsula to the Gulf of Siam and thence to Canton and Hangchow in China.

According to Muslim traditions, when the early Muslims were being persecuted in Mecca some of them were allowed to migrate to Habash (Abyssinia) but most of them later came back, including the famous companions and muazzin Bilal. However, the Books of Individual Records noticed that four companions did not return, one of them being Abi Waqqas, a maternal uncle of the Holy Prophet. It is narrated that Abi Waqqas had gained favour with the Najashi King of Habash who had allowed him to sail to China.

This tallies with the account of Liu Chih (who wrote a 12-volume Life of the Prophet in Chinese in 1721 A.D.) according to which Abi Waqqas, the Holy Prophets maternal uncle, arrived in China with three other Sahaba. Broomhall gives the date of this arrival in China of the Sahaba. Broomhall gives the date of this arrival in China of the Sahaba as 611 A.D. The Chinese historian gives the date as 587 A.D. Both the dates are incorrect, since the first revelation to the Prophet came in 611 A.D. and the first batch of Muslim emigrants went to Abyssinia in 615 A.D. Abi Waqqas could not have reached Canton before 616 A.D.) Abi Waqqas then went back to Arabia to being the Holy Quran and came to China the second time after 21 years. . . . Continued


"Melihat kembali sejarah warisan bangsa dari sudut dan pandangan tempatan dan bukannya dari sudut dan pandangan barat, kearah merakamkan sejarah negara yang sebenar dan bukan lagi rekaan penjajah dan sekutu2nya."

This is a record of the family of TUANKU NAI LONG KASSIM IBNI TUANKU NAI LONG AHMAD. His family tree can be viewed in

This can also be viewed under the header EMPAYAR ISLAM BENUA SIAM KEDAH in Google.

The person most competent on this matter is Researcher Professor Dr Saad Othman.