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About Jezebel .

1 Kings 16:31

Wikipedia: Jezebel and איזבל

PHOENICIAN PRINCESS, WIFE of KING AHAB, NOTORIOUS for HER CRUELTY, MURDERS, and BAAL WORSHIP

---- Source:Jezebel (Hebrew: אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל, Modern Izével / Izável Tiberian ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) (fl. 9th century B.C.) was a princess, identified in the Hebrew Book of Kings as the daughter of Ethbaal, King of the Sidonians (Phoenicians) and the wife of Ahab, king of north Israel.[1] According to genealogies given in Josephus and other classical sources, she was the great-aunt of Dido, Queen of Carthage.

The Hebrew text portrays Jezebel as a power behind the throne. Ahab and Jezebel allow temples of Baal to operate in Israel, and that religion receives royal patronage. After Ahab's death, Ahaziah and Jehoram, his sons by Jezebel, accede to the throne. The prophet Elisha has one of his servants anoint Jehu as king to overthrow the house of Ahab. Jehu kills Jehoram as he attempts to flee in his war chariot.

Jehu confronts Jezebel in Jezreel, where he incites her court officials to kill the queen via defenestration and leaving her corpse to be eaten by dogs. Jezebel became associated with false prophets and fallen women. In some interpretations, her dressing in finery and putting on makeup before her execution led to the association of use of cosmetics with "painted women" or prostitutes.

Contents [hide] 1 Meaning of name 2 Scripture and history 3 Interpretations 4 Cultural symbol 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 External links


[edit] Meaning of name Jezebel is the Anglicized transliteration of the Hebrew אִיזָבֶל ('Izebel/'Izabel). Attempts to trace the meaning of the name are speculative, since its origin can only be conjectured.

The biblical Hebrew 'Izebel may be rooted in a Hebrew word for "prince/nobility" or "husband" (bul/ba'al) combined with the word for "naught/none" ('iy), "there is no prince/nobility/husband," suggesting a lack of character (i.e. implying lack of royal sensibilities) or of morality (i.e. unmarried, implying adultery or fornication). It may also find its root in a Hebrew word for "dung" (from gbl; note here Ba'al-zebul/Ba'al-zebub, "Lord of dung") combined with the word for either "naught/none" ('iy) or "island" ('iyz), thus "no dung" or "island of dung."[citation needed]

Other sources find meaning from the character's native Syro-Phoenician language. It may be rooted in the word ba'al (lord), referring either to the Syro-Phoenician god, the "King of Heaven," or simply the royal title "lord." Thus, Iz-ba'al may mean "the Lord (Ba'al) exists/exalts" or "where is the prince," a name known from liturgies of the Syro-Phoenician Ba'al cults.[citation needed]

[edit] Scripture and history


Jezebel from "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum "Jezebel's story is told in 1st and 2nd Kings.The story concerns an intense religious-political struggle — the most detailed such account of any period in the history of the Kingdom of Israel. Scholars believe it was written from a highly partisan point of view, and no documents have been found that tell the other side of the controversy. The account portrays the religious side of the events, with the political, economic and social background — highly important to modern historians — given only incidentally.[2]

Jezebel is introduced as a Phoenician princess, the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Phoenician empire. She marries King Ahab of the Northern Kingdom (i.e. Israel during the time when ancient Israel was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south). She helps convert Ahab from worship of the Jewish God to worship of the Phoenician god Baal. After she has many Jewish prophets killed, Elijah challenges 450 prophets of Baal to a competition (1 Kings 18), exposes the rival god as powerless, and has the prophets of Baal slaughtered (1 Kings 18:40). Jezebel becomes his enemy.[2]

The scholar V. Barzowski interprets Ahab's marriage to Jezebel as a dynastic marriage intended to cement a Phoenician political alliance. This went back to the times of King Solomon, to give the then-inland Kingdom of Israel access to the Mediterranean Sea and international trade. The monarchy (and possibly an urban elite connected with it) enjoyed the wealth derived from this trade, which gave it a stronger position vis-a-vis the rural landowners. The monarchy became more centralized with a powerful administration.[3]Template:Dubious source

