Christopher Martin, "Mayflower" Passenger

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Christopher Martin

Birthplace: Laughton, East Sussex, England, United Kingdom
Death: Died in Plymouth, Massachusetts
Immediate Family:

Husband of Marie Prower, "Mayflower" Passenger
Father of Nathaniel Martin

Occupation: Provisioner of the "Mayflower"
Managed by: Jonathan William Shea
Last Updated:

About Christopher Martin, "Mayflower" Passenger

Biographical Summary

Christopher Martin was born probably around 1580, probably in the vicinity of Great Burstead, Billericay, which is where he married the widowed Mrs. Mary Prower on 26 February 1606/7; she brought into the family her son from her previous marriage, Solomon Prower. Christopher and Mary had a child together, Nathaniel Martin, baptized on 26 February 1609/10 in Billericay. No other children are recorded to the couple.

On Easter in 1612, Christopher Martin got into some trouble with the ecclesiastical authorities for refusing to kneel at communion--an indication that he had a bit of Puritan in him. In 1617, Chistopher Martin invested £25 in Ralph Hamor's company traveling to Virginia. He and step-son Solomon then had another run-in, this time with the Archdeaconry Court at Chelmsford in 1619, for refusing to follow Catholic ritual. In May 1620, he purchased four shares of the Virginia Company from Captain George Percey, with the apparent intention of going to Virginia. He shortly thereafter became involved in the Pilgrims attempt to procure passage to Virginia, and was placed in charge of purchasing the provisions for the Mayflower. For the voyage, he was elected governor of the Speedwell.

Christopher Martin's governing abilities were heavily criticized by the passengers, however. Passenger and assistant Robert Cushman wrote:

Mr. Martin . . . so insulteth over our poor people, with such scorn and contempt, as if they were not good enough to wipe his shoes. It would break your heart to see his dealing, and the mourning of our people; they complain to me, and alas! I can do nothing for them. If I speak to him, he flies in my face as mutinous, and saith no complaints shall be heard or received but by himself, and saith they are froward and waspish, discontented people, and I do ill to hear them. There are others that would lose all they have put in, or make satisfaction for what they have had, that they might depart; but he will not hear them, nor suffer them to go ashore, lest they should run away. The sailors are so offended at his ignorant boldness in meddling and controlling in things he knows not what belongs to, as that some threaten to mischief him . . .

Christopher Martin, his wife Mary, and his step-son all died the first winter at Plymouth.

Additional Resources

The most thorough study of Christopher Martin is found in R.J. Carpenter's Christopher Martin, Great Burstead, and the Mayflower (England: Fact and Fiction, 1993).

Christopher was Governor, the representative of the Adventurers who provided the money for provisions and hiring of the s hip. He was a large, red faced man, selfl-important, pugnac ious, fat and breathless. At the end of the journey he wa s a changed man--having lost his good red color and such a n amount of flesh his slovernly clothes hung loosely upon h im, his face a sickly yellow, patched with scurfy areas. Tr easusrer Martins accounts were not in the best condition an d he sent for John Carver concerning them the day before h e died. Gov. William Bradford in his history said, "Marti n brought with him his wife and two children, one of whom Solomon died".

"Mr . Christopher Martin and his wife and two servants, Solomon Prower, and John Langmore came aboard the Mayflower."

Christopher Martin was born on 8 Jan 1575. He died on 21 Jan 1620/1621 on board the Mayflower/at sea. He married Marie Prower on 26 Feb 1607 in Billerica,Essex,England.

died on Mayflower

A Passenger and Governor (and Provisioner) of the "Mayflower" and 9th signer of the Compact. Apparently died in the first winter on January 8th, 1621 of 'infection' at Plymouth Colony 23 days from the time the Mayflower dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor on December 16, 1620.

However, as the Mayflower records indicate, the Martins who came on the ship died the first winter and left no children in America.

Among the 102 passengers who boarded The Mayflower at Plymouth on 6 September 1620 was Christopher Martin, the ship’s provisioner. Previously serving as churchwarden at Great Burstead’s St Mary Magdalene’s Church, he and Marie Prower married there in 1607. He is believed to have owned the Chantry House at 61 High Street, Billericay, where the emigrants prayed on the evening before the start of their epic journey onvthe Mayflower. Billerica in Massachusetts was established in 1655 and is now twinned with Billericay, Essex.

