Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England

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Edmund

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Wessex, England
Death: Died in London, Middlesex, England
Place of Burial: Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somersetshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Æthelred "the Unready", King of the English and Ælgifu
Husband of Ealdgyth and Ealdgyth, Queen consort of England
Father of Edward 'Atheling'; Edmund of England and Edward 'the Exile', Ætheling of England
Brother of Æthelstan; Eadred; Edgar; Edward; Eadwig and 6 others
Half brother of Ingelric of England; St. Edward the Confessor, King of the English; Ælfred Ætheling; Godgifu; Athelstan, Prince Of England and 9 others

Occupation: King of England, 1016, King of England from April to November 1016., King of England / Known as Ironsides, KING OF ENGLAND, 'IRONSIDE', King of England 1016, Roi, d'Angleterre, King of the English, Kung av England 23 April 1016 – 30 November 1016
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England

Edmund II "Ironside"

Son of Æthelred Unræd and Ælfleth Married: Ealdgyth (NOT daughter of Morcar, she was Sigeferth's widow - Sigeferth being Morcar's brother)

Sons: 1. Edward 2. Edmund

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AelfgifuNorthumbriaMAelfgarMercia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside

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Film on YouTube with info: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEE3BUF9Zv4

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EADMUND, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælflæd ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset[1871]). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1872]. Roger of Wendover records the birth in 981 of "rex Ethelredus…filium…Eadmundum"[1873], but this date is probably inaccurate if it is correct (as shown above) that Eadmund was his father´s third son, given King Æthelred´s birth in [966]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1874]. His name was listed after his brother Ecgberht, before the latter's disappearance from the records in 1005, consistent with Edmund being the third son. He subscribed his father's charter dated 1002 which granted land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing third among the brothers[1875], and "Eadmundus clito" subscribed his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, also signing third[1876]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1877]. After the murder of the brothers Sigeferth and Morcar, leading thegns in northern England, Edmund abducted and married Sigeferth's widow against his father's wishes. In Sep 1015, he proceeded north to retake the properties of his wife's first husband which had been confiscated by the king[1878]. In early 1016, Edmund devastated northwest Mercia in alliance with Uhtred Earl of Northumbria, but returned to London to rejoin his father shortly before he died. He was immediately proclaimed king on his father's death in 1016 by an assembly of northern notables and burghers of London[1879], succeeding as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England, crowned at Old St Paul's Cathedral in Apr 1016. The Witan had offered the throne to Knud of Denmark, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[1880]. King Edmund reconquered Wessex from Danish forces, and relieved London from the siege imposed by a Danish fleet. The Danes turned their attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford only to betray him again at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[1881]. At Alney, near Deerhurst, Edmund agreed a compromise division of the country with Canute, Edmund taking Wessex and Canute the north, but King Edmund died before this could be implemented. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Andrew's day 1016 of King Edmund and his burial at Glastonbury[1882]. According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[1883].

m (Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Jun/Aug] 1015) as her second husband, ÆLDGYTH, widow of SIGEFERTH, daughter of --- . The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "prince Edmund…abducted [Siferth's widow] against the king's will and made her his wife" but does not name her[1884]. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[1885]. According to Ronay, she was the daughter of Olof "Skotkonung" King of Sweden and his concubine Edla of Vindland, but the author cites no primary source to support this suggestion[1886]. If the assertion is correct, it is surprising that Ældgyth is not mentioned with the Swedish king's other children in the Saga of Olaf Haraldson[1887]. In addition, there would be no explanation for Ældgyth's first marriage to an obscure Northumbrian nobleman, especially as King Olof's two known daughters made high-profile marriages with the Grand Prince of Kiev and the king of Norway. Simeon of Durham records that, after Ældgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, Ældgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King Æthelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England[1888]. She was abducted and married, against the king's wishes, by her second husband who proceeded to take possession of her first husband's properties. No mention has been found of Queen Ældgyth after the death of her second husband.