Barzowski believes that the story of Naboth, a landowner killed at the instigation of Jezebel so the King could acquire his land, points to this interpretation. With her foreign religion and cosmopolitan culture, Jezebel represented a hated Phoenician alliance from which the landowners had little to gain and much to lose. Their resentment was expressed in religious terms as related to the difference in religions. Eventually Jehu's achieved a bloody coup, instigated and supported by the prophets whose side of the story the Bible preserves.[3]

[edit] Interpretations


The death of Jezebel, by Gustav DoreIn The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience, Roger Williams, the founder of the American colony of Rhode Island and the co-founder of the First Baptist Church in America, wrote of Naboth's story as an example of how God disfavored the use of government force in religious matters. Williams believed using force in the name of religion would lead to political persecution, contrary to the Bible's teachings.[4]

In feminist readings of the Bible and of later Jewish and Christian traditions, Jezebel is seen as a strong and assertive woman, who was attacked and finally murdered by the fanatic male representatives of a male-dominated religion. They interpret her memory as vilified for thousands of years for the same reason — i.e. "because she was a strong and independent woman who did not let men dominate her, and who continued to defy the aggressive males to her last breath."[5]

[edit] Cultural symbol


Bette Davis as JezebelThe name Jezebel came to be associated with false prophets, and further associated by the early 20th century with fallen or abandoned women.[6] In Christian tradition, a comparison to Jezebel suggested that a person was a pagan or an apostate masquerading as a servant of God. By manipulation and/or seduction, she misled the saints of God into sins of idolatry and sexual immorality, sending them to hell.[7] In particular, Jezebel has come to be associated with promiscuity. In modern usage, the name of Jezebel is sometimes used as a synonym for sexually promiscuous and sometimes controlling women.[citation needed] In his two-volume Guide to the Bible (1967 and 1969), Isaac Asimov describes Jezebel's last act: dressing in all her finery, make-up and jewelry, as deliberately symbolic, indicating her dignity, royal status and determination to go out of this life as a Queen.

[edit] In popular culture The film Jezebel (1938) starred Bette Davis. Frankie Laine recorded "Jezebel" (1951), written by Wayne Shanklin, which became a hit song. In the film Sins of Jezebel (1953), Jezebel was played by Paulette Goddard. In his novel The Caves of Steel (1953, 1954), Isaac Asimov portrayed Jezebel as an ideal wife and woman who, in full compliance with the mores of the time, conscientiously promoted her own religion.[citation needed] Lesley Hazleton wrote a revisionist historical fiction, Jezebel, The Untold Story of the Bible's Harlot Queen (19xx), that presents Jezebel as a sophisticated Queen engaged in mortal combat with the fundamentalist prophet Elijah. She is also the author of three non-fiction books about the Middle East. Nigerian-born singer Sade Adu recorded a song titled Jezebel on her Promise album in 1985 about a girl who knows how to get what she wants.[8] The song lyric somehow suggesting about the struggle of a beautiful, proud and determined young prostitute, with ruthless ambition fuelled by poverty.[9] [edit] References 1.^ Elizabeth Knowles, "Jezebel", The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, OUP 2006 2.^ a b BRUCE M. METZGER and MICHAEL D. COOGAN, "Jezebel", The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible, 1 Jan 2001, accessed 15 Nov 2010 3.^ a b V. Barzowski, The Merchants and the Kings - Impact of the Mediterranean Trade Routes from the Phoenicians to the Venetians, Chapter 1. 4.^ Byrd, James P. (2002). The Challenges of Roger Williams: Religious Liberty, Violent Persecution, and the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0865547718. http://books.google.com/books?id=M4FK-j35yFYC. 5.^ Ilana Fine, Women reading the Bible backwards (in Hebrew), p. 86. 6.^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). ""Jezebel"". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 7.^ The New Testament, Book of Revelation. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=REV%202:20-23&version=ESV. , Ch. 2, vs. 20-23. 8.^ Jezebel in Art and Popular Culture 9.^ Soul Culture UK, Sade reflections on a class act [edit] External links Scholars Debate Jezebel Seal Biblical Archaeology Review, 2008 [hide]v • d • eIsraelite kings and Kings of the Jews