William Bradford's Register of Some of the First Deaths at Plymouth

The information given below concerning the deaths of passengers on the Mayflower has been extracted from Thomas Prince's A Chronological History of New-England, in the Form of Annals (Boston, N.E., 1736; Edinburgh Private printing, 1887-1888), 5 vols. In volume 3, Prince lists at intervals extracts from "A Register of Governor Bradford's in his own hand, recording some of the first deaths, marriages and punishments at Plymouth." According to Robert Charles Anderson's three volume The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 (New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995), p. 1809, this register has subsequently been lost.

November & December, 1620

During the voyage

William Butten: November 6, 1620 "the only passenger who dies on the voyage," Bradford (Prince), vol. 3, p. 8.

While at anchor off Cape Cod between November 9 and December 8, 1620

Edward Thompson: December 4, "servant to Master White, the first that dies since their arrival," Ibid., p. 12.

Jasper More: December 6, "a boy of Master Carver's," Ibid.

Dorothy Bradford: December 7, "wife to Master William Bradford," Ibid.

James Chilton: December 8, Ibid.

After dropping anchor in Plymouth Harbor, 16 December, 1620 and through the departure of the Mayflower on April 5, 1621

Richard Britteridge: December 21, "the first who dies in this harbour," Ibid., p. 17.

Solomon Martin (Prower): December 24, "the sixth and last who dies this month," Ibid.

January, 1621

Digory Priest: January 1, "the year begins with the death of Degory Priest," Ibid., p. 29.

Christopher Martin: January 8, "this day dies Master Christopher Martin," Ibid., p. 30.

Rose Standish: January 29 "Dies Rose, the wife of Captain Standish," Ibid., p. 31. N.B. This month, Eight of our number die.

William Bradford's list of "Decreasings and Increasings," 1650

William Bradford's list of passengers on the Mayflower follows the final entries of his original manuscript on the history of Plymouth Plantation. Immediately after the list, he writes:

       I have thought it not unworthy my pains to take a view of the decreasings and increasings of these persons and such changes as hath passed over them and theirs in this thirty years [Bradford evidently wrote this in 1650]. (Bradford, p. 443)

Later in the list he comments:

       "Of these hundred persons which came first over in this first ship together, the greater half died in the general mortality, and most of them in two or three months' time." (Bradford, p. 447)

Martin, Christopher: "Mr. Martin, he and all his died in the first infection, not long after the arrival," Bradford, p. 445.

from The Plymouth Colony Archive Project


© 2000 Copyright and All Rights Reserved

by Patricia Scott Deetz and James Deetz

He was a leader of the "Strangers," represented the Adventurers and was governor on the Mayflower in 1620 when it first sailed. He may have continued in this position after the Speedwell had to stay back in England or he may have relinquished that position to Carver. He was the acting purchasing agent at Southampton but was unable to account for the money entrusted to him. Bradford had nothing good to write about him. Records state that he and all his died in the first infection which probably eliminated a source of potential trouble in the life of the new colony. Some sources stated that he died on the Mayflower; others say he died after they arrived.

Obviously, the records weren't totally accurate as his daughter Alice survived.

Rebuttal to the point above:

When using you must look at the sources of the information that you are seeing. Some comes from extracted records and is reliable, but some comes from other sources, such as church member submissions, and is not reliable. What you saw was apparently an IGI entry submitted by a church member.

Christopher and Mary (___) (Prowe/Prower) Martin had only one recorded child, Nathaniel, bp. Great Burstead 26-Feb-1609/10, and apparently alive there in 1620, per the well-researched "Christopher Martin, Great Burstead and The Mayflower" by R. J. Carpenter (Chelmsford, Essex, England: Barstable Book, 1982), which cites English church and court records. Mary was the widow of a man named Prowe/Prower, given name unknown, and Mary's surname is unknown.

"Solomon Martin" was actually Solomon Prower, Mary's son by her first marriage, who also came on the Mayflower (Bradford listed him as one of the Martins' two servants) and died at Plymouth on 24-Dec-1620. Christopher Martin died at Plymouth on board the Mayflower on 08-Jan-1620/21, and his wife Mary died at Plymouth some time during that first winter.