King Edmund "Ironside" & his wife had two sons:

1. EDMUND ([1016/17]-before 1054). Edmund was the older of King Edward's sons according to William of Malmesbury[1889]. However, the brothers may have been twins as there is barely sufficient time between the king's marriage in Summer 1015 and his death in Nov 1016 for two children to have been conceived, the second son inevitably having been born posthumously if the births were separate. After his father's death, Edmund and his brother were smuggled out of England and ultimately found their way to Hungary. The sources are contradictory about the exact route of their flight and the chronology of each step. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [them] into Hungary"[1890]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edmund died prematurely[1891]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1892]. Roger of Wendover, presumably copying Florence of Worcester, records that "filios…regis Eadmundi, Eadwinum [error for "Eadmundus"] et Eadwardum" were sent "ad regem Suanorum" and from there to "Salomonem, Hungariæ regem"[1893]. Adam of Bremen records that the sons of "Emund" (whom he mistakenly calls "frater Adelradi") were "in Ruzziam exilio dampnati"[1894]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns…Edgar…li alters…Edelret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1895]. While the precise details may not at first sight appear important, as will be seen below the exact timing and location of each stage of their journey is highly significant in attempting to resolve the even more controversial issue of the identities of the wives of the two brothers. It is probably best to tackle the problem in reverse chronological order. We know that the younger brother Edward was recalled to England from Hungary with his young family in the mid-1050s (see below). Given the turbulent history of Hungary over the previous twenty years, with four changes of regime brought about by revolution and civil war between the competing religious and political factions[1896], it is unlikely that the two immigrant princes could have enjoyed continuity of favour with the country's different leaders throughout this period. The most likely case is that the English princes arrived in Hungary from Kiev in 1046 with King András I, when the latter was recalled to his native country after at least ten years' exile. It is not impossible that the princes had lived in Hungary in earlier years and accompanied András into exile, but this is unlikely. Prince András's father and brothers represented the traditional, tribal and heathen element in the Hungarian royal family, their banishment being due to clashes with the Catholic pro-western faction. If the English princes had been in Hungary in the 1030s, it seems improbable that, as Christians from western Europe, they would have been drawn to the heathen rather than the Catholic element. The more likely hypothesis is that they were already living in Kiev when András arrived there and that their ties with him were formed there. Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev married a Swedish princess in 1019. Assuming that the princes did journey through Sweden as reported by Florence of Worcester, the court at Kiev would have been a more obvious destination than Hungary for the young princes. The children may even have been part of the retinue of Ingigerd of Sweden when she travelled to Russia for her marriage. Whether the first leg of the brothers' journey from England was to Denmark or to Sweden is probably irrelevant for present purposes. According to William of Malmesbury, Edmund later died in Hungary[1897]. He must have died before his brother Edward was invited back to England, there being no mention of Edmund at that time. According to Weir[1898], he must have lived "at least into his teens", this assessment being based presumably on the fact of his supposed marriage (which is undated in Weir).

[m [HEDWIG] of Hungary, daughter of --- King of Hungary & his wife ---. Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edmundo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "Hungariorum regem…filiam suam"[1899]. Geoffrey Gaimar recounts that "Edgar" (older of the two children of King Edmund whom he names incorrectly in an earlier passage) made "la fille al rei [de Hungrie]" pregnant, was married to her and appointed heir by her father, but adding confusingly that they were parents of "Margarete" who married "rei Malcolom"[1900]. The basis for this story, and whether there is any element of truth hidden somewhere in it, is unknown. Edmund's wife is named Hedwig in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family[1901], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. In the absence of further information, the accuracy of these reports must be considered dubious as none of the Hungarian kings during the first half of the 11th century provides an obvious match. In the case of King István, it is likely that all his daughters predeceased their father in view of the accession of his nephew, King Péter, when he died. In any case, his daughters would have been beyond child-bearing age when the ætheling Edmund arrived in Hungary, assuming that this arrival took place in [1046] as explained above. As the ætheling brothers were closely linked to King András I, it is unlikely that Edmund would have married a daughter of either of his disgraced predecessors King Péter or King Samuel Aba, and any daughters of the former at least would have been too young for such a marriage. Finally, any daughters of King András himself would certainly have been too young for the marriage. There is therefore considerable doubt about the historical authenticity of this Hungarian princess or her marriage to Edmund.]

2. EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man"[1902]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns"[1903]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1904]. According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia"[1905]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns…Edgar…li alters…Edelret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1906]. Edward´s life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay[1907]. Humphreys infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev[1908]. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England"[1909], according to Florence of Worcester to be groomed to succeed to the English throne[1910]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival"[1911] before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place[1912]. m (Kiev[1913] [1040/45]) AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources[1914], but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars"[1915] can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici"[1916], in a passage which Humphreys speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"[1917]), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman"[1918] and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"[1919]). Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edwardo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "filiam germani sui Henrici imperatoris…Agatha"[1920]. Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recounting the ancestry of Henry II King of England[1921]. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungarian] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]) she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum"[1922]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem"[1923], the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. Lastly, Roger of Wendover records that "Eadwardus" married "reginæ Hungariæ sororem…Agatham"[1924]. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1925], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then[1926]. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040[1927], when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043[1928], when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support[1929]. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian origin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1930]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1931]. According to Weir, in old age, possibly after the death of her daughter Queen Margaret, she became a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne[1932], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Edward & his wife had three children:

a) MARGARET ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][1933], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin, as discussed above. Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1934]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1935]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[1936]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[1937]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[1938]. m (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) as his second wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).

b) CHRISTINA ([in Hungary] [1050/53]-after 1090). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1939]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1940]. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus…germana Christina" entered Romsey abbey as a nun in [1086][1941]. Eadmer of Canterbury (writing [1093]-[1122]) comments about the religious life of Christina and her strict control in the 1090s over her niece Edith, who later married to Henry I King of England[1942].

c) EDGAR ætheling ([1053/55]-after 1126). After King Harold II's defeat at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, Ealdred Archbishop of York, Earls Edwin and Morcar, and the citizens of London supported Edgar as successor to King Harold II[1943]. However, his support quickly collapsed and he swore allegiance to King William "the Conqueror" at Berkhamsted, before the latter made his way to London. Florence of Worcester records that "clitonem Edgarum" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][1944]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edgar left England with his mother and sisters in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1945]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1946]. He marched on York in 1069. He left for Flanders in exile, but returned to Scotland 8 Jul 1074. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" left Scotland for England in [1073], and went to Normandy where he made peace with King William[1947]. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" went to Apulia with 200 knights in [1086][1948]. Florence of Worcester records that Edgar lived in Scotland after being expelled from Normandy by King William I, but was invited back to England by Robert Comte de Mortain in 1091 in order to negotiate peace between Malcolm King of Scotland and King William II after King Malcolm invaded Northumberland[1949]. He led the army sent by King William II to Scotland in 1097 to expel King Duncan II and install his nephew Edgar as king[1950]. "…Edgari aederling…" subscribed the charter dated 30 Aug 1095 under which "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi"[1951]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[1952]. Forces under his command captured Latakia in Mar 1098 before handing it to Robert III Duke of Normandy, according to Orderic Vitalis who calls Edgar "indolent"[1953]. He supported Robert Duke of Normandy in his fight with his brother Henry I King of England in 1106, and was taken prisoner by the king at the battle of Tinchebrai but released soon after. The primary source which records that he was still alive in 1126 has not yet been identified. [Mistress (1): ---. No record has been found that Edgar ætheling ever married. However, the 1157 Pipe Roll entry quoted below suggests that he may have had descendants. If this is correct, it is probable that it was an illegitimate line as there is no record of their having claimed the throne. [Edgar had one [illegitimate] child by Mistress (1)]:

i) [---. This descent is completely speculative. However, the most obvious explanation for the 1157 Pipe Roll entry quoted below is that Edgar ætheling left descendants, presumably through an illegitimate child as there is no record of their having claimed the throne. m ---.] One child:

(a) [EDGAR "Ætheling" . The 1157 Pipe Roll records "Edgar Ætheling" in Northumberland[1954]. If his descent from Edgar ætheling is correct, it would be consistent from a chronological point of view if Edgar was the senior Edgar´s grandson.] -------- Edmund was the: Second husband of Ealdgyth, widow of Sigefreth:

