Henry Hotspur Percy
|Also Known As:||"Harry Hotspur"|
|Birthplace:||Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England|
|Death:||Died in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England|
|Place of Burial:||York Minster, York, North Yorkshire, England|
Son of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland; Henry Percy and Margaret de Neville, Baroness de Ros
|Managed by:||Private User|
Historical records matching Sir Henry "Hotspur" Percy
About Sir Henry "Hotspur" Percy
Henry Percy (Hotspur)
Sir Henry Percy KG (20 May 1364 – 21 July 1403), commonly known as Sir Harry Hotspur, or simply Hotspur, was a late medieval English nobleman. He was known as one of the most valiant knights of his day, and was a significant captain during the Anglo-Scottish wars. He later led successive rebellions against Henry IV of England, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his career.
Henry Percy was born 20 May 1364 at Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, the eldest son of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, and Margaret Neville, daughter of Ralph de Neville, 2nd Lord Neville of Raby, and Alice de Audley. He was knighted by King Edward III in April 1377. In 1380 he was in Ireland with the Earl of March, and in 1383 travelled in Prussia. He was appointed warden of the east march either on 30 July 1384 or in May 1385, and in 1385 accompanied Richard II on an expedition into Scotland. 'As a tribute to his speed in advance and readiness to attack' on the Scottish borders, the Scots bestowed on him the name 'Haatspore'. In April 1386 he was sent to France to reinforce the garrison at Calais, and led raids into Picardy. Between August and October 1387 he was in command of a naval force in an attempt to relieve the siege of Brest. In appreciation of these military endeavours he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1388. Reappointed as warden of the east march, he commanded the English forces against James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas, at the Battle of Otterburn on 10 August 1388, where he was captured, but soon ransomed for a fee of 7000 marks.
During the next few years Percy's reputation continued to grow. He was sent on a diplomatic mission to Cyprus in June 1393, and appointed deputy to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, in the Duchy of Aquitaine. He returned to England in January 1395, taking part in Richard II's expedition to Ireland, and was back in Aquitaine the following autumn. In the summer of 1396 he was again in Calais.
His military and diplomatic service brought Percy substantial marks of royal favour in the form of grants and appointments, but despite this the Percy family determined to support Henry Bolingbroke, the future Henry IV, on his return from exile in June 1399. Percy and his father joined Bolingbroke's forces at Doncaster, and marched south with them. After King Richard's deposition, Percy and his father were 'lavishly rewarded' with lands and offices.
Under the new king, Percy had extensive civil and military responsibility in both the east march towards Scotland and in north Wales, where he was appointed High Sheriff of Flintshire in 1399. He was however under increasing pressure in north Wales as a result of the rebellion of Owain Glyn Dwr. In March 1402 Henry IV appointed Percy royal lieutenant in north Wales, and on 14 September 1402 Percy, his father, and the Earl of Dunbar and March were victorious against a Scottish force at the Battle of Homildon Hill, taking prisoner among others Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas.
The Percys had become increasingly discontented with Henry IV, however. Among their grievances was the King's failure to pay the wages due to them for defending the Scottish border, his favour towards Dunbar, his demand that the Percys hand over their Scottish prisoners, his failure to put an end to Owain Glyn Dwr's rebellion through a negotiated settlement, his increasing promotion of his son Prince Henry's military authority in Wales, and his failure to ransom the Percys' kinsman, Henry Percy's brother-in-law, Sir Edmund Mortimer (1376–1409), whom the Welsh had captured in June 1402, and who had a claim to the crown as the grandson of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second surviving son of King Edward III.
Spurred on by these grievances, in the summer of 1403 the Percys rebelled and took up arms against the King. According to Bean, it is clear that the Percys were in collusion with Glyndwr. On his return to England shortly after the victory at Homildon Hill, Henry Percy issued proclamations in Cheshire accusing the King of 'tyrannical government'. Joined by his uncle, Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester, he marched to Shrewsbury where he intended to do battle against a force there under the command of the Prince of Wales. However the army of his father, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland was, for reasons never fully explained, slow to move south as well, and it was without Northumberland's assistance that Henry Percy and Worcester arrived at Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403, where they found the King with a large army. The ensuing battle was fierce, with heavy casualties on both sides, but when Henry Percy himself was struck down and killed, his own forces fled. The Earl of Worcester was executed two days later.
