Leovigildo, rey de los visigodos

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Liubagilds

Also Known As: "Leovigildo da Septimânia Baltes"
Birthdate:
Death: Died
Immediate Family:

Son of Amalrico I Baltes, Rei dos Visigodos; Amalric Baltes, Rey de los Visigodos; Clotilde da França and Clotilda dos Visigodos
Husband of Gosvinta; Teodósia de Cartagena; Theodósia de Cartagena and Teodósia de Cartagena
Father of Sto. Hermenegildo II, rey de los visigodos and Recaredo I, rey de los visigodos
Brother of Liuva I, rey de los visigodos

Occupation: Rei de Toledo, Rei dos Visigodos, Duque de Septimania, King of the Visigoths (King of Spain), Roi, des Wisigoths, d'Espagne, King of Hispania, Rey de los Visigodos, Roi des Wisigoths (573-586), Roi des Wisigoths, King of Visigodos
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Leovigildo, rey de los visigodos

Relationships:

Parents:

  • Unknown, but perhaps son of Liuverico Balthes, a count.

Siblings:

  • 1. Liuva (d. 573), King of the Visigoths (568-573, succeeded from King Atanagildo)

Spouses and Children:

  • First wife: Unknown, possibly Teodosia, a daughter of a Duke Seberiano and Teodora, but the source for this contains many errors and is not confirmed by other contemporary sources.
    • 1. St. Hermenegildo "The Holy" (550/555 - 13 April 586), converted to Catholicism under the name John, assassinated by Sisiberto while exiled in Tarragona for rebelling against his father over his Arian Christian second wife.
    • 2. Recaredo (d. 601), King of the Visigoths (586-601).
  • Second wife: Gosvinta, widow of King Atanagildo (d. 589), staunch advocate of Arianism, plotted to restore the faith in the Kingdom of the Visigoths in the last year of her life.

Basic Information:

Birth: 525/530, presumably in the Kingdom of the Visigoths (present Spain)

Baptism: Unknown

Marriages:

  • 550/555 to an unknown first wife, possibly Teodosia, daugher of Duke Seberiano of Cartagena and Teodora, but the source for this is prone to error and not confirmed by other contemporary sources. May have died or been repudiated in favor of his second wife in 569.
  • 569 to Gosvinta, widow of King Atanagildo, proponent of the Arian faith and opponent of the Catholic faith.

Death: April/May 586 in Toletum (present Toledo), died a natural death.

Burial: Unknown.

Occupation: Associate King of the Visigoths in Iberia (572-573), King of the Visigoths (573-586)

Alternate Names: Leovigildo, Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leogild

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Vandals, Suevi, and Visigoths in Iberia:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/VANDALS,%20SUEVI,%20VISIGOTHS.htm#LeovigildoA

Two brothers, parents not known.

1. LIUVA (-573).

  • He was elected to succeed as LIUVA I King of the Visigoths, after a five months interregnum following the death of King Atanagildo[194]. Gregory of Tours records the succession of Liuva and Leovigildo his brother after the death of King Atanagildo[195]. Isidore of Seville records that Liuva was made king at Narbonne after the death of Atanagildo and ruled for three years[196]. The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Livva" succeeded "Athanaildus rex Gothorum in Hispania" in 568[197]. The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that he installed his brother Leovigildo "in regnum citerioris Hispaniæ" in 569[198], implying that Liuva remained king in Hispania ulterior (the western part of the Iberian peninsula) and in what remained of the Gallic territories of the Visigoths.
  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death in 573 of "Livva rex"[199]. The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Liuva” reigned for one year[200].

2. LEOVIGILDO (-Toledo [Apr/May] 586).

  • Gregory of Tours records the succession of Liuva and Leovigildo his brother after the death of King Atanagildo[201]. He succeeded his brother in 573 as LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths.

LEOVIGILDO 573-586


LEOVIGILDO, son of --- ([525/30]-Toledo [Apr/May] 586).