ARNGRIM. m ---. The name of Arngrim's wife is not known. Arngrim & his wife had two children:

a) SIGEFERTH (-murdered Oxford summer 1015). Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[715]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Sigeferth, an estate at Hockliffe"[716]. With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw. He was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia[717].

m as her first husband, ÆLDGYTH, daughter of ---. After her husband was killed, she was arrested, but abducted against the wishes of King Æthelred II by his son Edmund, later Edmund "Ironsides" King of England, whom she married as her second husband. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[718].

b) MORCAR (-murdered Oxford summer 1015). King Æthelred II granted land in Derbyshire to "Morcar minister" under a charter dated 1009[719]. With his brother, a leading thegn of the northern Danelaw. Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[720]. m EALDGYTH, daughter of ÆLFTHRYTH & his wife ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Morcar & his wife had one child:

i) ÆLFGIFU. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m as his first wife, ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia & his wife Godgifu --- (-1062).

-------------------- Edmund Ironside or Eadmund (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016), surnamed "Ironside" for his efforts to fend off the Danish invasion led by King Canute, was King of England from 23 April to 30 November 1016.


Family Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred II (also known as Ethelred the Unready) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of Northumbria. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history Æthelred II, who had earlier been stricken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on 18 October Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should perish, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund II died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes, while others suggest that he was assassinated Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Heirs Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. -------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

for more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Cnut. His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Family

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. However, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

Death

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Cnut who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Cnut the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary.

-------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Cnut. His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Family

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. However, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

Death

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Cnut who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Cnut the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary.

Shakespearean play?

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[5]

References

  1. ^ Outline of the reign of Edmund II 'Ironside'
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry on Edmund II
  3. ^ The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest By Sharon Turner
  4. ^ Eric Sams. (1986). Shakespeare's "Edmund Ironside": The Lost Play. Wildwood Ho. ISBN 0-7045-0547-9
  5. ^ Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the Shakespeare Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III? By Ward E. Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza, Claremont McKenna College.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England (1) M, #102185, b. between 988 and 993, d. 30 November 1016 Last Edited=5 Apr 2007 Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England was born between 988 and 993. (1) He was the son of Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England and Ælgifu (?). (3) He married Ealdgyth (?) circa August 1015 at Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England. (1) He died on 30 November 1016 at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, murdered. (4) He was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England. (4)

    Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England succeeded to the title of King Edmund II of England on 23 April 1016.1 He was crowned King of England in April 1016 at St. Paul's Cathedral, The City, London, England. (1) He fought in the Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, where he was defeated by Cnut. (5) Due to King Ethelred having been so inept, Cnut was accepted as King by a large section of the country after Ethelred's death. Cnut ruled most of the country North of the Thames whilst Edmund was accepted in the South. Cnut laid siege to London and wished to control it with his fleet but his ships could not pass London Bridge, so he had a cutting made on the South side of the bridge and passed his ships around it. Edmund marched on London through the woods at Tottenham and a fierce battle ensued. Cnut withdrew and fought Edmund at Ashington (Assandun) in Essex but this time Edmund was beaten. Cnut was wise and knew that Edmund was popular so he met him on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London. (6)

Children of Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England and Ealdgyth (?) -1. Edward 'Atheling' (?)+ b. c 1016, d. 1057 (3) -2. Edmund (?) b. bt 1016 - 1017 (3)

Forrás: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102185 -------------------- 27th great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II -------------------- Edmund II Ironside, King of England 1016 -------------------- Regjeringstid: 23. april 1016–30. november 1016 Født: Ca. 989, Wessex Død: 30. november 1016, - Foreldre: Ethelred II og Aelgifu Ektefelle‍(r): Ealdgyth Barn: Edward Aetheling, Edmund

Edmund II «Ironside» (født ca. 989, død 30. november 1016) var konge av England fra 23. april 1016 fram til sin død et drøyt halvår senere. Han var sønn av Ethelred den rådville og Aelgifu av Northampton. Edvard Bekjenneren var hans halvbror. Han fikk tilnavnet «Ironside» («jernside») på grunn av sine militære bragder.