King Henry, upon being brought Percy's body after the battle, is said to have wept. The body was taken by Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall (d.1407), to Whitchurch, Shropshire for burial; however when rumours circulated that Percy was still alive, the King 'had the corpse exhumed and displayed it, propped upright between two millstones, in the market place at Shrewsbury'. That done, the King dispatched Percy's head to York, where it was impaled on one of the city's gates; his four-quarters were sent to London, Newcastle upon Tyne, Bristol, and Chester before they were finally delivered to his widow. She had him buried in York Minster in November of that year. In January 1404, Percy was posthumously declared a traitor, and his lands were forfeited to the Crown.
Henry Percy married Elizabeth Mortimer, the eldest daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, and his wife, Philippa, the only child of Lionel, 1st Duke of Clarence, and Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster, and by her had two children:
- Henry 3 February 1393 – 22 May 1455 2nd Earl of Northumberland; married Eleanor Neville, by whom he had issue. He was slain at the First Battle of St Albans during the Wars of the Roses.
- Elizabeth c.1395 – 26 October 1436 Married firstly John Clifford, 7th Baron de Clifford, slain at the Siege of Meaux on 13 March 1422, by whom she had issue, and secondly Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland (d. 3 November 1484), by whom she had a son, Sir John Neville.
Sometime after 3 June 1406 Elizabeth Mortimer married as her second husband, Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys, by whom she had a son, Sir Roger Camoys. Thomas Camoys distinguished himself as a soldier in command of the rearguard of the English army at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415.
Henry Percy, 'Hotspur', is one of Shakespeare's best-known characters. In Henry IV, Part 1 Percy is portrayed as the same age as his rival, Prince Hal, by whom he is slain in single combat. In fact he was 23 years older than Prince Hal, the future King Henry V, who was a youth of 16 at the date of the Battle of Shrewsbury.
- Sir Henry 'Harry Hotspur' Percy, Justice of Chester, North Wales, & Flintshire1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
- M, #12914, b. 20 May 1364, d. 21 July 1403
- Father Sir Henry Percy, 4th Earl Northumberland, Marshal & Constable of England11,12,13 b. 10 Nov 1341, d. 19 Feb 1408
- Mother Margaret de Neville11,12,13 b. 12 Feb 1339, d. 12 May 1372
* Sir Henry 'Harry Hotspur' Percy, Justice of Chester, North Wales, & Flintshire was born on 20 May 1364 at of Warkworth, Northumberland, England.2,6,10 He married Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Sir Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, Lord Mortimer & Connaught, Earl of Ulster, Marshal of England, Chief Governor of Ireland, Ambassador to France and Philippa Plantagenet, before 10 December 1379; They had 1 son (Sir Henry, 5th Lord Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland) and 1 daughter (Elizabeth, wife of Sir John, 7th Lord Clifford, & of Sir Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland).14,2,15,3,5,6,7,8,9,10 Sir Henry 'Harry Hotspur' Percy, Justice of Chester, North Wales, & Flintshire died on 21 July 1403 at Battle of Shrewsbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, at age 39; Buried at Whitchurch, Shropshire, but moved 2 days later to Shrewsbury. His head was cut off and fixed to one of the gates of York. He was later buried in York Cathedral, Yorkshire.6,10
- Family Elizabeth Mortimer b. 12 Feb 1371, d. 20 Apr 1417
- Elizabeth Percy+16,2,4,5,6,8,9,10 b. c 1392, d. 26 Oct 1436
- Sir Henry Percy, 5th Lord Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, Constable of England+2,6,10 b. 3 Feb 1393, d. 22 May 1455
- 1.[S3639] Unknown author, Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, by F. L. Weis, 4th Ed., p. 54; Burke's Peerage, 1938, p. 1875.
- 2.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 577-578.
- 3.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 194.
- 4.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 236.
- 5.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 250.
- 6.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 341-342.
- 7.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 70-71.
- 8.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 246.
- 9.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 237-238.
- 10.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 354-355.
- 11.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 577.
- 12.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 339.
- 13.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 352.
- 14.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 526.
- 15.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 398-399.
