William "The Lion", King of Scots

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Uilliam mac Eanric

Also Known As: "William "The Lion"", "The Lion King Of Scotland", "The Lion", "13121", "12234", "Uilliam mac Eanric", "William I"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Perth, Perth and Kinross, Scotland
Death: Died in Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Place of Burial: Abbey of Arbroath, Arbroath, Angusshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne, Countess of Huntingdon
Husband of Ermengarde de Beaumont, Queen of Scotland
Partner of unknown Mistresses 1144-1234 (4-7) of William I, of Scotland; Isobel (or Sybil) Avenell and Margaret de Hythus
Father of Isabella of Scotland, Countess of Norfolk; Alexander II King of Scotland House of Albanach; Aufrica nic Uilliam; Ada nic Uilliam; Robert de Lundin and 9 others
Brother of Máel Coluim IV mac Eanric, King of Scots; David, Earl of Huntingdon; Ada de Huntingdon, Countess of Holland; Marjorie of Huntingdon; Maud (Matilda, Mabel) Huntingdon, Princess Of Scotland and 3 others

Occupation: King of Scotland, 1165-1214, Skotlannin kuningas v. 1165-1214, King, King Of Scotland
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About William "The Lion", King of Scots

Born in 1143, William the Lion was the younger brother of Malcolm IV.

A year after his accession, he went to Normandy with Henry II and later spent Easter 1170 at Windsor. In 1174, however, he joined Henry II's son in his rebellion against his father, and invaded England. He was captured at Alnwick, Northumberland and brought to Henry II with 'his feet shackled beneath the belly of his horse.'

He was then held prisoner first in Yorkshire, later at Northampton and finally in France. He was released by the terms of the Treaty of Falaise of 8 December 1174, having been forced to agree to do homage to Henry II 'for Scotland and for all his other lands', and surrender key Scottish castles such as Edinburgh and Stirling.

As William's feudal lord, Henry now had the right to arrange his marriage, and he gave him Ermengarde de Beaumont, whose father was the son of an illegitimate daughter of Henry I.

William eventually recovered Scotland from the English king's feudal overlordship, however, when Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. Richard, determined to raise money for his third Crusade, surrendered his feudal superiority over Scotland for 10,000 marks by the Quitclaim of Canterbury on 5 December 1189 and Scotland was an independent country once more. In 1196-7, William established his sovereignty in Caithness.

Under William, the development of feudal institutions continued; in part, the Scottish monarchy's government closely resembled England's. William established royal burghs in eastern Scotland up to the Moray Firth, and extended the use of sheriffs in the same area. Perth and Stirling became major centres of royal administration.

William I was a vigorous royal patron of the Scottish Church - he founded Arbroath Abbey, Angus in or before 1178. In 1182 Pope Lucius III sent him the Golden Rose and in 1188 Pope Clement III took the Scottish Church under his special protection.

In 1192, the Pope granted a Bull to William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church (previously the Church in Scotland had been brought under the authority of the Archbishop of York), and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome.

Gervase of Canterbury described William as 'a man of outstanding sanctity ... much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'.

William died at Stirling on 4 December 1214, aged 71, and was buried at Arbroath.

--------------------

    William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland was born circa 1143. He was the son of Henry of Huntingdon, Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne. He married Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard de Beaumont, Vicomte de Beaumont-le-Maine and Constance (?), on 5 September 1186 at Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. He died on 4 December 1214 at Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland. He was buried at Arbroath Abbey, Scotland.
    William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland gained the title of Earl of Huntingdon. He succeeded to the title of Earl of Northumberland on 12 June 1152.2 He abdicated as Earl of Northumberland in 1157. He succeeded to the title of King William I of Scotland on 9 December 1165. He was crowned King of Scotland on 24 December 1165 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.
    He succeeded his older brother, Malcolm IV. William fought to regain Northumberland from England, beginning the 'Auld Alliance' with France, but was captured at Alnwick and forced to acknowledge Henry II as Scotland's overlord in 1174.. He bought back Scotland's sovereignty from Richard I for #6600 (1189) towards the Third Crusade and in 1192 won long-canvased papel recognition of the Scotish Church's independence under Rome. His reign of almost 49 years was the longest in Scottish history. A strong and popular king. He was buried at Tironensian Abbey, Arbroath. Succeeded by his son, Alexander II.