I 1015 giftet Edmund seg med Ealdgyth. Etter farens død ble Edmund valgt til konge av befolkningen i London. Hans rival, Knut den store, hadde større støtte enn ham i resten av landet.

Han hadde to barn som er kjent for ettertiden:

Edvard Aetheling (1016–1057) Edmund (født ca. 1017) Edmund ble slått av danene, men fikk lov av Knut den store til å beholde Wessex, mot at det var klart at den av dem som overlevde den andre skulle regjere over hele England. Kort tid etter at denne avtalen ble inngått døde Edmund, og det antas at han ble myrdet. Ifølge tradisjonen ble han drept ved at en rødglødende ildraker ble stukket opp i tarmene mens han satt på toalettet.

Han ble gravlagt i Glastonbury Abbey.

-------------------- King Edmund II "Ironside" of England - was born about 0988, lived in Wessex, England and died in 1016 in Ross-on-Wye . He was the son of King Ethelred II "The Unready" of England and Queen Alfgifu of England. King Edmund married Queen Ealdgyth of England about Aug 1015 while living in London, Middlesex, England. Queen Ealdgyth was born about 0986, lived in Wessex, England. She is the daughter of Morcar of England and Edgitha of England.

King Edmund - Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of his father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the city of London against the invading Knut Sveinsson (Canute), and was proclaimed king by the Londoners. Meanwhile, the Witan (Council), meeting at Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of inconclusive military engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent, but was routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A subsequent peace agreement was made, with Edmund controlling Wessex and Canute controlling Mercia and Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died in November, 1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.


Legend tells that Ross-on-Wye, England is the place where the Saxon king Edmund Ii died from traitors' wounds in 1016. Edmund is better known as Edmund 'Ironside', for his fierce defence of England against the huge invading army of the Danish king Canute. England was divided between the warring kings - Edmund held the west and Wessex while Canute ruled in the north and east. The story goes that one of Edmund's servants plotted to murder him for the reward that Canute might give. The servant secretly positioned a sharpened stake in the king's latrine at Minsterworth in Gloucestershire; as Edmund lowered himself to use his toilet, the servant withdrew the candle and Edmund was impaled. The king was rushed from Minsterworth but died at Ross, probably on his way to a monastery near by in search of a cure. The servant soon presented himself at canute's court and claimed the murder as his; Canute had him hanged, so legend tells, from the highest oak that he could find. Children: (Quick Family Chart) i. Prince Edward "Atheling" of England was born in 1016 in Wessex, England and died in 1057 in London, Middlesex, England . See #6. below.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmunds death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Family

Edmund was the second son of King Ethelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmundqzqs allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferthqzqs widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father. [edit]Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on 18 October Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1] [edit]Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. The cause of Edmundqzqs death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown. [edit]Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. [edit]Shakespearean play?

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Contents [hide] 1 Family 2 Royal and military history 2.1 Death 3 Heirs 4 Shakespearean play? 5 See also 6 Sources 7 References


[edit] Family Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

[edit] Royal and military history


Arms of Edmund Ironside, as imagined by Matthew Paris in the first half of the 13th centuryÆthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

[edit] Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a viking.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

[edit] Heirs Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

[edit] Shakespearean play?


18th-century portrait of EdmundEdmund Ironside is the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[5]

[edit] See also House of Wessex family tree [edit] Sources Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Clemoes, Peter. The Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Bruce Dickins, 1959 The History Channel - England history to 1485 [edit] References 1.^ Outline of the reign of Edmund II 'Ironside' 2.^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry on Edmund II 3.^ Sharon Turner, The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest 4.^ Eric Sams. (1986). Shakespeare's "Edmund Ironside": The Lost Play. Wildwood Ho. ISBN 0-7045-0547-9 5.^ Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the Shakespeare Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III? By Ward E. Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza, Claremont McKenna College. Preceded by Æthelred the Unready King of the English 1016 Succeeded by Cnut the Great [hide]v • d • eEnglish monarchs