Dale H. Cook, Member, NEHGS and MA Society of Mayflower Descendants; Plymouth Co. MA Coordinator for the USGenWeb Project Administrator of

Christopher Martin (1582-1621)

Mayflower Passenger

Christopher Martin was one of the 41 Pilgrims to sign the Mayflower Compact. He died shortly after arriving in Plymouth.

view all 11

Christopher Martin, "Mayflower" Passenger's Timeline

Laughton, East Sussex, England, United Kingdom
December 17, 1592
Age 18
Andover, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom
February 26, 1607
Age 33
Great Burstead, Billerica, Essex, England
February 26, 1609
Age 35
Billerica, Essex, , England
September 6, 1620
- September 16, 1620
Age 46
Plymouth, England

Mayflower voyage[edit]
Winslow and his wife Elizabeth were part of the Leiden Separatist group who had decided to travel far away from England and the repressive regime of King James I to more freely practice their religious beliefs. Merchant Adventurer investment group agent Thomas Weston assisted in this venture by providing the ship Mayflower for the Pilgrim's journey. Traveling on the Mayflower in company with the Winslows were his brother Gilbert and family servant/employee George Soule and a youth, Elias Story. Also in the care of the family was Elinor (Ellen) More, a girl of eight years. In all there were four unaccompanied More children from Shipton, Shropshire in the care of senior Pilgrims on the Mayflower: Elinor, Jasper, Mary and Richard.[7][8][9] Elinor perished the winter of 1620 with only one brother Richard More surviving.

Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899
The Mayflower departed Plymouth, England on September 6/16, 1620. The small, 100-foot ship had 102 passengers and the crew is estimated to be approximately 30 but the exact number is unknown.[10] They lived in extremely cramped conditions. By the second month out, the ship was being buffeted by strong westerly gales, causing the ship‘s timbers to be badly shaken with caulking failing to keep out sea water, and with passengers, even in their berths, lying wet and ill. This, combined with a lack of proper rations and unsanitary conditions for several months, attributed to what would be fatal for many, especially the majority of women and children. On the way there were two deaths, a crew member and a passenger, but the worst was yet to come after arriving at their destination when, in the space of several months, almost half the passengers perished in cold, harsh, unfamiliar New England winter

Not listed on geni currently:
William Holbeck, John Hooke, Desire Minter, Elias Story, Roger Wilder, Humility Cooper,

November 9, 1620
- November 19, 1620
Age 46
Plymouth Rock on the Mayflower

On November 9/19, 1620, after about 3 months at sea, including a month of delays in England, they spotted land, which was the Cape Cod Hook, now called Provincetown Harbor. After several days of trying to get south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, where they anchored on November 11/21. The Mayflower Compact was signed that day.[11][12]

November 11, 1620
Age 46
Provincetown, Massachusetts, USA
November 11, 1620
Age 46
Provincetown, Massachusetts, USA
November 21, 1620
- November 22, 1620
Age 46
Provincetown Harbor, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States

Signers not currently listed on Geni but we still need to honor:
John Rigsdale, John Crackstone/Crackston, Richard Britteridge, Thomas English, Edward Lester, Richard Gardiner, Edmund Margesson, Thomas Tinker, John Goodman, Thomas Williams, Richard Clarke

On November 9/19, 1620, after about 3 months at sea, including a month of delays in England, they spotted land, which was the Cape Cod Hook, now called Provincetown Harbor. After several days of trying to get south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, where they anchored on November 11/21. The Mayflower Compact was signed that day.[11][12]

Although the original document has been lost,[7] three versions exist from the 17th century: printed in Mourt's Relation (1622),[8][9] which was reprinted in Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625),[10] hand written by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation (1646),[11] and printed by Bradford's nephew Nathaniel Morton in New-Englands Memorial (1669).[7] The three versions differ slightly in wording and significantly in spelling, capitalization and punctuation.[9] William Bradford wrote the first part of Mourt's Relation, including its version of the compact, so he wrote two of the three versions. The wording of those two versions is indeed quite similar, unlike that of Morton. Bradford's handwritten manuscript is kept in a vault at the State Library of Massachusetts.[12]

Modern version
In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian faith and honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God, and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic; for our better ordering, and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 1620.[13]

The 'dread sovereign' referred to in the document used the archaic definition of dread—meaning awe and reverence (for the King). Also, as noted above, the document was signed under the Old Style Julian calendar, since England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752. The Gregorian date would be November 21.
Mayflower Compact signatories
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899
Main article: Mayflower Compact
The Mayflower Compact was the iconic document in the earliest history of America. It was ratified by forty-one men on board the Pilgrim ship Mayflower on November 11, 1620 while anchored at Cape Cod - now Provincetown Harbor in Massachusetts. The Compact was originally drafted as an instrument to maintain unity and discipline in this new land they would call Pllojhymouth Colony but over time has become one of the most historic documents in American History.