- 16.[S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 216.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p430.htm#i12914
- Sir Henry Percy, Lord Percy1
- M, #107251, b. 20 May 1364, d. 21 July 1403
- Last Edited=18 Dec 2008
- Sir Henry Percy, Lord Percy was born on 20 May 1364 at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, England.2 He was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland and Margaret de Neville. He married Elizabeth de Mortimer, daughter of Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and Philippa Plantagenet, Countess of Ulster, before 1 May 1380.1 He died on 21 July 1403 at age 39 at Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, killed in action.2
- Sir Henry Percy, Lord Percy also went by the nick-name of Harry 'Hotspur'.3 He was styled as Lord Percy.3 He fought in the Battle of Otterburn at Cheviot Hills, Northumberland, England, where he and his brother, Sir Ralph Percy, were made prisoners, and James, Earl of Douglas was slain. He fought in the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403.1 In January 1403/4 His insurrection was declared treason, and he was attainted and his titles forfeited.4
- Children of Sir Henry Percy, Lord Percy and Elizabeth de Mortimer
- 1.Elizabeth Percy+3 d. 26 Oct 1437
- 2.Henry de Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland+1 b. 3 Feb 1392/93, d. 22 May 1455
- 1.[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 95. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- 2.[S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
- 3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/2, page 550. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- 4.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume IX, page 712.
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10726.htm#i107251
- Henry "Hotspur" PERCY (B. Percy)
- Born: 20 May 1364
- Died: 21 Jul 1403, Shrewsbury
- Notes: Knight of the Garter. Called Hotspur. Present at the capture of Berwick-on-Tweed in 1378. Served later in further wars against the Scots and taken prisoner at the battle of Otterburn. Employed for a time in the war in France. Engaged in the suppression of the Welsh under Owen Glendower. Killed at the battle of Shrewsbury.
- Father: Henry PERCY (1º E. Northumberland)
- Mother: Margaret NEVILLE (B. Ros)
- Married: Elizabeth MORTIMER (b. 1370) (dau. of Edmund Mortimer, 3º E. March, and Phillippa Plantagenet)
- 1. Henry PERCY (2º E. Northumberland)
- 2. Elizabeth PERCY (B. Clifford/C. Westmoreland)
- 3. Matilda PERCY
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/PERCY.htm#Henry "Hotspur" PERCY (B. Percy)
- Pearce genealogy, being the record of the posterity of Richard Pearce, an early inhabitant of Portsmouth, in Rhode Island, who came from England, and whose genealogy is traced back to 972. With an introduction of the male descendants of Josceline de Louvaine .. (1888)
- From the foregoing historical sketch of the English branch of the Percies it will be seen that Peter17 Percy* was son of Ralph16 Percy; he (Peter17) was born in 1447 and his descent is as follows from the first ancestor: Galfred1, William2, Alan3, William4, William5, Agnes6, Henry7, William8, Henry9, Henry10, Henry11, Henry12, Henry13, Henry14, Henry15, Ralph16.
- Peter17 Percy had a son Richard18. The father was standard bearer to Richard the Third at the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485.
- Richard18 founded Pearce Hall in York, England, where he lived and died leaving an eldest son Richard19, Jr.
- Richard19, Jr. resided on the homestead of his father and had two sons Richard20, Jr., b. 1590, and William20. It was at this time that the spelling of the name in this branch was changed from Percy to Pearce.
- Richard20 Pearce, Jr. (Richard19) b. 1590 m. in England Martha ---- .
- He resided in Bristol, England, and came to America in the ship "Lyons" from that place. His brother, Capt. William Pearce, was master of the ship. Children: .... etc.
- Sir Henry "Hotspur" Percy
- Birth: May 20, 1364 Alnwick, Northumberland, England
- Death: Jul. 21, 1403 Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
- Knight of the Garter, Knight of Bath. Justice of Chester, North Wales and Flintshire, Warden of the East Marches, Captain of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
- Son and heir apparent of Sir Henry Percy and Margaret de Neville. Grandson of Sir Henry de Percy, Lord Percy, and Mary of Lancaster, descendant of King Henry III, Ralph de Neville, Lord Raby, descendant of King John, and Alice de Audley. Henry was born at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, the home of the Percy's.
- Husband of Elizabeth de Mortimer, eldest daughter of Sir Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, descendant of King John, and Philippe of Antwerp, daughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence. They were married by 10 Dec 1379 and had one son, Sir Henry, Earl of Nothumberland, and one daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir John Clifford.
- The Percy family entered into difficulties with the crowns of England several generations before Henry "Hotspur" as he was styled by the Scots for his readiness for, and speed during battle.
- Henry was with Richard II on his expedition into Scotland in 1385, and sent to France to reinforce Calais and lead raids into Picardy. Upon his return he was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter. Henry was the English commander at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 where Douglas, the Scottish commander was slain and Henry was taken prisoner, eventually ransomed for 7,000 marks. He became John of Gaunt's deputy, was in Ireland with Richard II and back to Aquitane and again, Calais. In 1399 he was with his father in the proceedings that placed Henry Bolingbroke, Henry IV, back on the throne from his exile, deposing of Richard II.