Kingdom of the English 886–1066 Alfred the Great · Edward the Elder · Ælfweard · Athelstan the Glorious1 · Edmund the Magnificent1 · Eadred1 · Eadwig the Fair1 · Edgar the Peaceable1 · Edward the Martyr · Æthelred the Unready · Sweyn Forkbeard · Edmund Ironside · Cnut1 · Harold Harefoot · Harthacnut · Edward the Confessor · Harold Godwinson · Edgar the Ætheling


Kingdom of England 1066–1649 William I · William II · Henry I · Stephen · Matilda · Henry II2 · Henry the Young King · Richard I · John2 · Henry III2 · Edward I2 · Edward II2 · Edward III2 · Richard II2 · Henry IV2 · Henry V2 · Henry VI2 · Edward IV2 · Edward V2 · Richard III2 · Henry VII2 · Henry VIII2 · Edward VI2 · Jane2 · Mary I2 with Philip2 · Elizabeth I2 · James I3 · Charles I3


Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653–1659 Oliver Cromwell4 · Richard Cromwell4


Kingdom of England 1660–1707 Charles II3 · James II3 · William III and Mary II3 · Anne3


1Overlord of Britain. 2Also ruler of Ireland. 3Also ruler of Scotland. 4Lord Protector. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.


-------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_473.htm

Betrayed by ealdorman Edric when Canute invaded England, Edmund struggled unsuccessfully to reunite the country. Finally a division was arranged whereby Canute took the north and Edmund the south. He reigned only from his father's death 04-23-1016 to his own death (possibly by foul play) 11-30-1016. His wife, Ealgyth, was widow of Sigeferth, son of Earngrim.

Murdered by Edric Streon, Earl of Mercia, husband of Edgyth, daughter of Ethelred II the Unready

His two older brothers died before his father, so he was elected king by the Witan and crowned in London. He was known as "Ironside" for his courage. He devoted his short reign to defending his inheritence against the ravages of the Viking, Cnut. In this he was severly hampered by the ignoble behavior of one of his father's favorites, Edric Streona, "Grasper". On one battlefield Edric mounted a hill and held up a severed head, saying it was Edmund's. The King removed his helmet to show himself alive, and then violently hurled his spear at Edric, which, glancing off The son of King Ethelred II the Unready (reigned 978-1016), Edmund defied his father's orders by marrying (1015) the widow of one of the Danish lords then occupying English territory. Nevertheless, when Canute invaded England later in 1015, Edmund raised an army in northern England and ravaged regions that would not rally to his cause.

Upon Ethelred's death (April 1016), a small number of councillors and citizens of London proclaimed Edmund as their ruler, but a larger body of nobles at Southampton declared for Canute. Edmund then launched a series of offensives against his rival. He recovered Wessex and relieved London of a siege before being decisively defeated by Canute at Ashington, Essex, on October 18. In the ensuing peace settlement, Edmund retained Wessex, while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. After Edmund died (probably of natural causes), Canute became sole ruler of England.

Edric's shield, pierced two soldiers standing beside him. Defeat at the Battle of Ashington, Essex, forced him to make terms with Cnut and they agreed to divide the kingdom between them, Cnut taking the north and Edmund the south. He was treasonably slain a few days later. He had gone to the outhouse in the middle of the night, where Edric's son, on his father's orders, had concealed himself in the pit. He stabbed the King twice from beneath, with a sharp dagger, and, leaving the weapon fixed in his bowels, made his escape. Thus the King perished after a reign of one year, and he was buried at Glastenbury, near his Grandfather Edgar. Edric then presented himself to Cnut, and saluted him , and said, "Hail, thou who art sole King of England!" and explained to him what had taken place. Cnut replied, "For this deed I will exalt you, as it merits, higher than all the nobles of England!" He then commanded that Edric should be beheaded and his head placed upon a pole on the highest battlement of the Tower of London.

  • ***************

Edmund was the second son of Athelred (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by Swein in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when Cnut left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 10 15 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king. There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-wear-y. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of Edgar Atheling), would return.