Child of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and daughter1 de Hythus

   * Margaret (?) d. a 12264

Child of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and unknown daughter Avenal

   * Isabella (?)+ 4

Children of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland

   * Robert de London 4
   * Henry Galightly 4
   * Aufrica (?) 4
   * Ada of Scotland+ b. b 1174, d. 12004

Children of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and Ermengarde de Beaumont

   * Isabella of Scotland+ d. a 1253
   * Margaret of Scotland+ b. c 1193, d. 1259
   * Alexander II 'the Peaceful', King of Scotland+ b. 24 Aug 1198, d. 6 Jul 1249
   * Marjorie of Scotland b. b 1214, d. 17 Nov 1244

William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", [1] (1142/1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.

The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[2] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250.

Marriage and issue

Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. As a result, William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before she bore him an heir. William and Ermengarde's children were:

  1. Margaret (1193–1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
  2. Isabella (1195–1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
  3. Alexander II of Scotland (1198–1249).
  4. Marjorie (1200–44), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_I_of_Scotland

-------------------- King William I "the Lyon" of Scotland - was born in 1143 and died on 2 Dec 1214 in Sterling,Stirlingshire,Scotland . He was the son of Prince Henry of Scotland and Gundred de Warenne. King William married Isabel de Avenel. Isabel was born about 1143 in Scotland. She was the daughter of Richard Avenel. She died on 4 Dec 1214 in Sterling,Stirlingshire,Scotland .

 Then King William married Ermengarde de Beaumont. Ermengarde was born about 1170. She died on 11 Feb 1233 and was buried in Balmerino Abbey, Fife . 

King William - The nickname "The Lion" was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength in battle (though he was not always successful) or, more likely, to the heraldic symbol which he adopted - the red lion rampant on a yellow background - which has remained a royal symbol to this day.


William is known to have been planning another invasion of England to retake Northumberland early in the 13th century after King John came to the throne of England and there were a number of skirmishes along the border. But he eventually negotiated a treaty instead - he is said to have had a "divine warning" of the consequences of invasion. (Sources: - 3) Children with Isabel de Avenel (Quick Family Chart) i. Aufrica of Scotland was born before 1160. Aufrica married William de Saye. William was born before 1135. He was the son of William de Saye and Beatrix de Mandeville. He died before 1 Aug 1177 . See de Saye family for children.


Children with Ermengarde de Beaumont (Quick Family Chart) ii. Marjory of Scotland was born about 1230 and died in 1259 . Marjory married Gilbert de Clare. Gilbert was born on 12 Sep 1229 in Gloucestshire, England. He was the son of Earl of Gloucester Gilbert de Clare and Isabel Marshall. He died after 1241 . See De Claire family for children

William was born in 1143, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, and Ada de Warenne. William married 5 September 1186 in Woodstock Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard I de Beaumont, vicomte de Beaumont, and Lucie de L'Aigle. William and Ermengarde became the parents of one son and three daughters.

Gervase of Canterbury described William 'the Lion' in his _Deeds of Kings_ as 'a man of outstanding sanctity, much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'.

The younger brother of King Malcolm IV, he was a vigorous champion of Scotland's interests. At the outset of his reign (1165), he felt close to Henry II, King of England, but in 1174 he supported the English rebels and invaded England; he was captured and in the treaty of Falaise acknowledged Henry II as feudal overlord of Scotland. Relations later improved, and Richard I, in preparation for his crusade (1189), sold his feudal superiority to William for 10,000 marks. He coped with rebellions in the north and west (from 1174) with some success and established his sovereignty in Caithness (1196-1197).

William also obtained the long sought-after papal declaration that the Scottish Church was independent of any foreign archbishop (1192); indeed, he received signal marks of papal favour, notably gifts of the Golden Rose and, probably, the Blessed Sword and Hat. In his lifetime he was never called 'the Lion', afterwards he was given this name because of the lion on his coat-of-arms.

William 'the Lion' died 4 December 1214 in Stirling.


Sources 1. [S00011] ~Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973 , Reference: page 315. 2. [S01362] Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: page 67. 3. [S00119] The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald, Reference: vol I page 157.

-------------------- http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/William-I-of-Scotland

William I "the Lion" ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707. He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165. banner of William the Lion, King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. ... my children are my life ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events Celestine II is elected pope. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st... Malcolm IV (c. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ...

