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Selma to Montgomery marches March 7–25, 1965 (18 days)

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  • Julian Bond (1940 - 2015)
    Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015), known as Julian Bond, was an American social activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement, politician, professor, and writer. While a studen...
  • Robert "Bob" Parris Moses
    Robert Parris Moses (born January 23, 1935 in Harlem, New York, also known as Bob Moses) is an American educator and civil rights activist, known for his work as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coor...
  • Fannie Lou Hamer (1917 - 1977)
    Fannie Lou Hamer (born Fannie Lou Townsend on October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader. She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi Freedo...
  • Hubert H. Humphrey, 38th Vice President of the USA (1911 - 1978)
    Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978), served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States. Humphrey twice served as a United States Sena...
  • Everett Dirksen, U.S. Senator (1896 - 1969)
    Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was an American politician of the Republican Party. He represented Illinois in the U.S. House of Representatives (1933–1949) and U.S. Se...

Important Note: As of 12/6/2018 this Project will be a Work in Progress(WIP). I (CLM) will have to format it but please continue to add profiles.

Events , Issues and Results that led to the March on Selma:

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

Civil Rights Act of 1866: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1866

Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disenfranchisement_after_the_Reconstruction_Era

Black Codes (United States): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Codes_(United_States)

Voter Supression: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voter_suppression

Poll Taxes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poll_taxes_in_the_United_States

Literacy Test: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy_test

Social Gospel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Gospel

Smith v Allwright (1944) SCOTUS Case: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smith_v._Allwright

Selma to Montgomery Marches Bloody Sunday Events: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#"Bloody_Sunday"_events

Tear Gas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tear_gas

Baton(Law Enforcement): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baton_(law_enforcement)

Police brutality: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police_brutality

Demostration: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstration_(protest)

Voting Civil Rights Act of 1965: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965

African-American Civil Rights Movement: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_civil_rights_movement_(1954%E2%80%931968)

Civil Rights Murder at Selma Cafe: https://findery.com/Chung123/notes/civil-rights-murder-at-selma-cafe

Murder of Jimmie Lee Jackson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Jimmie_Lee_Jackson

Jim Crow Laws: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Crow_laws

Freedom Riders: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Riders

Reverend-Doctor Martin Luther King,Jr's Speech- How Long Not Long: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_Long,_Not_Long

Letter from a Selma Jail: https://www.crmvet.org/lets/650407_selma_let2.pdf https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1965/04/10/letter-from-selma https://www.bostonglobe.com/magazine/2011/07/17/letter-from-selma/hsjPWW3tqnTDLPFJhusOfM/story.html https://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/Selma/Selma/ https://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2015/01/selma_cellmate_of_the_rev_mart.html

Black Belt Summer Project: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Summer https://www.cbcfinc.org/village/lessons-from-the-1964-mississippi-freedom-summer-project/ https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/baygrowits/the-black-belt-of-alabama-a-photographic-essay https://blackpast.org/aah/freedom-summer-june-august-1964 https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/freedom-summer https://www.crmvet.org/docs/650000_sncc_blackblt-brochure.pdf

Areas and Places:

Selma,Alabama: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma,_Alabama

Dallas County,Alabama: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dallas_County,_Alabama

Dallas County Courthouse : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dallas_County,_Alabama

State of Alabama: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama

Selma High School: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_High_School

Selma to Montgomery: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_to_Montgomery_marches

Dallas County, Alabama Historic Markers and related items: https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=112370 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=81944 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=82037 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=112366 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=112354 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=112365 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=83578 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=37683 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=111689 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=37662 https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=111683. https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=111691 http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/document/pledge-card-get-rid-wallace

Brown Chapel A.M.E.Church. Selma, Dallas County, Alabama: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Chapel_A.M.E._Church_(Selma,_Alabama)

U.S. Route 80(US80) /(Dixie Overland Highway (1925)/ (Selma to Montgomery National Voting Rights Trail(1996): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_80 https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/us80.cfm https://www.nationalparks.org/explore-parks/selma-montgomery-national-historic-trail https://www.nps.gov/semo/index.htm https://civilrightstrail.com/experience/marching-for-the-right-to-vote/