  • His birth date range is estimated from the birth of his first grandson in [580/85], and his sons being appointed associate kings in 573.
  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Leovegildus germanus Livvani regis" was installed "in regnum citerioris Hispaniæ" by his brother in 569[202]. Isidore of Seville records that Liuva established "his brother Leovigild not only as his successor but as his partner in the kingship, appointing him to rule Spain while he contented himself with rule of Gallia Narbonensis"[203].
  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that in 572 Leovigildo recaptured Córdoba[204], which had rebelled against Visigothic rule during the reign of King Agila.
  • He succeeded his brother in 573 as LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths. The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Leovigildo succeeded "Livva rex" in 573[205].
  • He extended Visigothic influence into Rioja in 574/75, and Oróspeda in 577. The greatest among the Visigothic rulers in Spain, he reinforced the power of the monarch by introducing court ceremonial based on Byzantine practices[206]. He introduced a new legal code Codex revisus (which has not survived)[207] and also rescinded a longstanding Roman ban on inter-marriage with native inhabitants of Spain, thus hastening Visigothic integration in the country[208].
  • His son Hermenegildo rebelled against him in Seville in 581.
  • He conquered the Suevi in the north-western part of the peninsula, deposing King Audica in 585, and suppressed the revolt of Malaricus who attempted to assume control of Galicia[209]. His reign was marked by persecution of the Catholic church in Spain.
  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death in 586 of "Leovegildus rex"[210]. Isidore of Seville records that he ruled for eighteen years and died a natural death in Toledo "in the era 624 (586)"[211]. The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Liuvigildus” reigned for 18 years[212].

m firstly ([550/55]) ---.

  • The name of King Leovigildo´s first wife is not known. The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "duosque filios suos [Leovigildi]…Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" were born "ex amissa coniuge" but does not name their mother[213].
  • Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Teodosia, hija de Seberiano Duque de Cartagena y de Teodora" as the wife of King Leovigildo and mother of his two sons[214]. The primary source on which this statement is based is not specified. The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.
  • It is not known whether this first wife died or was repudiated before King Leovigildo´s second marriage.

m secondly (569) as her second husband, GOSVINTA, widow of ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths, daughter of --- (-589).

  • Her two marriages are confirmed by the Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica which records the marriage in 569 of "Leovegildus germanus Livvani regis" and "Gosuintham relictam Athanaildi"[215].
  • Nothing is known about her family origin, but her connection with Arianism, recorded in primary sources after her second marriage, suggests that she may have been of Visigothic origin. Gregory of Tours names "Goiswinth, mother of Brunhild", as wife of Leovegildo[216].
  • She contributed to the difficulties, which culminated in the rebellion of her stepson Hermenegildo, by trying to force the latter's wife to convert to Arianism[217]. The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Gosvinta was the focus of a plot to restore the Arian faith in 589[218].

King Leovigildo & his first wife had two children:

1. HERMENEGILDO “the Holy” ([550/55]-murdered Tarragona 13 Apr 586).

  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "duosque filios suos ex amissa coniuge Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" when recording that their father associated them in his rule in 573[219].
  • In 579, his father appointed Hermenegildo as Governor of Betica, based in Seville.
  • Gregory of Tours records his conversion to Catholicism and baptism as "JOHN"[220]. He converted to Catholicism in Seville in 580 under the influence of Leandro, Archbishop of Seville[221].
  • He revolted against his father's Arian rule in 581, retired to Córdoba in 584, but was captured and exiled to Valencia. Isidore of Seville records that "his son Hermenegild" rebelled against his father who defeated him[222].
  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Hermenegildo was sent into exile in 584 and in 585 was killed "in urbe Tarraconensi" by "Sisberto"[223].
  • He was canonised in 1586.
  • m (579) INGUNDIS [Ingonde] of the Franks, daughter of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths ([567/68]-in Africa Autumn 586). The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the marriage in 579 of "Leovegildus rex Hermenegildo filio" and "filiam Sisberti regis Francorum"[224]. Gregory of Tours records that one of the sons of Leovigildo by his first wife married the daughter of Sigebert King of the Franks, in a later passage naming her "Ingund", specifying that she married Hermenegildo, older son of Leovigildo, and that she was mistreated by her husband's stepmother[225]. Paulus Diaconus records that "Childebertus rex Ingundem sororem suam" married "Herminigildo, Levigildi Hispanorum regis filio", and that she fled Spain for France after the death of her husband but was captured and taken to Sicily where she died[226]. Gregory of Tours records that her father-in-law left her "to the good graces of the Greeks" after imprisoning her husband and was unable to "force the Greeks to hand" her over[227]. She fled to Africa with her son after her husband was killed, seeking refuge with the Eastern Emperor[228]. Hermenegildo and his wife had one child:

a) son .