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully-built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the English. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles, Danes and Norwegians which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom...

Traditionally, William founded Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. Interestingly, he was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry. Arbroath Abbey, showing distinctive sandstone colouring. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ...

The "Lion" became attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fluery counter-fluery' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland; the British Monarch when in Scotland honors the display of Scotland's Royal Standard due to the fact they share a Common ancestor with the Scots. However, this common ancestor is not William the Lion, but William's Great Grandfather, King Malcolm III,who was also known as "Canmore" meaning "Great Head". He was the husband of Queen Saint Margaret,and also the Great Grandfather of English King Henry II. The rampant lion within the 2nd quarter of Great Britain's Royal arms represents their common ancestry with the Scots. The Royal Standard of Scotland The Royal Standard of Scotland, also known as the Lion Rampant is a flag used historically by the Kings of Scotland. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...

William arranged the Auld Alliance, the first treaty for mutual self-defence between nations. Scotland, France, and Norway subscribed to the treaty. Although Norway never took much part in it, it played a role in Franco-Scottish (and English) affairs until 1746. The Auld Alliance was an alliance between Scotland, France, and Norway which had its origins in the Orkneyinga saga and the colonisation of Normandy. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ...

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles, Danes and Norwegians which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...

William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174 against Henry II. In 1174, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops and taken in chains to Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. The Revolt of 1173–1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Falaise is a commune in the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie administrative région, in Normandy, north-western France. ... Flag of Normandy Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ...

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. At the end of that time the new English king, Richard the Lionheart, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks. Richard needed the money to take part in the Third Crusade. Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...

Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. William was married to Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before an heir, Alexander, was born. William and Ermengarde's children were: Henry I of England (c. ... Events John the Chanter becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth Edinburgh Castle is an ancient stronghold on the Castle Rock in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, has been in use by assorted military forces since 900 BC and only transferred from Ministry of Defence administration recently. ...

  1. Margaret (1193-1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
  2. Isabella (1195-1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
  3. Alexander II of Scotland (1198-1249), reigned 1214-1249.
  4. Marjorie (1200-1244), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.

William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king. -------------------- King of Scotland "The Lion" Earl of Huntington -------------------- (born 1143 — died Dec. 2, 1214, Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scot.) King of Scotland (1165 – 1214). He succeeded his father as earl of Northumberland (1152) but was forced to relinquish his earldom to England's Henry II in 1157. He succeeded his brother, Malcolm IV, as king of Scotland and in 1173 joined a revolt of Henry's sons in an attempt to regain Northumberland. Captured in 1174, he was released after submitting to Henry's overlordship. He bought his release from subjection in 1189. He continued to agitate for the restoration of Northumberland but was forced to renounce his claim by King John in 1209. William created many of the major burghs of modern Scotland.


William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland was born circa 1143.2 He was the son of Henry of Huntingdon, Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne. He married Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard de Beaumont, Vicomte de Beaumont-le-Maine and Constance, on 5 September 1186 in Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England.3 He died on 4 December 1214 in Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland.4 He was buried in Arbroath Abbey, Scotland.4

    William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland gained the title of Earl of Huntingdon. He succeeded to the title of Earl of Northumberland on 12 June 1152.2 He abdicated as Earl of Northumberland in 1157.2 He succeeded to the title of King William I of Scotland on 9 December 1165.2 He was crowned King of Scotland on 24 December 1165 in Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.2 
    He succeeded his older brother, Malcolm IV. William fought to regain Northumberland from England, beginning the 'Auld Alliance' with France, but was captured at Alnwick and forced to acknowledge Henry II as Scotland's overlord in 1174.. He bought back Scotland's sovereignty from Richard I for #6600 (1189) towards the Third Crusade and in 1192 won long-canvased papel recognition of the Scotish Church's independence under Rome. His reign of almost 49 years was the longest in Scottish history. A strong and popular king. He was buried at Tironensian Abbey, Arbroath. Succeeded by his son, Alexander II. 