When it was later published in London in Mourt's Relation in 1622, the authors had added a preamble that clarified its meaning: "it was thought good there should be an association and agreement, that we should combine together in one body, and to submit to such government and governors as we should by common consent agree to make and choose."

On November 11, it was intention of the Pilgrim leadership that before anyone set foot on land, each man healthy enough to write his name, or, if he could not write, mark with an X, must sign the Compact.

The passengers probably assembled in the ship’s great cabin – about thirteen by seventeen feet, with two windows on the stern and one window on either side. Beginning with Governor John Carver and ending with Edward Lester, forty-one men signed the Compact. Nine adult males on board did not sign the document – some had been hired as seamen only for one year and others were probably too ill to write. In accordance with cultural and legal custom of the times, no women signed the document.[1][2]

The wording of the Mayflower Compact comes from William Bradford’s manuscript, apparently copied from the original document. Per author Caleb Johnson, the original of the Mayflower Compact has long been lost, possibly during Revolutionary War looting. The text was first published in 1622 and then in Bradford’s journal from about 1630. But Bradford did not have a list, or even gave a suggestion of the names of the signers. Per author Eugene Stratton, the secretary for Plymouth Colony, Nathaniel Morton, in his 1669 New Englands Memoriall, provides both the Compact and a list of signers, and many persons have thought that this list was an actual transcript of the names of all the signers and in the sequence of their signing.

The list of signers was published at least twice in the 18th century but each time based apparently on Morton’s 1669 list and not the original. So for many years there has been confusion about the actual list of signers with some writing "If we suppose this compact to have been signed by all the adult male passengers, it would seem that other names besides those which Morton has given should have been included." And "Morton apparently copied from Bradford and not from the original sheet on which the compact had been written and signed."

The Morton signer list from 1669 is what most Mayflower scholars have used when compiling a list of those who signed the Mayflower Compact. It is that list that basically appears to be in use in the Stratton book on page 413 and that is what is used here. There are some variations in the spelling of names between Stratton’s list and Morton’s 1669 list and those 13 instances are also noted here.[3][4]

John Carver - An early associate of Bradford and Brewster who became a prominent member of the English Separatist church in Leiden, Holland where he was church deacon. With Robert Cushman, he was an agent for the Leideners in organizing in 1620 for the Mayflower voyage. A prosperous man, he invested a large portion of his personal wealth in the voyage. He came on the Mayflower with his wife and five servants, one of whom, Roger Wilder, died early along with a 7-year boy in his care, Jasper More, one of the earliest to die, and one of the four More children on board. He was the first governor of Plymouth Colony and died suddenly at age 56, in April or May 1621 with his wife dying shortly thereafter. His legacy was overshadowed by his failure to provide a return to Mayflower’s London investors, much to their vexation against him. The Fortune in November 1621 carried angry Merchant Adventurer letters addressed to him but by then he was already long deceased.[5][6][7]

William Bradford - An early convert to the Separatist Church in Nottinghamshire England who came to Leiden, Holland about 1608 and became prominent in the church there. He came on the Mayflower with his wife, leaving a young son in Leiden. His first wife Dorothy drowned while the ship was at anchor in Cape Cod Harbor. He became colony Governor after the death of John Carver, and was prominent in the Plymouth Church. His writings of early Plymouth Colony are important historic documents.[8][9]

Edward Winslow - A gentleman from a well-off family who was prominent in the Separatist church in Leiden and involved with Brewster in printing anti-English church religious tracts. He boarded the Mayflower with his wife and two servants, one of whom, Elias Story, died early along with an 8-year-old girl in his care, Ellen More. His wife died in March 1621. In May 1621 he married the widow of William White as the first wedding in Plymouth Colony. He was quite prominent in colony governmental, religious and Indian affairs. In 1646 he returned to England to join the anti-royalist government of Oliver Cromwell and died of fever in 1654 while on a military expedition in the Caribbean.[10][11][12]