  • Paulus Diaconus records that, after Ingundis was captured following her husband's death, "filius eius" was handed over to Emperor Mauricius and taken to Constantinople[229].
  • same person as…? ATANAGILDO. Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Atanagildo" as the son of Hermenegildo, as well as his marriage to "Flavia Juliana hija de Pedro Augusto, hermano del Emperador Mauricio", and their sons "Paulo" and "Ardavasto", as well as the latter´s marriage to "prima, hija o hermana del Rey Cindasuindo"[230]. The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified. The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.

2. RECAREDO (-Toledo mid-Jun or Dec 601).

  • The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "duosque filios suos ex amissa coniuge Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" when recording that their father associated them in his rule in 573[231].
  • He was elected to succeed his father in 586 as RECAREDO King of the Visigoths.

References:

  • [194] García-Guijarro Ramos, L. 'Las invasions bárbaras en Hispania y la creación del Reino Visigodo', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona), p. 23.
  • [195] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233.
  • [196] Isidore of Seville, 48, p. 100.
  • [197] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [568], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212.
  • [198] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212.
  • [199] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [200] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173.
  • [201] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233.
  • [202] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212.
  • [203] Isidore of Seville, 48, p. 100.
  • [204] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [572], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [205] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [206] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 26.
  • [207] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 26.
  • [208] Atkinson, W. C. (1960) A History of Spain and Portugal (Penguin 1973), p. 41.
  • [209] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [585], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217.
  • [210] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [586], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217.
  • [211] Isidore of Seville, 51 and 52, p. 102.
  • [212] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173.
  • [213] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [214] Salazar y Castro, L. de (1696) Historia genealogica de la Casa de Lara (Madrid), Vol 1, p. 45.
  • [215] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212.
  • [216] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233.
  • [217] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 27.
  • [218] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [219] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.
  • [220] Gregory of Tours V.38, p. 302.
  • [221] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 27.
  • [222] Isidore of Seville, 49, p. 101.
  • [223] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584] and [585], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217.
  • [224] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [579], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 215.
  • [225] Gregory of Tours IV.39 and V.38, pp. 233 and 301-2.
  • [226] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 103-4.
  • [227] Gregory of Tours VI.40 and VI.43, pp. 371 and 376.
  • [228] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 79.
  • [229] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 103-4.
  • [230] Salazar y Castro, L. de (1696) Historia genealogica de la Casa de Lara (Madrid), Vol 1, p. 45.
  • [231] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213.

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Desde Wikipedia, Leovigildo:

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leovigildo

Leovigildo (¿? – 586) fue rey de los visigodos de 572 a 586. Obtuvo el reinado después de la muerte de su hermano Liuva I. Casó por dos veces: su primera esposa fue Teodosia, de quien tuvo a sus hijos Hermenegildo y Recaredo I; su segunda esposa fue Gosuinda (viuda de Atanagildo).

El reinado

Bajo su reinado se produce uno de los momentos más estables del reino visigodo. Llevó a cabo reformas tendentes a la unificación jurídica a través de la reforma del derecho visigodo conocida como Código de Leovigildo, en la que se permitían los matrimonios entre godos e hispanorromanos (penados con pena capital en el código de Alarico), con el fin de integrar a la población y contribuir a la conciencia unitaria, ley que por otra parte había perdido su fuerza según el mismo Leovigildo. Según algunas teorías se trataría del primer código de alcance territorial en Hispania —para godos e hispanorromanos— desde la caída del Imperio Romano de Occidente.[1] En el 572 tomó la ciudad de Córdoba que se había rebelado (algunos autores sostienen que aún no había sido dominada por los visigodos). Combatió a los bizantinos, asentados en la Bética, arrebatándoles parte de la región que controlaban. Sometió a los suevos en el año 585 (su territorio pasó a ser la sexta provincia del reino visigodo) y aunque sofocó la rebelión de los vascones, parece que a estos no llegó a someterles. Intentó la unificación del reino bajo la fe arriana, mediante la conversión de los católicos al arrianismo, para lo que convocó un Concilio y dio una serie de facilidades a los católicos para su conversión, como la no necesidad de bautizarse de nuevo. Pero su política fracasó y al final de su reinado permitió a los desterrados por motivos religiosos regresar a su tierra. Reformó la moneda y saneó la situación financiera del reino, en crisis desde el final del reinado de su predecesor, Atanagildo.