Family 1 unknown daughter Avenal Child Isabella+ 4


Family 2 daughter1 de Hythus Child Margaret d. a 12264


Family 3 Children Robert de London 4 Henry Galightly 4 Aufrica 4 Ada of Scotland+ b. b 1174, d. 12004


Family 4 Ermengarde de Beaumont b. circa 1160, d. 11 February 1233/34 Children Isabella of Scotland+ d. a 1253 Margaret of Scotland+ b. c 1193, d. 1259 Alexander II 'the Peaceful', King of Scotland+ b. 24 Aug 1198, d. 6 Jul 1249 Marjorie of Scotland b. b 1214, d. 17 Nov 1244


-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_I_of_Scotland -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_I_of_Scotland -------------------- Surnamed 'The Lion' due to the rampant (stand on hind legs) red lion on a yellow field, which he had as his standar. It would go on to become Scotland's Royal Heraldic colors. Ferocious fighter & military commander, but of questionable ability as a tactician. Abbey at Arbroath was founded by William. He was buried in front of the high altar.

Sources: The book, 'A House of King's' The book, 'Scotland, Past & Present' The book, 'The Scottish World' (plus many more) -------------------- SOURCE NOTES: 1) GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72; C6943ra; Denver Public Library; Genealogy

2) Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online <ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html>. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

3) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 196. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.

4) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 197.

5) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 198.

Web Source: http://www.rampantscotland.com/famous/blfamwilliamlion.htm http://www.thepeerage.com/p10288.htm#i102872

Famous Scots - King William I "The Lion" (1143-1214)

   William the Lion William "The Lion" was a grandson of King David I and came to the throne after the death of his elder brother, Malcolm IV in 1165. The nickname "The Lion" was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength in battle (though he was not always successful) or, more likely, to the heraldic symbol which he adopted - the red lion rampant on a yellow background - which has remained a royal symbol to this day.
   William was crowned at Scone on December 24, 1165 at the age of 22 and was to reign for nearly 50 years - a prodigious length of time by any standards, but unheard of in those violent days.
   William was red-haired and energetic. Early in his reign he attempted to recover land in Northumberland which had been given to King David in 1149 by King Stephen of England but which had been ceded by his brother Malcolm. The stories of his butchery of the local population were chronicled in detail by later (English) historians. However, he was ultimately unsuccessful as he was surprised by an attack by the English army while besieging Alnwick castle. In the mist, he mistook a party of English knights for his own. He is said to have fought fearlessly but his horse was speared and he was captured. He spent five months as a prisoner of Henry II while the English army plundered the south of Scotland as far as Edinburgh.
   Lion Rampant William was only released under the Treaty of Falaise. Under this, William was forced to swear allegiance to King Henry II of England and English garrisons remained in the castles which had been captured. This lasted until after Henry's death in 1189. At that stage he was able to negotiate out of the oath by providing money to King Richard (the Lionheart) who needed finance to go on a crusade to the Holy Land.
   In 1178 William founded the Abbey of Arbroath which was dedicated to Thomas à Becket who had been murdered by Henry II in 1170. The Abbey was later to be place where the famous "Declaration of Arbroath" was signed in 1320 by the Scottish nobles in the time of Robert the Bruce.
   William failed to assert his authority over the rebellious south-west of Scotland. This was not helped by the fact that he had to first ask permission of his "liege-lord" Henry to be allowed to deal with the matter. William captured one of the ring-leaders but had to send him to Henry to be dealt with. Henry demand an oath of loyalty - and promptly returned the outlaw to Galloway where he immediately attacked William's garrison.
   William is known to have been planning another invasion of England to retake Northumberland early in the 13th century after King John came to the throne of England and there were a number of skirmishes along the border. But he eventually negotiated a treaty instead - he is said to have had a "divine warning" of the consequences of invasion.
   In 1186 William married Ermengarde de Beaumont who at last bore him a son in 1198 (later King Alexander II) when William was aged 53. He also had three daughters (all of whom married English nobles as part of the peacemaking process with King John of England). 

-------------------- William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", [1] (1142/1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.

The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[2] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250. -------------------- William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", [1] (1142/1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.

The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[2] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250.

[edit] Marriage and issue Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. As a result, William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before she bore him an heir. William and Ermengarde's children were:

1.Margaret (1193–1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent. 2.Isabella (1195–1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk. 3.Alexander II of Scotland (1198–1249). 4.Marjorie (1200–44), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1143

d. Dec. 4, 1214, Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scot.

byname WILLIAM THE LION William I: William the Lionking of Scotland from 1165 to 1214; although he submitted to English overlordship for 15 years (1174-89) of his reign, he ultimately obtained independence for his kingdom.