References: [Weis1],[AR7],[RFC],[Isenburg],[Moriarty]

-------------------- Edmund Ironside From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edmund Ironside or Eadmund (c. 988/993 – November 30, 1016), surnamed "Ironside" for his efforts to fend off the Danish invasion led by King Canute, was King of England from April 23 to November 30, 1016.

Family

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred II (also known as Ethelred the Unready) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of Northumbria. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father. [edit]Royal and military history

Æthelred II, who had earlier been stricken ill, died on April 23, 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on October 18 Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should perish, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living. [edit]Death On November 30, 1016, King Edmund II died in Oxford or London, either of illness or when he was stabbed by a soldier hiding inside a latrine[citation needed], and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown. [edit]Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. [edit]Shakespearean play?

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[1] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[2] [edit]See also

House of Wessex family tree [edit]Sources

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Clemoes, Peter. The Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Bruce Dickins, 1959 [edit]References

^ Eric Sams. (1986). Shakespeare's "Edmund Ironside": The Lost Play. Wildwood Ho. ISBN 0-7045-0547-9 ^ Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the Shakespeare Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III? By Ward E. Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza, Claremont McKenna College.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside

Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of the River Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.


Arms of Edmund Ironside, as imagined by Matthew Paris in the first half of the 13th centuryÆthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes, while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a Viking. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

--------------------

  Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England was born between 988 and 993.1 He was the son of Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England and Ælgifu.3 He married Ealdgyth circa August 1015 in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England.1 He died on 30 November 1016 in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, murdered.4 He was buried in Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England.4 
    Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England succeeded to the title of King Edmund II of England on 23 April 1016.1 He was crowned King of England in April 1016 at St. Paul's Cathedral, The City, London, England.1 He fought in the Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, where he was defeated by Cnut.5 Due to King Ethelred having been so inept, Cnut was accepted as King by a large section of the country after Ethelred's death. Cnut ruled most of the country North of the Thames whilst Edmund was accepted in the South. Cnut laid siege to London and wished to control it with his fleet but his ships could not pass London Bridge, so he had a cutting made on the South side of the bridge and passed his ships around it. Edmund marched on London through the woods at Tottenham and a fierce battle ensued. Cnut withdrew and fought Edmund at Ashington (Assandun) in Essex but this time Edmund was beaten. Cnut was wise and knew that Edmund was popular so he met him on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London.6 

Family Ealdgyth Children Edward 'Atheling'+ b. c 1016, d. 10573 Edmund b. bt 1016 - 10173


Citations [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 26. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family. [S130] Wikipedia, online www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia. [S52] G. S. P. Freeman-Grencville, The Queen's Lineage: from A.D. 495 to the Silver Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (London , U.K.: Rex Collings, 1977), page 6. Hereinafter cited as The Queen's Lineage. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 29. [S58] E. B. Fryde, D. E. Greenway, S. Porter and I. Roy, editors, Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd edition (London, U.K.: Royal Historical Society, 1986), page 28. Hereinafter cited as Handbook of British Chronology. [S1] S&N Genealogy Supplies, S&N Peerage CD., CD-ROM (Chilmark, Salisbury, U.K.: S&N Genealogy Supplies, no date (c. 1999)). Hereinafter cited as S&N Peerage CD.


-------------------- Buried by his grandfather, King Edgar. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

REF: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside#Shakespearean_play.3F -------------------- Acceded APR 1016 St Paul's Cathedral, London Note: Edmund Ironside 1016

Born: c 989. Titles: King of the English, Crowned: Old St Paul's Cathedral, April 1016. Ruled: April - November 1016 for 6 months. Married: August 1015, Edith, widow of Sigeferth, of East Anglia: 2 children. Died: (Murdered): London, 30 November 1016, aged 27. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey.

Edmund was the second son of Athelred (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by Swein in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when Canute left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 1015 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king . There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-weary. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of Edgar Atheling), would return.