La historia del reino hispanogodo desde Leovigildo es la de una tensión permanente entre las tendencias de la realeza y el episcopado (representante, en aquellas condiciones, de la mayoría de la población) y una aristocracia que nunca se debilitó lo suficiente ni perdió del todo sus tradiciones germánicas, si bien cada vez más degradadas. El carácter electivo de la monarquía y la «costumbre» del regicidio parecieron cambiar cuando Leovigildo fue sucedido por su hijo Recaredo y este por el suyo Liuva II.

En el 580 se produce la rebelión de su hijo mayor Hermenegildo, que se convirtió al catolicismo tras casarse con la princesa franca Ingundis. El matrimonio, que debió haber sido un nexo de unión entre ambos pueblos, se convirtió en un grave problema, ya que la princesa era católica y recibió malos tratos por parte de su abuela y suegra, Gosuinda, madrastra de Hermenegildo, para que se convirtiera al arrianismo. Ya sea para evitar problemas o como una demostración de confianza, Leovigildo envió al matrimonio a la Bética, pero Hermenegildo se sublevó a los pocos meses proclamándose rey en Sevilla. Aunque para los autores católicos Hermenegildo fue un mártir por la causa católica, no están tan claras sus intenciones y más bien parece que su rebelión fue debida a su propia ambición que a querer establecer el catolicismo en el reino. Leovigildo, que se encontraba ocupado en su campaña contra los vascones, no reaccionó en un principio, pero en una campaña el año 582, tomó Mérida, Itálica, Sevilla y Córdoba. Hermenegildo fue apresado y desterrado a Valencia, muriendo asesinado en extrañas circunstancias en el 585 (por un visigodo de nombre Sisberto). La opinión mayoritaria fue que su padre ordenó su muerte tras no conseguir que Hermenegildo volviera al arrianismo. (Su hijo fue declarado santo mártir de la religión católica como San Hermenegildo).

Leovigildo Murió en Toledo y le sucedió su hijo menor Recaredo.

Fundó la ciudad de Recópolis (Zorita de los Canes, provincia de Guadalajara), en honor de su hijo Recaredo, siendo el primer rey visigodo en fundar una nueva ciudad.

Leovigildo emprendió diversas campañas militares a lo largo de la geografía de Hispania, relatadas en la única crónica contemporánea de Juan de Biclaro,[2] y que resultaron en el afianzamiento del poder del reino de Toledo. En el 581, una de estas campañas se dirigió contra los vascones, permitiendo la fundación de la ciudad visigoda de Victoriacum o Victoríaco para controlar el territorio de Vasconia.

Probablemente la razón para esta campaña es que Leovigildo conocía los saqueos vascones en la zona comprendida entre el Ebro y los Pirineos. La prioridad dada a esta campaña, que coincide con el primer año de la rebelión de su hijo Hermenegildo, parece indicar que estos saqueos eran importantes.

La crónica de Biclaro

El tercer concilio de Toledo. En el año octavo del emperador Mauricio, que es el año cuarto del rey Recaredo.

Por precepto del príncipe Recaredo fue congregado en la ciudad de Toledo el santo sínodo de los obispos de toda Hispania, Galia y Galicia; el número de los obispos fue de setenta y dos. En este sínodo, en orden a su conversión y a la de todos los sacerdotes y del pueblo godo, estuvo presente el rey cristianísimo Recaredo, quien entregó a los obispos el tomo con la profesión, escrita de su mano y todas las cosas que corresponden a la profesión de la fe ortodoxa; el santo sínodo de los obispos, reconociendo el contenido de este tomo, ordenó ponerlo junto con los documentos canónicos. El peso de los asuntos del sínodo recayó sobre San Leandro, obispo de la Iglesia hispalense, y sobre el bienaventurado Eutropio, abad del monasterio servitano.

El mencionado rey Recaredo, como hemos dicho, estuvo presente en el santo concilio, imitando en nuestros tiempos al antiguo príncipe Constantino el Grande que había honrado el santo sínodo de Nicea con su presencia, y también a Marciano, emperador cristianísimo, a cuyas instancias se habían firmado los decretos del sínodo de Calcedonia. Ya que si en la ciudad de Nicea comenzó y mereció ser condenada la herejía arriana, aunque sin ser desarraigada; y si en Calcedonia fueron condenados Nestorio y Eutiques, junto con su protector Dióscoro, y también sus herejías; en el presente santo sínodo de Toledo, después de un largo tiempo de matanzas de católicos y de estragos entre los inocentes, con la insistencia del mencionado príncipe Recaredo, rey, la perfidia de Arrio ha sido completamente desarraigada para que no vuelva a brotar, y se ha dado la paz católica a las Iglesias.