William was the second son of the Scottish Henry, Earl of Northumberland, whose title he inherited in 1152. He was forced, however, to relinquish this earldom to King Henry II of England (reigned 1154-89) in 1157. Succeeding to the throne of his elder brother, King Malcolm IV, in 1165, William joined a revolt of Henry's sons (1173) in an attempt to regain Northumberland. He was captured near Alnwick, Northumberland, in 1174 and released after agreeing to recognize the overlordship of the king of England and the supremacy of the English church over the Scottish church.

Upon Henry's death in 1189, William obtained release from his feudal subjection by paying a large sum of money to England's new king, Richard I (reigned 1189-99). In addition, although William had quarreled bitterly with the papacy over a church appointment, Pope Celestine III ruled in 1192 that the Scottish church owed obedience only to Rome, not to England. During the reign of King John in England, relations between England and Scotland deteriorated over the issue of Northumberland until finally, in 1209, John forced William to renounce his claims.

In his effort to consolidate his authority throughout Scotland, William developed a small but efficient central administrative bureaucracy. He chartered many of the major burghs of modern Scotland and in 1178 founded Arbroath Abbey, which had become probably the wealthiest monastery in Scotland by the time of his death. William was succeeded by his son Alexander II.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- King William I "the Lyon" of Scotland - was born in 1143 and died on 2 Dec 1214 in Sterling,Stirlingshire,Scotland . He was the son of Prince Henry of Scotland and Gundred de Warenne.

King William married Isabel de Avenel. Isabel was born about 1143 in Scotland. She was the daughter of Richard Avenel. She died on 4 Dec 1214 in Sterling,Stirlingshire,Scotland .

 Then King William married Ermengarde de Beaumont. Ermengarde was born about 1170. She died on 11 Feb 1233 and was buried in Balmerino Abbey, Fife .

King William - The nickname "The Lion" was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength in battle (though he was not always successful) or, more likely, to the heraldic symbol which he adopted - the red lion rampant on a yellow background - which has remained a royal symbol to this day.


William is known to have been planning another invasion of England to retake Northumberland early in the 13th century after King John came to the throne of England and there were a number of skirmishes along the border. But he eventually negotiated a treaty instead - he is said to have had a "divine warning" of the consequences of invasion. (Sources: - 3) -------------------- William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",[1] (c 1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath.

He was not known as "The Lion" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess.

The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

William was a key player in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[2] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Lion -------------------- http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/Scottish%20Monarchs%28400ad-1603%29/DescendantsofMalcolmIII/WilliamI.aspx