Jefferson Davis Highway: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferson_Davis_Highway https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/jdavis.cfm https://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2016/06/the_twisted_history_of_the_jef.html

Edmond Pettus Bridge: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Pettus_Bridge https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/al4.htm https://civilrightstrail.com/attraction/edmund-pettus-bridge/ http://www.selma-al.gov/edmund-pettus-bridge/

Tuskegee University: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_University

Lowndes County , Alabama: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowndes_County,_Alabama

City of St.Jude: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_St._Jude

Organizations Involved: Note: Disclaimer: The mention and inclusion of these organizations in this project does not advocate endorsement of the organization. Furthermore, before anyone joins any organization one should investigate before joining.

United States Commission on Civil Rights: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Commission_on_Civil_Rights

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student_Nonviolent_Coordinating_Committee

Council of Federated Organizations: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Federated_Organizations

Citizens Councils: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizens%27_Councils

United States Department of Justice (DOJ): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Justice

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation

Ku Klux Klan: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ku_Klux_Klan

SCLC/ Southern Christian Leaders Conference: http://nationalsclc.org/about-us/history/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Christian_Leadership_Conference

MFDP /Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Freedom_Democratic_Party

NAACP/ National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAACP

SCOPE Project: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCOPE_Project

CORE/Congress of Racial Equality: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Racial_Equality

Dallas County Voters League: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dallas_County_Voters_League

Citizens Councils: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizens%27_Councils

John Birch Society: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Birch_Society

People Involved:

36th President of the United State of America Lyndon B.Johnson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson

Attorney-General Robert F. Kennedy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_F._Kennedy

Former Florida Governor Leroy Collins: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeRoy_Collins

38th Vice- President of the United States of America Hubert Humphrey: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Humphrey

Bernard Lafayette: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Lafayette

Colia Clark: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colia_Clark

Charles Sherrod: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sherrod

Bob Moses(Activist): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Moses_(activist)

Nicholas Katzenbach: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Katzenbach

Henri Nouwen: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Nouwen

Viola Liuzzo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Liuzzo

Spider Martin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_Martin

James Karales: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Karales

William (Bill) Hansen: http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=4772

Amelia Boynton Robinson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Boynton_Robinson

J.L.Chestnut: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._L._Chestnut

Marie Foster: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Foster

Frederick D. Reese: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_D._Reese

John William McCormack: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_William_McCormack

Courtland Cox: https://snccdigital.org/people/courtland-cox/ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/videos/category/history/courtland-coxs-view-from-the-march-on-washi/ https://humanitieswritlarge.duke.edu/people/courtland-cox https://www.sncclegacyproject.org/about/board-of-directors https://www.loc.gov/item/2015669129/?q=alabama https://www.crmvet.org/nars/ccox15.htm https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/stokely-carmichael-charlie-cobb-and-courtland-cox-discuss-philosophy-sncc-part-3 https://nmaahc.si.edu/object/nmaahc_2011.174.30.1a-i

Patricia Swift Blalock: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patricia_Swift_Blalock

Jim Clark(Sheriff): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Clark_(sheriff)

Reverend-Doctor Martin Luther King Jr. : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr.

Bob Mantis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Mants

James Bevel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bevel

James Forman: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Forman

Joseph Smitherman: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Smitherman

Alabama Governor George Wallace : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Wallace

James Reeb: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Reeb

Ralph Abernathy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Abernathy

Abraham Joshua Heschel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Joshua_Heschel

Frank Minis Johnson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Minis_Johnson

Ambassador- Mayor Andrew Young: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Young

Joseph Ellwanger: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Ellwanger

Fannie Lou Hamer: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fannie_Lou_Hamer

Annie Lee Cooper: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Lee_Cooper

U.S. Representative 5th Georgia Congressional District-Civil Rights Leader John Lewis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lewis_(civil_rights_leader)