Esta nefasta herejía, según lo que está escrito: De la casa del Señor saldrá la prueba, creció en Alejandría a causa del presbítero Arrio, y fue detectada por San Alejandro, obispo de aquella misma ciudad. Arrio y su doctrina fueron condenados en el sínodo de Nicea, por el juicio de trescientos dieciocho obispos, en el año vigésimo del emperador Constantino; pero después esta herejía no sólo contaminó las partes de oriente y de occidente, sino que con su perfidia sedujo también las del mediodía, las del septentrión, y aun a las mismas islas. Por tanto, desde el año vigésimo del emperador Constantino, príncipe, en cuyo tiempo comenzó la herejía arriana, hasta el año octavo de Mauricio, príncipe de los romanos, que es el cuarto año del reinado de Recaredo, van doscientos ochenta años, durante los cuales la Iglesia Católica sufrió la infección de esta herejía; pero, con la ayuda del Señor, venció, porque está fundada sobre roca.

Fundación de Victoriacum

La campaña vascona concluyó con una victoria sobre los vascones a proximidad del lugar donde se funda Victoriacum, en los llanos de Álava, una fortaleza que permitiría controlar a la vez las montañas del Oeste de Navarra y la zona de la depresión vasca. Aunque este enclave, al igual que Oligitum, la actual Olite, parece que fuera fundado como bastión defensivo frente a los vascones, que perduraron al margen del control visigodo, en la zona montañosa, al norte de la divisoria de aguas.

Las guerras de Leovigildo

De entre los 14 años de reinado de Leovigildo, en sólo uno —el 578— estuvo en paz dedicándose a la construcción de la ciudad de Recópolis.[3] Al comienzo de su reinado, emprendió campañas contra los bizantinos, con escaso éxito. Posteriormente, derrotó las sublevaciones del sur y el norte del país, conquistando la ciudad de Saldania (Saldaña) donde los nobles cántabros se habían refugiado, emitiendo moneda con la leyenda «Leovigildus Rex Saldania Justus». En el 576 combatió a los suevos de Galicia, pero hizo la paz con el rey Miró, la conquista definitiva no llegaría hasta el 585, siendo rey Andeca (o Audeca, o Odiacca). Luchó también contra los francos y en el 581 contra los vascones.

--------------------

Rey de los visigodos de 572 a 586. Sucedió en el reino a su hermano Liuva I. En dicha época la monarquía, sin embargo, era de carácter electivo. Combatió contra los cantabros, los vascones y los bizantinos. A estos últims arrebató una buena porción de los territorios que dominaban en la Bética. En 572 tomó la ciudad de Córdoba. Conquistó, en 585, el reino suevo que ocupaba la actual Galicia (Gallaecia). En su objetivo de unir las poblaciones visigoda (arriana) e hispanorromana (católica) que poblaban la península ibérica, abolió el código de Alarico que penaba con pena de muerte el matrimonio entre godos e hispanorromanos y permitió dichas uniones en una reforma del derecho visigodo que ha pasado a conocerse como el código de Leovigildo. Del mismo modo pretendió la conversión forzosa de la población católica al arrianismo con el objeto de alcanzar también la unidad religiosa, en lo que fracasó. Saneó la situación financiera del reino, crítica desde finales del reinado de Atanagildo. Fue el primer rey visigodo en fundar una nueva ciudad - Recópolis (Zorita de los Canes en la provincia de Guadalajara), en honor de su hijjo Recaredo, lo que hizo en su primer año de reinado, único de los 14 en que reinó en paz. Murió en Toledo.

REFERENCIAS:

-http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leovigildo

-http://www.enciclopedia-aragonesa.com/monograficos/historia/visigodos/multimedia/leovigildo.asp

-http://gajupi.iespana.es/reinas.htm

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From the English Wikipedia page on Liuvigild.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liuvigild

Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leogild was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 569 to April 21, 586. From 585 he was also king of Galicia. Known for his Codex Revisus or Code of Leovigild, a unifying law allowing equal rights between the Visigothic and Hispano-Roman population, his kingdom covered most of modern Spain down to Toledo. He was born circa 525.