--------------------

William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was the second son of the Scottish Henry, Earl of Northumberland.3 Also called Willelm Rex Scotie.4 He was the successor of Énric mac Dabid, rí Alban; 1st Earl of Northumberland.5,3 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was born in 1143.6,2,3,7 He was the son of Énric mac Dabid, rí Alban and Ada de Warenne.2 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland inherited the earldom of Northumberland from his father, assigned to him by King David on the death of his father, in 1152.3,6 2nd Earl of Northumberland at England between 12 June 1152 and 1157.3,6 He relinquished the earldom of Northumberland to King Henry II of England in 1157.3 He saw the Earldom of Northumberland surrendered to King Henry II of England by his elder brother, Malcolm, King of Scotland, in 1157.6 He made frequent attempts to regain the Earldom of Northumberland between 1157 and 1165.6 He was the successor of Malcolm IV "the Maiden", King of Scotland; 6th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.7 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was recognized as Earl of Huntingdon by King Henry II of England, but denied the Earldom of Northumberland, upon which he became an enemy of the King in 1165.7 He succeeded to the throne of his elder brother, King Malcolm IV, in 1165.3 7th Earl of Huntingdon at England between 1165 and 12 July 1174.7 King of Scotland between 9 December 1165 and 1214.2,3 He was enthroned, succeeding his brother, Malcolm IV, on 24 December 1165 at Scone, Scotland.2 He associated with daughter Avenal, daughter of Richard Avenal, before 1170. William I "the Lion", King of Scotland joined a revolt of Henry's sons in an attempt to regain Northumberland in 1173.3 The Great Rebellion: Henry II versus his heir, Henry "the Young King", his two older brothers, the Earl of Leicester, the King of Scots, the King of France, and the Count of Flanders. In 1172/73 at 19 Henry II.8,9 Annals of Monte Fernando 1174: "Capcio Willelmi regis Scocie."10 He and Henri II "Courtmanteau", roi d' Angleterre concluded a peace treaty between England and Scotland in 1174.11 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was the predecessor of Simon de St. Liz III, 8th Earl of Huntingdon; 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland submitted to English overlordship for 15 years between 1174 and 1189.3 He was deprived of his earldom on 12 July 1174.13 He joined with Prince Henry of England in rebellion against his father, was defeated and taken prisoner at Alnwick on 12 July 1174.13 He founded Arbroath Abbey, which had become probably the wealthiest monastery in Scotland by the time of his death, in 1178 at Scotland.3 He obtained a regrant of Huntingdon from the King, but immediately resigned it to his brother David in 1185.12 He married Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard, comte de Beaumont La Maine, on 5 September 1186 at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England.14,2,12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland purchased, for 10,000 marks, from Richard I a release of all claim to allegience from Scotland in 1189.12 He ultimately obtained independence for his kingdom in 1189.3 He obtained release from his feudal subjection by paying a large sum of money to England's new king, Richard I, on the death of Henry II in 1189.3 He supported in his claim of independency for Scotland when Pope Celestine III ruled that the Scottish church owed obedience only to Rome, not to England, in 1192.3 He was forced by King John to forevermore renounce his claim to Northumberland in 1209 at England.3 Annals of Monte Fernando 1214: "Willelmus rex Scottorum Ob."15 He died on 4 December 1214 at Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland, at age 71 years.2,3,12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was buried in Arbroath Abbey, Aberbrothock, Scotland.16,2,12

Family 1 daughter Avenal b. circa 1147 Child

   Isabel MacCrinan+ b. c 117017

Family 2 Ermengarde de Beaumont b. after 1170, d. 11 February 1233/34 Children

   Alexander II "the Peaceful", King of Scotland+ b. 24 Aug 1198, d. 6 Jul 124916,2
   Margaret MacCrinan+ b. c 1201?18