James E.Gildersleeve: http://crdl.usg.edu/people/g/gildersleeve_james_e_james_edward_1918_2004/?Welcome http://www.rootsandrecombinantdna.com/2015/03/selma-glory-in-my-familys-blood-james-e.html https://www.selmatimesjournal.com/2004/06/27/a-courageous-man-james-gildersleeve-1918-2004/

Archbishop Iakovos of America: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbishop_Iakovos_of_America https://usa.greekreporter.com/2017/01/16/archbishop-iakovos-why-i-supported-martin-luther-king-in-selma/ https://orthodoxwiki.org/Iakovos_(Coucouzis)_of_America

Albert J. Lingo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_J._Lingo

Fay Bellamy Powell: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fay_Bellamy_Powell

James Bevel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bevel

Diane Nash: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diane_Nash

James Orange: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Orange

Hosea Williams: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosea_Williams

Stokely Carmicheal: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokely_Carmichael

Everett Dirksen: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everett_Dirksen

James Forman: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Forman

Prathia Hall: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prathia_Hall

Joseph Smitherman: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Smitherman

Mike Mansfield: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Mansfield

Wilson Baker and Jim Clark: http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/m-6000

Richie Jean Jackson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richie_Jean_Jackson

Ralph Abernathy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Abernathy

Ruby Doris Robinson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_Doris_Smith-Robinson https://snccdigital.org/people/ruby-doris-smith-robinson/ https://blackpast.org/aah/robinson-ruby-doris-smith-1942-1967 http://crdl.usg.edu/people/r/robinson_ruby_doris_smith_1941_1967/?Welcome https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/robinson-ruby-doris-smith-1942-1967 https://mith.umd.edu/womensstudies/ReadingRoom/BookReviews/fleming.html https://blackthen.com/ruby-doris-smith-robinson-a-leading-force-in-the-civil-rights-movement/

Bob Mants: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Mants https://snccdigital.org/people/bob-mants/ https://www.sncclegacyproject.org/robert-c-mants-jr https://blackthen.com/bob-mants-civil-rights-activist-sncc-field-secretary/

Julian Bond: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Bond https://www.naacp.org/julian-bond/ https://snccdigital.org/people/julian-bond/ https://www.notablebiographies.com/Be-Br/Bond-Julian.html https://www.sncclegacyproject.org/julian-bond https://www.nps.gov/features/malu/feat0002/wof/julian_bond.htm

Ralph Bunche: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Bunche

Abraham Joshua Heschel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Joshua_Heschel

Maurice Davies: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Davis

Joseph Ellwanger: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Ellwanger

Harry Belafonte: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Belafonte

Tony Bennett: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Bennett

Frankie Lane: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankie_Laine

Peter ,Paul, and Mary: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter,_Paul_and_Mary

Sammy Davis Jr.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammy_Davis_Jr.

Joan Baez: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Baez

Nina Simone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nina_Simone

The Chad Mitchell Trio: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Chad_Mitchell_Trio

Jonathan Daniels: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Daniels

James Karales: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Karales

Peter Yarrow: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Yarrow

Paul Stookey: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Stookey

Mary Travers: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Travers

Lee C. White: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_C._White

John Doar: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Doar

Attorney Fred Gray: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Gray_(attorney)

FBI Director J.Edgar Hoover: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover

Bayard Rustin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayard_Rustin

Richie Jean Jackson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richie_Jean_Jackson

Mahalia Jackson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahalia_Jackson

Frank Minis Johnson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Minis_Johnson https://www.jacksonfoundationandmuseum.com/

Roy Reed Obituary: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/roy-reed-who-covered-civil-rights-for-new-york-times-dies-at-87/2017/12/13/cec35a4a-e027-11e7-8679-a9728984779c_story.html?utm_term=.13862d05f43e https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Reed