Family tree


Pre-dynastic Abimelech


United Monarchy Saul · Ish-boseth · David · Solomon · Rehoboam


Israel (Northern Kingdom) Jeroboam I · Nadab · Baasha · Elah · Zimri · Omri · Ahab (and Jezebel) · Ahaziah · Jehoram · Jehu · Jehoahaz · Jehoash · Jeroboam II · Zechariah · Shallum · Menahem · Pekahiah · Pekah · Hoshea


Judah (Southern Kingdom) (House of David) Rehoboam · Abijam · Asa · Jehoshaphat · Jehoram · Ahaziah · Athaliah · Jehoash · Amaziah · Uzziah · Jotham · Ahaz · Hezekiah · Manasseh · Amon · Josiah · Jehoahaz · Jehoiakim · Jeconiah · Zedekiah


Hasmonean dynasty Simon Maccabaeus · John Hyrcanus · Aristobulus I · Alexander Jannaeus · Salome Alexandra · Hyrcanus II · Aristobulus II · Hyrcanus II · Antigonus II Mattathias


Herodian dynasty Herod I the Great · Herod II (Philip I) · Archelaus · Antipas · Philip (II) · Agrippa I · Agrippa II · See also: Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum


italics indicate a disputed reign or a non-royal title : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jezebel

-------------------- Jezebel was the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of Sidon, and married Ahab, King of Israel, most likely to strengthen an alliance between Israel and the Phoenicians against Syria. Her father had been high priest of the goddess Astarte, and Jezebel would have been brought up in the Astarte / Baal religion common in Phoenicia; she thus brought her religion with her to Samaria, along with several hundred priests of Baal. She had a forceful character, and was a force to be reckoned with behind the scenes, much to the distaste of the Jewish prophet Elijah. She actively persecuted the Jewish priests and prophets, with consent of her husband Ahab, who was also persuaded to embrace the Phoenician worship of Baal.

After the death of 450 priests of Baal on Mount Carmel as a result of a ‘contest’ between Elijah and priests of Baal, Jezebel sought to have Elijah killed. There was also an incident where land owned by Naboth, and coveted by Ahab, was confiscated by falsely accusing Naboth of blasphemy. The prophet Elijah finally declares a curse of divine retribution on both Jezebel and Ahab; their blood to be licked up by dogs in the street. Shortly thereafter, Ahab is severly wounded in battle and bleeds all over his chariot. While the chariot was being rinsed of blood, some of his blood was indeed licked up by street dogs.

Jezebel continued on as dowager Queen, as her two sons, Ahaziah and Jehoram inherit the throne, each in turn. Both were heavily influenced by their forceful mother, and the Baal religion continued to flourish in Samaria. To make matters worse, her daughter Athalia married Jehoram, the King of Judah, and took the religion of Baal to Judah as well. Finally, after eleven years under the sway of Jezebel, Jehu, a general of the army of Israel revolted against the royal household. Hearing the news and realizing the game was up, Jezebel had herself made up with cosmetic and hairdo, and called out to Jehu as he entered the courtyard below. She was thrown out the window where she died in the street, fher body being eaten by the street dogs.

Note: Baal properly means 'Lord', and Melqart [or Moloch] was the god's proper name. However, Baal is used throughout the references [Bible].

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Jezebel .'s Timeline

-900
-900
Sidon,Phoenicia,,
-888
-888
Age 11
872 BC - Shechem, Samaria, N. Kingdom
-865
-865
Age 34
Jerusalem
-843
-843
Age 56
Jezreel
881
881
Age 57
Shechem,Samaria,Nkingdom,
????
????
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