William Brewster - In the 1580s he was an assistant to William Davison, secretary to Queen Elizabeth when Davison was a party to the 1587 execution of Mary Queen of Scots. About twenty years later Brewster was among those prominent in the early English Separatist church, emigrating to Holland in 1608 where he became Ruling Elder of the Leiden church. While in Leiden he was hunted by English authorities in England and Holland for printing seditious tracts against the English church forcing him to go into hiding until the Mayflower departure. He boarded the Mayflower with his wife, two sons and two of the four More children on the ship – Mary, age 4, who died early, and Richard, age 6, who survived. In Plymouth Colony Brewster was Ruling Elder of the Plymouth Church until his death in 1644 at age 80.[13][14][15]

Isaac Allerton - A Leiden Separatist and Merchant Adventurers originally from London, he boarded the Mayflower with his wife and three children. During his life he was a ship owner involved in New England and trans-Atlantic trading. In Plymouth Colony he was second in authority only to Governor Bradford in the colony’s early years. Later Bradford felt that Allerton had abused the colonists trust over many years and was forced to leave the colony in the 1630s.[16][17][18]

Myles Standish - (Name per Morton, 1669: Miles Standish) - Possibly from London, Standish had been a soldier of fortune, serving in the Low Countries in Europe prior to joining the Leiden contingent. There is evidence that he was not a member of the Leiden church but was associated with it. He came on the Mayflower with a wife named Rose who died early. He was the colony’s chief military officer and served the colony well in that capacity until his death in 1656.[19][20][21]

John Alden - He may have been from Harwich in county Essex, the hometown of Capt. Jones of the Mayflower to whom he was believed related by marriage. He was hired as a cooper. He married fellow Mayflower passenger Priscilla Mullins forming the basis of the famous Longfellow romantic poem. From the estate of Priscilla’s father William, the Aldens became quite prosperous with he becoming a prominent and influential colonist involved in many governmental activities over his long life.[22][23]

Samuel Fuller - He was prominent among the English Separatists living in Leiden Holland and later in the activities of Plymouth Colony. He left his family in Leiden and came on the Mayflower with only a young servant, William Butten, who died at sea a few days before reaching Cape Cod. He was the largely self-taught physician and surgeon of the colony and died in 1633 of an infectious fever that felled many that year.[24][25][26]

Christopher Martin - He was a prosperous leader of those non-religious persons known as "Strangers" on the Mayflower as well as being a representative of the Merchant Adventurer investment group. He came on the ship with his wife and two servants, one of whom was his step-son Solomon Prower, and John Langmore, both of whom died early deaths. He was chosen as "governor" of the Speedwell, and when it was forced to remain in England, of the Mayflower. He had acrimonious issues with the passengers on the Speedwell and later on the Mayflower as well as issues regarding the purchase of voyage supplies which necessitated his removal by those in authority while at sea. In Plymouth, Solomon Prower died on December 24, 1620 with Martin dying in January 1621. His wife also died in the first winter.[27][28][29]

William Mullins - He was a merchant shareholder in the Merchant Adventurers investment group. Bradford called him one of the more prosperous of the Mayflower passengers, traveling with his wife, son and daughter. Also servant Robert Carter, who died early in 1621. He had left two children in England, William Jr., who emigrated in 1636, and eldest daughter Sarah, the administrator of his estate. Mullins died in February 1621 with his wife and son dying sometime after, but before November 1621. Only his daughter Priscilla survived to marry John Alden with her Mullins inheritance making them a prosperous colonial family.[30][31][32]

William White - Apparently a prosperous London merchant who came to the Mayflower with a family and two servants, one of whom, Edward Thompson, was one of the earliest to die on December 4, 1620 and William Holbeck, who died in early 1621. Sometime in late November, while the ship was anchored in Cape Cod Harbor, his wife gave birth to a son named Peregrine historically known as the first white child born in New England. White died in February 1621 about the same day as William Mullins. His widow Susanna married Edward Winslow in May 1621 as the first marriage in the colony. Their son Josiah Winslow (or Josias Winslow) was a historic long-term colony governor with an English wife descended from royalty.[33][34]

Richard Warren - He was a London merchant whose family became one of the more prosperous in Plymouth Colony. He was prominent in colony affairs until his early death about 1628. His widow Elizabeth had come over on the Anne in 1623 with their five daughters and was able to legally assume some of his government duties after his death, unusual for a woman in that era.[35][36][37]

John Howland - He had no record of Leiden residence. He came on the Mayflower as a servant to John Carver, and upon Carver’s and his wife’s deaths, could have been the beneficiary of some of his estate which possibly contributed to his rapid rise as a colony leader. During his long life he was involved in numerous governmental and religious activities. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Tilley, and had a large family with many historic American descendants.[38][39]