Ascension to the throne

Liuvigild was declared co-king with his brother Liuva I on the throne of the Visigoths after a short period of anarchy which followed the death of King Athanagild, who was a brother of them both (no source given for this). Both were Arian Christians. Liuva, who was favored by the Visigoth nobles, came to rule the Visigothic lands north of the Pyrenees, while Liuvigild ruled in Hispania.

Liuvigild was married twice: first to Theodosia (source is questionable), who bore him the sons Hermenegild and Reccared, and after her death to Athanagild's widow Goisvintha.

In 572 or 573 Liuva died and Liuvigild began his sole reign of the reunited Visigothic territories by seizing Córdoba from the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines had recently answered Athanagild's call for help by establishing a stretch of Byzantine territory in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

Liuvigild also ousted the Germanic Suebi from their strongholds at León and Zamora, thus enlarging his kingdom to the north and west as well, but for another generation the eastern Roman emperor retained a base in south-eastern Hispania, which retained its old Roman name of Hispania Baetica.

Though constantly at war with the Byzantines in southern Hispania, Liuvigild accepted the administration of the Byzantine Empire, adopted its pomp and ceremony, and imitated its coinage.

Hermenegild's revolt

The Visigoths were still a military aristocracy and kings had to be formally ratified by the nobility. Visigoths and their Ibero-Roman subjects were still separated by religion and by distinct law codes. Liuvigild modified the old Code of Euric which governed the Goths and created his own Codex Revisus. He also repealed old Roman laws dating back to the late 4th century forbidding intermarriage between Visigoths and Ibero-Romans [1]

Liuvigild further secured a peaceful succession, a perennial Visigothic issue, by associating his two sons, Hermenegild and Reccared, with himself in the kingly office and placing certain regions under their regencies. Hermenegild, the elder, was married to Inguthis, daughter of the Frankish King Sigibert I.

In 582 Liuvigild captured Mérida, which had been under the political control of its popular bishop Masona since the early 570s. Masona was soon after exiled for three years, possibly in the context of the rebellion of Hermenegild.

Hermenegild had converted to (Catholic) Christianity, persuaded by his Frankish wife and Leander, bishop of Seville. After his father, who considered this conversion treason, insisted on appointing Arians as bishops, Baetica in 583 revolted under the leadership of Hermenegild, who was supported by the (Catholic) bishops.

When the Byzantines failed to aid the revolt, Liuvigild besieged and took Seville and banished his son to Valencia, where he was murdered by Liuvigild's agents. Leander of Seville was also banished and later canonized as a saint. Ingunthis was delivered to the Eastern Emperor Tiberius II Constantine and was last heard of in Africa. These events are described in vivid details by Pope Gregory I.(Dialogi, III, 31).

After this rebellion, Liuvigild reportedly demanded that his Roman subjects convert to Arianism.

Later years

Liuvigild went on to subdue the Basques. In the north Liuvigild took advantage of internecine friction among Suebi factions in dispute over a succession and, in 584, he defeated the Suebic kingdom by the great battle of Braga [2] and added the kingdom to his crowns. By the end of his reign, only the Basque lands and two small territories of the Byzantine Empire made up the non-Visigothic parts of Iberia.

Liuvigild's last year was troubled by open war with the Franks along his northernmost borders. But overall, Liuvigild was one of the more effective Visigothic kings of Hispania, the restorer of Visigothic unity, ruling from his capital newly established at Toledo, where he settled toward the end of his reign. (From this, the Iberian Visigothic monarchy is sometimes called the "Kingdom of Toledo").

The Visigoths in Hispania considered themselves the heirs of western Roman imperial power, not its enemies. Until Liuvigild's reign, the Visigoths minted coins that imitated the imperial coinage of Byzantium which circulated from Byzantine possessions in Baetica.

From the reign of Liuvigild onwards, however, the Visigothic kingdom issued coarse coinage of its own designs. While facing the rebellion in southern Hispania, Liuvigild struck an issue of tremisses with a cross on steps on the reverse, a design that had been introduced for the very first time on Byzantine solidi by Emperor Tiberius II (578-582).

City-oriented Ibero-Roman culture continued to erode during Liuvigild's reign. There evolved in Visigothic Hispania the new post-Imperial pattern of regional and local overlordship based upon regional dukes (duces), who were military leaders, and lords of smaller districts or territories called counts (comes). A similar evolution was taking place in Italy and, more slowly, in the east as well. The new ducal administrations tended to coincide with the old Roman provinces; the territories of the counts with the old cities and their small hinterlands.