- Henry IV Appointed Henry Percy the royal lieutenant in North Wales after the rebellion of Owain Glyn Dwr. Henry and his father joined wit the Earl of Dunbar against the Scots at the Battle of Homildon Hill, and took Archibald Douglas, the 4th Earl of Douglas prisoner.
- The Percy family became disenchanted with Henry IV, as the king failed to pay their wages, favored Dunbar, demanded their Scottish prisoners and failed to quiet the Wales rebellion. Finally the Percys took up arms against the king. They marched to Shrewsbury with Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, looking for battle against the Prince of Wales, Henry V. When Henry Hotspur arrived at Shrewsbury on the 21st of July, 1403, his father's forces were late, and the king and his massive forces were ready for battle. Percy was struck down, his forces fled, and his uncle Thomas, the Earl of Worcester, was executed two days later.
- It is said the Price of Wales wept to see Henry's body before it was taken by Thomas Neville to Whitchurch in Shropshire for burial. The rumors that arose saying Henry was still alive caused the king to exhume Henry's body and display it, propped up for all to see at he Shrewsbury Marketplace. His head was then dispatched to York and impaled at the city gates, his four quarters sent to London, Newcastle, Bristol and Chester, then finally delivered to his widow who had his remains buried at York Minster in November of 1403.
- His father would be defeated at the Battle of Branham in 1408, also beheaded, drawn and quartered.
- Family links:
- Henry de Percy (1341 - 1408)
- Margaret de Neville Percy (1341 - 1372)
- Elizabeth Mortimer De Camoys (1371 - 1417)
- Henry de Percy (1391 - 1455)*
- Elizabeth de Percy Clifford (1395 - 1436)*
- Burial: York Minster, York, York Unitary Authority, North Yorkshire, England
- Find A Grave Memorial# 39440911
- From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=39440911
Citations / Sources:
[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 95. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
[S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/2, page 550. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume IX, page 712.
[S1257] #248 A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland Enjoying Territorial Possessions or High Official Rank; but Uninvested with Heritable Honors (1834-1838), Burke, John, (4 volumes. London: Published for Henry Colburn, by R. Bentley, 1834-1838), FHL book 942 D2bc., vol. 4 p. 358.
[S2420] #11886 The Golden Grove books of pedigrees (filmed 1970), (Manuscript, National Library of Wales manuscript number Castell Gorfod 7. Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,349-104,351., book 9 p. G1134, 1186; book 16 p. M1925.
[S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (filmed 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Books A to H. National Library of Wales MSS 12359-12360D. Manuscript filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,355 and 104,390 item 2., book 6 p. F4, 9.
[S673] #1079 A History of Monmouthshire from the Coming of the Normans into Wales down to the Present Time (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, number 8. Five volumes in 13. London: Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke, 1904-1993), FHL book 942.43 H2b., vol. 3 p. 8.
[S712] #1039 Pedigrees of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire Families: with Their Collateral Branches in Denbighshire, Merionethshire (1914), Griffith, John Edwards, (Horncastle, England: W.K. Morton, 1914), FHL book Folio 942.9 D2gr; FHL microfilm 468,334., p. I, 305.
[S2] The Visitations of Yorkshire in the years 1563 and 1564, made by William Flower, esquire, Norroy king of arms, Flowers, William and Charles Best Norcliffe, (London : Harleian Society, 1881), FHL book 942 B4h vol. 16; microfilm 162,050 item 2., vol. 16, p. 242.
[S452] #21 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (1910), Cokayne, George Edward (main author) and Vicary Gibbs (added author), (New edition. 13 volumes in 14. London: St. Catherine Press,1910-), vol. 2 p. 508; vol. 3 p. 293
[S266] #379 [7th edition, 1992] Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, Who Came to America Before 1700 (7th edition, 1992), Weis, Frederick Lewis, (7th edition. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, c1992), FHL book 974 D2w 1992., p. 8 line 5:33, p. 23 line 19:32.
[S394] #230 [5th edition, 1999] The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215 (5th edition, 1999), Adams, Arthur, (5th edition. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1999), FHL book 973 D2aa 1999., p. 46 line 36:10, p. 64 line 44:7.
Sir Henry "Hotspur" Percy's Timeline
May 20, 1364
Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England
December 10, 1379
Usk, Monmouthshire, Wales
Alnwick, Northumberland, England
March 2, 1393
Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, England
Alnwick, Northumberland, England
Alnwick, Northumberland, , England
Appleby, Westmoreland, England
July 21, 1403
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
York Minster, York, North Yorkshire, England