Stephen Hopkins - (Name per Morton, 1669: Stevin Hopkins) He was apparently a prosperous person who boarded the Mayflower with his wife, four children (with one son born later at sea), and two servants. He was the only Mayflower passenger with prior New World experience being shipwrecked with others in Bermuda in 1609 for 9 months and who built two small ships for escape to Virginia. In Jamestown he worked for two years under Capt. John Smith and may have come in contact with the legendary Pocahontas, wife of a fellow Bermuda castaway, John Rolfe. His prior experience with Indians in Virginia served him well with Indian relationships in Plymouth Colony.[40][41][42]

Edward Tilley - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Tilly) He was from London and associated with Thomas Weston of the Merchant Adventurers before emigration. He and his wife were members of the Leiden contingent and both perished in the first winter, he probably in January 1621 from pneumonia caught from exploration in freezing weather. His brother John and wife also died that winter. In Edward’s care had been relatives Humility Cooper and Henry Samson who did survive and were as orphans in company with their relative Elizabeth Tilley, the sole survivor of the John Tilley family. Elizabeth would later marry John Howland.[43][44][45]

John Tilley - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Tilly) Older brother of Edward Tilley and as with his brother Edward and his wife, John and his wife both died in the first winter. Their daughter Elizabeth survived to marry John Howland and had a large family.[44][46][47]

Francis Cooke - (Name per Morton, 1669: Francis Cook) Early prominent member of the Leiden Separatists who was residing in Leiden well before the arrival of the English Separatists where he married a French Walloon, Hester Mayhieu. He came over in 1620 accompanied by his son John with the rest of his family coming over on the Anne in 1623. Over his long life he was involved in many colony military and governmental activities. He died in 1695.[48][49][50]

Thomas Rogers - He was a merchant in Leiden and a member of the Separatist church. His eldest son Joseph came with him on the Mayflower and survived him when his father died in the first winter.[51][52][53]

Thomas Tinker - He and his unnamed wife and son were all members of the Leiden contingent. All three died in the first winter.[54][55][56]

John Rigsdale - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Ridgdale) John Rigsdale and his wife Alice were from London. They both died in the early weeks of the colony. Banks has his name as "Rigdale."[57][58][59]

Edward Fuller - He arrived with his wife and son Samuel in company with his brother Samuel Fuller. No record of him in Leiden and may have joined his brother on the ship in Southampton. Both he and his wife died soon after arrival in Plymouth settlement, survived by their son Samuel, who joined the growing group of colony orphans. Another son Matthew came later to the colony.[60][61][62]

John Turner - One of the earliest members of the Leiden church, emigrating to Leiden from England with Bradford and Brewster and was a burgess of Leiden in 1610. He and his two unnamed sons came as members of the Leiden contingent and all died soon after arrival. He had a daughter named Elizabeth or "Lysbet" who came over later and married an unnamed husband in Salem.[63][64][65]

Francis Eaton - He may have been employed by the Merchant Adventurers as a carpenter for the Mayflower. He arrived with his wife Sarah and son Samuel with his wife soon dying. He had two more marriages and died in 1633.[66][67][68]

James Chilton - Author Charles Banks provides that his name was written as "James Chylton" in records of 1583. He was a Leiden Separatist who was about age 64 on the Mayflower making him the oldest passenger. His wife Susanna and daughter Mary came with him with another daughter Isabella coming later. Another daughter Ingle stayed in Leiden. He died on December 8, 1620 while the ship was still anchored in Cape Cod Harbor. His wife also died in the first winter. Mary Chilton married John Winslow.[44][69][70]

John Crackstone/Crackston - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Craxton) A Leiden Separatist who came with his son John. A married daughter Anne stayed in Leiden. He died the first winter in Plymouth with his son John dying shortly after the 1627 cattle division.[71][72][73]

John Billington - He came from London and boarded the Mayflower with a wife and two sons. A non-Separatist family who were quite troublesome for their fellow passengers and even Bradford admitted he knew not how they came to be associated with the Mayflower. After arrival in Plymouth they increasingly caused trouble for those in the colony and for the colony leaders. John Billington Sr. was hanged for murder in 1630, the first execution in the colony.[74][75][76]