He was succeeded by his second son Reccared, who converted to (Catholic)* Christianity in 589 and brought religious and political unity between the Visigoths and their subjects.

  • Ben M. Angel notes: "Orthodox" Christianity didn't come into existence until the East-West Schism in the 11th century. The conflict during this time period was between Catholicism and Arianism. Catholicism was actually the innovator in this conflict (the trinity of the "Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" being the big innovation), and not the "orthodox".

References

1.^ Strategies of Distinction: Construction of Ethnic Communities, 300-800 (Transformation of the Roman World) by Walter Pohl, ISBN ISBN 9004108467 (p.153)

2.^ George Washington Greene, History and geography of the middle age for colleges and schools, New-York, 1851 E. A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (1969). -------------------- Leovigild I, King of Spain

b. circa 512, d. circa April 586

Father N. N. the Visigoth b. circa 480

    Also called Leodegild.1 Leovigild I, King of Spain was born circa 512. He was the son of N. N. the Visigoth. Leovigild I, King of Spain married Theodosia of Cartagena, daughter of Severinus of Cartagena and Theodora, before 555; His 1st.1,2 Leovigild I, King of Spain married Goiswinth (?) circa 567; Her 2nd (widowed). "Atanagildo rege in Spania defuncto, Leuva cum Leuvildo fratre regnum assumunt."3 Leovigild I, King of Spain expelled the (Roman) imperial civil servants and attempted to unify the Spanish Peninsula, ending the Roman Empire in Spain between 568 and 586.4 He was took Leon and Zamora from the Suebi in the northwest in 569.5 King of the Visigoths at Spain between 569 and 586.6 He was took Córdoba from the Byzantines in the south between 571 and 572.5 He was defeated the Suebi and annexed their kingdom in 581.5 He was wrested Seville from the Byzantines between 581 and 583.5 He witnessed the death of Hermenegild II "the Holy" on 13 April 585 at Tarragona, Spain; Beheaded by his father, Leovigild, for betraying him. His betrayal was to marry an zealous orthodox catholic, Ingund, and convert from arianism. Hermenegild rebelled with the help of Byzantium. Leovigild bribed Byzantium to betray his son and Hermenegild was thus captured and killed. "Most contemporary writers suggested that Hermenegild was executed as a rebel, but Pope Gregory I, in his Dialogues, stated that he was killed for refusing to receive communion from an Arian bishop."5 Leovigild I, King of Spain was attacked by the relatives of Ingund, his rebellious sons Merovingian wife, for on a pretext of avenging her treatment, the Frankish kings Childebert II and Guntram attacked Septimania and sent a fleet to help the Suebi, circa June 585.5 He died circa April 586 at Toledo, Spain. Died the last Arian Ruler in Visigoth Spain.5 He was the predecessor of Reccared I, King of Spain; King of the Visigoths.6

Family 1

Theodosia of Cartagena b. circa 530

Children

Hermenegild II "the Holy"+ b. c 555, d. 13 Apr 5855

Reccared I, King of Spain+ b. c 559, d. Jun 601

Family 2

Goiswinth (?) b. circa 514

Citations

[S187] Royal Genealogy Database, online http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/

[S1395] Portal Cartagena, online http://www.cartagena-virtual.com/personajes/

[S1196] Historia Francorum, online http://hbar.phys.msu.su/gorm/chrons/georflor.htm, LXIII.

[S223] Si, online http://www.sispain.org/english/history/, roman.html.

[S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica.

[S1084] Anonymous, "HS", pg. 26.

-------------------- 17º REI VISIGODO da Espanha de 568 a 586

Leovigildo foi rei dos Visigodos de Toledo no período de 572 a 586 e professava o arianismo.

Em 575 ataca os montes Aregenses em resposta à batalha do rei Miro (suevo) 572.

O seu filho, Hermenegildo, é católico e revolta-se contra o pai. Leovigildo ocupa Mérida e cerca Sevilha. O filho pede apoio do exterior. Suevos vão em sua ajuda. O rei Miro morre em batalha em 583. Eborico, seu filho, passa a ser o rei suevo, aliado de Leovigildo.

Leovigildo resolve anexar o Reino suevo, e em 585 junta os dois reinos. Morre em 586.

http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leovigildo