-------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a viking.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England -------------------- Name: King Edmund II lronside Born: c.990 Parents: Ethelred II and Elfleda Relation to Elizabeth II: 27th great-grandfather House of: Wessex Ascended to the throne: April 23, 1016 Crowned: 25 April, 1016 at Old St Paul's Cathedral, aged c.26 Married: Ealdgyth Children: 2 sons Died: November 30, 1016 at London Buried at: Glastonbury Reigned for: 7 months, and 7 days Succeeded by: by Canute son of Sweyn who claimed the throne by conquest

King of England in 1016, the son of Ethelred II 'the Unready' . He led the resistance to Canute's invasion in 1015, and on Ethelred's death in 1016 was chosen king by the citizens of London. Meanwhile, the Witan (the king's council) elected Canute. In the struggle for the throne, Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon (or Assandun), and they divided the kingdom between them with Canute ruling the North and Edmund ruling the South. When Edmund died (probably assassinated) the same year, Canute ruled the whole kingdom.

Timeline for King Edmund II lronside Historical Timeline 800 - Present

1016 
Edmund Ironside, son of Aethelred II the Unready of England, becomes King. At the battle of Abingdon, in Essex, King Canute II of Denmark defeats Edmund. They meet on the Isle of Alney in the Severn and agree to divide the kingdom into two. Canute takes the land North of the Thames and Edmund the South. 
1016 
Edmund is assassinated a few months later and Canute takes the throne as King Canute of England.  

-------------------- Reigned as King of England 23 Apr to 30 Nov 1016.

1 - surnamed Ironside, on account of his strength, or perhaps from the armour he wore, was the son of Ethelred II., whom he succeeded in 1016; but being opposed by Canute , he agreed to share the crown with him. London was twice besieged by the Danes in his reign, and many battles were fought, Edmund being finally defeated at Assandune. After a reign of nine months only, he is said to have been treacherously murdered in 1017.

2 - Edrnund grew up during a period when England's fortunes were at a low ebb because of repeated Viking incursions. Perceptive even in his youth, Edmund recognised the flaws in his father's policy of buying off the Vikings, and as a prince encouraged the country to stand up against them. His valour earned him the epithet Ironside'. Even before the death of his father, Edmund had made himself ruler in Danelaw. However, his efforts to oppose the invasion ofWessex by his rival, Canute, in late 1015 were undermined by the treachery of Earldorman Edric of Mercia, and in the following year Edmund was unable to hold Northumbria against Canute. When Ethelred died in 1016, London and the Witan members there chose Edmund as king, but the Witan in Southampton opted for Canute. At Olney, Edmund and Canute agreed to partition England, though the longer lived would succeed to the whole. However, a few weeks later Edmund died after a reign of only seven months and his infant sons fled Canute's rule to settle in Hungary.

3 - He fought in the Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, where he was defeated by Cnut. Due to King Ethelred having been so inept, Cnut was accepted as King by a large section of the country after Ethelred's death. Cnut ruled most of the country North of the Thames whilst Edmund was accepted in the South. Cnut laid siege to London and wished to control it with his fleet but his ships could not pass London Bridge, so he had a cutting made on the South side of the bridge and passed his ships around it. Edmund marched on London through the woods at Tottenham and a fierce battle ensued. Cnut withdrew and fought Edmund at Ashington (Assandun) in Essex but this time Edmund was beaten. Cnut was wise and knew that Edmund was popular so he met him on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London. [ http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102185 ] (Medical):See attached sources. [1]

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-------------------- Edmund Ironside or Edmund II, was King of England from 23 April to 18 October 1016 and of Wessex from 23 April to 30 November 1016.

His cognomen "Ironside" is not recorded until 1057, but may have been contemporary. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, it was given to him "because of his valour" in resisting the Danish invasion led by Cnut the Great. He fought five battles against the Danes, ending in defeat against Cnut on 18 October at the Battle of Assandun, after which they agreed to divide the kingdom, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the rest of the country. Edmund died shortly afterwards on 30 November, and Cnut became the king of all England.

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Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England's Timeline

988
988
Wessex, England
1015
August 1015
Age 27
Of, London, Middlesex, England
1016
April 1016
- November 1016
Age 28
November 30, 1016
Age 28
London, Middlesex, England
November 30, 1016
Age 28
Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somersetshire, England
1016
Age 28
1016
Age 28
Anglo Saxon England
1016
Age 28
1927
May 21, 1927
Age 28
May 21, 1927
Age 28