Moses Fletcher - A Leiden Separatist who was a smith by occupation and at emigration listed Leiden as his place of residence. He died shortly after arrival in the colony. He left a family in Holland and from that came at least 20 great-grandchildren. Evidence exists of his descendants living today in Holland/Europe.[77][78][79]

John Goodman - A member of the Leiden congregation. He is thought to have died sometime after January 19, 1621 and at least by the cattle division of 1627.[80][81]

Degory Priest - (Name per Morton, 1669: Digery Priest) Aged about 40 in 1619, a Leiden Separatist member who was married to Sarah, sister of Isaac Allerton. He died early in January 1621, leaving a widow and two daughters. His wife returned to Holland, remarried, and came back on the Anne in 1623 with new husband Cuthbert Cuthbertson and her Priest daughters.[82][83][84]

Thomas Williams - He was about age 40 on the Mayflower. Bradford listed him as one of the adult men from Leiden. He and his sister lived in Leiden and were known to have been from Yarmouth in co. Norfolk. He died the first winter.[85][86]

Gilbert Winslow - He arrived with his brother Edward Winslow as part of his brother’s family. Apparently due to his brother’s established position, he was allowed to sign the Mayflower Compact although not yet age 21, being about 20 years then. He appeared in the 1623 land division and after a number of years in the colony, returned to England and died there.[87][88]

Edmund Margesson - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edmond Margeson) Author Charles Banks wrote that his name may have been "Edmund Masterson" who was the father of Richard Masterson of Leiden who came to Plymouth later. Author Caleb Johnson writes of his name being potentially "Margetson". He died soon after arrival.[89][90]

Peter Browne - (Name per Morton, 1669: Peter Brown) He was not a Leiden Separatist and was from the same hometown as William Mullins who also was not a Leidener. He married widow Mary Ford who may have been the only woman on the Fortune in 1621. She died in 1630 and he in 1633.[91][92][93]

Richard Britteridge - (Name per Morton, 1669: Richard Bitteridge) Probably from London, his name may have more likely been, per author Caleb Johnson, "Brightridge." He was not in Leiden records. He was the first person to die after the Mayflower reached Plymouth settlement dying on December 21, 1620, one of six passengers who died in December.[94][95][96]

George Soule - He arrived from London as a servant to Edward Winslow. In his long life he was involved in many colony public service activities. He died in 1679.[97][98][99]

Richard Clarke - (Name per Morton, 1669: Richard Clark) Probably not a member of the Leiden congregation. No other biographic information about him. He died soon after arrival.[100][101][102]

Richard Gardiner - Per author Caleb Johnson, his name may possibly have been "Gardinar." Banks wrote that he was a seaman employed by the Company to remain in the colony but instead returned to England. Banks also wrote that he was probably of Harwich in co. Essex, the hometown of Christopher Jones, Mayflower captain, and may have been related to him. He received one share in the colony land division of 1623 and in 1624 was a crew member of the Plymouth-based Little James. Bradford wrote that he became a seaman and may have died in England or at sea, although per Johnson he may been on the Little James when she returned to England in late 1624 as part of the Admiralty investigation into the shipwreck earlier that year.[103][104][105][106]

John Allerton - He was hired to stay in the colony for a year to work and then return to Leiden to assist others who wished to come to America, but died sometime in the early months of 1621. A possible relationship to Isaac Allerton but no documented evidence.[17][107]

Thomas English - He appeared in Leiden records as "Thomas England." He was a Mayflower seaman hired to be master of the ship’s light sailboat called a shallop, which was to be used for coastal transportation and trading. He died in the first winter sometime before the Mayflower departed on its return to England in April 1621.[108][109][110]

Edward Doty - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Doten) He was from London and came as a servant of Stephen Hopkins who also was from that city. Per author Caleb Johnson, his quick temper was the primary cause of numerous civil disturbances recorded against him in the over 30 years he lived in the colony. One of the first recorded was in June 1621 when he was in a sword and dagger fight with fellow Hopkins servant Edward Leister where both were lightly wounded and sentenced to public punishment.[109][110][111]

Edward Lester - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Liester) Banks credited him with various names such as Lester, Litster, Lister, and Lyster. Bradford gave his name as "Leister" ("Liester" in the 1669 version) which seems to be more correct per authors Caleb Johnson and Eugene Stratton. He came from London as a servant of Stephen Hopkins, completed his apprenticeship and then moved to Virginia Colony.[112][113][114]

January 18, 1621
Age 47
Plymouth, Massachusetts