-------------------- About Uilliam I The Lion mac Eanric, King of Scots Born in 1143, William the Lion was the younger brother of Malcolm IV. A year after his accession, he went to Normandy with Henry II and later spent Easter 1170 at Windsor. In 1174, however, he joined Henry II's son in his rebellion against his father, and invaded England. He was captured at Alnwick, Northumberland and brought to Henry II with 'his feet shackled beneath the belly of his horse.' He was then held prisoner first in Yorkshire, later at Northampton and finally in France. He was released by the terms of the Treaty of Falaise of 8 December 1174, having been forced to agree to do homage to Henry II 'for Scotland and for all his other lands', and surrender key Scottish castles such as Edinburgh and Stirling. As William's feudal lord, Henry now had the right to arrange his marriage, and he gave him Ermengarde de Beaumont, whose father was the son of an illegitimate daughter of Henry I. William eventually recovered Scotland from the English king's feudal overlordship, however, when Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. Richard, determined to raise money for his third Crusade, surrendered his feudal superiority over Scotland for 10,000 marks by the Quitclaim of Canterbury on 5 December 1189 and Scotland was an independent country once more. In 1196-7, William established his sovereignty in Caithness. Under William, the development of feudal institutions continued; in part, the Scottish monarchy's government closely resembled England's. William established royal burghs in eastern Scotland up to the Moray Firth, and extended the use of sheriffs in the same area. Perth and Stirling became major centres of royal administration. William I was a vigorous royal patron of the Scottish Church he founded Arbroath Abbey, Angus in or before 1178. In 1182 Pope Lucius III sent him the Golden Rose and in 1188 Pope Clement III took the Scottish Church under his special protection. In 1192, the Pope granted a Bull to William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church (previously the Church in Scotland had been brought under the authority of the Archbishop of York), and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome. Gervase of Canterbury described William as 'a man of outstanding sanctity much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'. William died at Stirling on 4 December 1214, aged 71, and was buried at Arbroath -------------------- Born in 1143, William the Lion was the younger brother of Malcolm IV. A year after his accession, he went to Normandy with Henry II and later spent Easter 1170 at Windsor. In 1174, however, he joined Henry II's son in his rebellion against his father, and invaded England. He was captured at Alnwick, Northumberland and brought to Henry II with 'his feet shackled beneath the belly of his horse.' He was then held prisoner first in Yorkshire, later at Northampton and finally in France. He was released by the terms of the Treaty of Falaise of 8 December 1174, having been forced to agree to do homage to Henry II 'for Scotland and for all his other lands', and surrender key Scottish castles such as Edinburgh and Stirling. As William's feudal lord, Henry now had the right to arrange his marriage, and he gave him Ermengarde de Beaumont, whose father was the son of an illegitimate daughter of Henry I. William eventually recovered Scotland from the English king's feudal overlordship, however, when Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. Richard, determined to raise money for his third Crusade, surrendered his feudal superiority over Scotland for 10,000 marks by the Quitclaim of Canterbury on 5 December 1189 and Scotland was an independent country once more. In 1196-7, William established his sovereignty in Caithness. Under William, the development of feudal institutions continued; in part, the Scottish monarchy's government closely resembled England's. William established royal burghs in eastern Scotland up to the Moray Firth, and extended the use of sheriffs in the same area. Perth and Stirling became major centres of royal administration. William I was a vigorous royal patron of the Scottish Church he founded Arbroath Abbey, Angus in or before 1178. In 1182 Pope Lucius III sent him the Golden Rose and in 1188 Pope Clement III took the Scottish Church under his special protection. In 1192, the Pope granted a Bull to William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church (previously the Church in Scotland had been brought under the authority of the Archbishop of York), and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome. Gervase of Canterbury described William as 'a man of outstanding sanctity much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'. William died at Stirling on 4 December 1214, aged 71, and was buried at Arbroath. -------------------- William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", (1142/1143 – December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Lion -------------------- Born in 1143, William the Lion was the younger brother of Malcolm IV. A year after his accession, he went to Normandy with Henry II and later spent Easter 1170 at Windsor. In 1174, however, he joined Henry II's son in his rebellion against his father, and invaded England. He was captured at Alnwick, Northumberland and brought to Henry II with 'his feet shackled beneath the belly of his horse.' He was then held prisoner first in Yorkshire, later at Northampton and finally in France. He was released by the terms of the Treaty of Falaise of 8 December 1174, having been forced to agree to do homage to Henry II 'for Scotland and for all his other lands', and surrender key Scottish castles such as Edinburgh and Stirling. As William's feudal lord, Henry now had the right to arrange his marriage, and he gave him Ermengarde de Beaumont, whose father was the son of an illegitimate daughter of Henry I. William eventually recovered Scotland from the English king's feudal overlordship, however, when Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. Richard, determined to raise money for his third Crusade, surrendered his feudal superiority over Scotland for 10,000 marks by the Quitclaim of Canterbury on 5 December 1189 and Scotland was an independent country once more. In 1196-7, William established his sovereignty in Caithness. Under William, the development of feudal institutions continued; in part, the Scottish monarchy's government closely resembled England's. William established royal burghs in eastern Scotland up to the Moray Firth, and extended the use of sheriffs in the same area. Perth and Stirling became major centres of royal administration. William I was a vigorous royal patron of the Scottish Church he founded Arbroath Abbey, Angus in or before 1178. In 1182 Pope Lucius III sent him the Golden Rose and in 1188 Pope Clement III took the Scottish Church under his special protection. In 1192, the Pope granted a Bull to William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church (previously the Church in Scotland had been brought under the authority of the Archbishop of York), and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome. Gervase of Canterbury described William as 'a man of outstanding sanctity much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'. William died at Stirling on 4 December 1214, aged 71, and was buried at Arbroath. -------------------- created the lion rampant as his battle crest and coat of arms. -------------------- William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",[1] (c 1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625).

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William "The Lion", King of Scots's Timeline

1136
1136
Sterling, Stirlingshire, , Scotland
1143
1143
Perth, Perth and Kinross, Scotland
1161
1161
Age 18
Not Md
1162
1162
Age 19
1164
January 1164
Age 21
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
1167
1167
Age 24
Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
1169
1169
Age 26
Stirling, , Stirlingshire, England
1170
1170
Age 27
Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
1170
Age 27
Scotland
1176
1176
Age 33
Not Md