Marion Barry: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marion_Barry

Ivanhoe Donaldson: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/dc-news/ivanhoe-donaldson-civil-rights-organizer-confidant-of-marion-barry-dies-at-74/2016/04/05/f6d40b0e-fa0c-11e5-80e4-c381214de1a3_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.5ceb33bb9ca1 https://snccdigital.org/people/ivanhoe-donaldson/ https://blackpast.org/aah/donaldson-ivanhoe-1941-2016 https://lannan.georgetown.edu/2010/02/ivanhoe-donaldson

Cleveland Sellers: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleveland_Sellers

Dr. Silas Norman, Jr. M.D: https://snccdigital.org/people/silas-norman/ https://www.sncclegacyproject.org/silas-norman https://www.med.wayne.edu/news/2015/07/17/dr-silas-norman-jr-longtime-leader-dies-at-age-74/

Wilson Brown: https://snccdigital.org/people/wilson-brown/

Chris Heinz: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4309483?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents https://books.google.com/books?id=MTn8CT5SNp4C&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=chris+heinz+civil+rights&source=bl&ots=A3KF0NWwyk&sig=qgyAWUx845MNSzst_dgxWA1BePQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjzt_f2kYzfAhUoU98KHR5hBP0Q6AEwD3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=chris%20heinz%20civil%20rights&f=false

Frederick D. Reese: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_D._Reese https://www.montgomeryadvertiser.com/story/news/2018/04/05/civil-rights-leader-f-d-reese-dies-88/491276002/ https://www.biography.com/people/frederick-d-reese-21415883 http://www.legacy.com/news/celebrity-deaths/notable-deaths/article/frederick-d-reese-1929-2018-civil-rights-activist-led

Marie Foster: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Foster https://aaregistry.org/story/marie-foster-an-alabama-original/

Malcolm X: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X

Films and Media: The following is a handful of books and media sources for further research.

Selma(2014/Film): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_(film)

Courtland Cox Interview: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/videos/category/history/courtland-coxs-view-from-the-march-on-washi/

Note: Most of the names of the people, organizations, and places came from the book by Georgia Representative John Lewis and Michael D'Orso.Please consider reading this book. https://books.google.com/books/about/Walking_with_the_Wind.html?id=YydJHpMtL2kC&hl=en http://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Walking-with-the-Wind/John-Lewis/9781476797717/browse_inside

The Story of Selma by Walter Mahan Jackson: https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Story_of_Selma.html?id=FItSmQEACAAJ

Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 by David J. Garrow: https://books.google.com/books/about/Protest_at_Selma.html?id=n6OL9LyhoG4C

From Selma to Montgomery: The Long March to Freedom Barbara Harris Combs: https://books.google.com/books/about/From_Selma_to_Montgomery.html?id=V003AgAAQBAJ

The Bridge at Selma Marilyn Miller: https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Bridge_at_Selma.html?id=BigqjMT9w_kC

Selma's Bloody Sunday Lucia Raatma: https://books.google.com/books/about/Selma_s_Bloody_Sunday.html?id=tBHb911NxJwC

Selma: the other side of 1965 P.H. Lewis: https://books.google.com/books/about/Selma.html?id=dITZAAAAMAAJ

New Directions in Civil Rights Studies edited by Armstead L. Robinson, Patricia Sullivan: https://books.google.com/books?id=MTn8CT5SNp4C&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=chris+heinz+civil+rights&source=bl&ots=A3KF0NWwyk&sig=qgyAWUx845MNSzst_dgxWA1BePQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjzt_f2kYzfAhUoU98KHR5hBP0Q6AEwD3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=chris%20heinz%20civil%20rights&f=false

Clay and Liston Restaurant Walker's Café Hudson High School

Marie Foster

Claude Brown Ernest Doyle

J.D. Hunter

Ulysses Blackmon Worth Long John Lou Avery Williams Hosea Williams George Lincoln Rockwell Annie Lee Cooper Torch Motel Charles Diggs Ed Koch Charles Mathias Ogden Reid Augustus Hawkins Ramsey Clark James Dobyns Jimmie Lee Jackson