Abraham ben Eliyahu Senior Coronel
Dutch: Don Abraham Senõr Coronel
|Also Known As:||"Fernando Perez Coronel", "Fernão Perez Coronel", "Abraham Senior"|
|Birthplace:||Segovia, Segovia, Castile and León, Spain|
|Death:||Died in España|
|Place of Burial:||España|
Son of D. Eliyahu ben Daniel Señor and Unknown Senior
|Occupation:||Court Rabbi of Castile, and royal "tax-farmer-in-chief", Rabino e Banqueiro|
|Managed by:||Jarrett Ross (112-1701-241-22)|
About D. Abraham ben Eliyahu Senior Coronel
The Senior Coronel & Saraiva Family Segovia Castilla y Leon Spain, c. 1386 - See Complete Family Tree and Biography
Together with Isaac Abravanel, wrote the letter of objection to Isabella and Ferdinand on the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Introduced King Ferdinand to Isabella.
According to Professor Haim Beinart in 'The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain' (p. 420), Don Abraham Senior was referred to, in a letter of 1487 from the Jews of Castile to the Jews of Rome and Lombardy as 'the Exilarch who is over us'*. 'Exilarch' means 'Prince of the Captivity' or 'Head of the Exile'** (that is, de jure King of the Jews in exile), a title dating from the Babylonian Exile of 597-538 BC which appears to have survived in Mesopotamia until Tamerlane the Great sacked Baghdad in 1401. The title was hereditary in and exclusive to the House of David (see II Kings xxv. 27 and I Chronicles iii. 17 et seq.) but was elective amongst the immediate male members of that family and subject to rabbinic approval.
Given the fact that the title appears never to have been accorded to (or used to describe) anyone not acknowledged by rabbinic authorities to be of Davidic descent, and that the misuse of such a title would have been most unlikely, it is reasonable to infer that Don Abraham was descended from one of those branches of the House of David that have been traced to Spain (see the Jewish Encyclopaedia) and that the title was accorded to him in an attempt to revive the Exilarchate after it had ceased to be recognised in Mesopotamia, as happened in Egypt in 1081. (Graham Senior-Milne)
- Born in Segovia.
- Numerous mentions on the internet.
- Heads up the booklet written by David Coren.
The painting in this profile :'The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain' painted in 1889 by Emilio Sala Frances, Museo de Bellas Artes de Granada.
A representative of the Jews pleads for the reversal of the decree of expulsion of 1492. The figure in the foreground is either Don Isaac Abravanel or Don Abraham Senior. The figure gesturing behind the table must be Torquemada; presumably this is the point at which Torquemada said that accepting Jewish gold would be like Judas accepting the 30 pieces of silver.
- Court rabbi of Castile, and royal tax-farmer-in-chief
- Don Abraham SENIOR CORONEL Court rabbi of Castile, and royal tax-farmer-in-chief; born in Segovia in the early part of the fifteenth century;
- a near relative of the influential Andreas de Cabrera. On account of his wealth, intelligence, and aristocratic bearing he was in such favor with the Castilian grandees that he (1469) succeeded in bringing about the marriage of the Infanta (later, Queen) Isabella to Ferdinand of Aragon. Some years later (1473) he effected a reconciliation between Isabella and her brother, Henry IV. of Castile. The queen, whose confidence Senior enjoyed, granted him, in token of her gratitude for the services he had rendered her, a life pension of 100,000 maravedis, which in 1480 was confirmed at the instance of Hernando do Talavera, her confessor.
- The first wife of Abraham Senior was Violante de Cabrera the sister to the above mentioned Andreas de Cabrera making him his brother-in-law which is a fairly "near relative".LL Andreas and his wife, Beatriz Fernandez de Bobadilla, who was a friend and confidant of Queen Isabella, were later awarded the title of Marquis of Moya.
•Senior received also the royal appointment of "rab do la corte" (court rabbi) and of tax-farmer-in-chief. He was so highly respected by the grandees that in 1480 the Cortes of Toledo presented him with 50,000 maravedis from the revenues collected through his agency. In the farming of the royal taxes he associated himself with Isaac Abravanel, who soon became his intimate friend. During the war between Castile and the last king of the Moors, especially in the conquest of Granada, Senior rendered the Spanish army valuable services as factor-general.
•His interest in his persecuted coreligionists was an active one. It was through his efforts that the Jews of Castile raised a large sum to ransom those of their own faith who had been taken prisoners at the capture of Malaga. When the decree expelling the Jews from Spain (March 31, 1492) had become generally known, Senior, together with Isaac Abravanel, hastened to the queen imploring her to spare them. On June 15, 1492,however, he and his son were baptized in Valladolid, the king and queen and the primate of Spain acting as sponsors. He then assumed the name "Ferrad [Fernando] Perez Coronel."
With Senior was baptized the rabbi Meïr, who was, according to Bernaldez ("Historia de los Reyes Católicos," p. 336, Seville, 1870), his father-in-law, or, according to Elijah Capsali (see "Liḳḳuṭim Shonim," ed. Lattes, p. 73, Padua, 1869), his brother-in-law.
As his daughter, Reina, was married to Rabbi Meir MELAMED. That would make him his son-in-law. If Abraham's wife was, as suggested, the sister of Rabbi Meir it would also make him his brother-in-Law.
(The Jewish Encyclopedia)
Don Abraham Senior Coronel can be linked back to the Exilarchs - 'Prince of the Captivity' or 'Head of the Exile' - (Heb. ראש גולה, rosh galut) (Aram. רֵישׁ גָּלוּתָא, resh galuta), who are descended from King David.
Don Abraham Senior of Castile (b. 1410/12). Was he the last Exilarch? The reference to Don Abraham Senior as 'Exilarch'
The reference to Don Abraham Senior in a letter of 1487 from the Jews of Castile to the Jews of Rome and Lombardy as 'the Exilarch who is over us' is problematic if the Exilarchate came to an end in 1040 (see above) as described in the Jewish Encyclopedia. However, the title seems to have survived until 1401 and, if this is true, then it is more likely that someone could have been Exilarch in 1487. Furthermore, the letter of 1487 which describes Don Abraham Senior as Exilarch is not from one individual to another, it is from one Jewish community (the Jews of Castile) to another (the Jews of Rome and Lombardy) and, on this basis, it carries the full weight of an official communication. Again, the Jews were, as I understand it, normally precise in their use of official and religious terminology and the authors of the letter must have been aware of the implications of the use of the word 'Exilarch', namely that the person so described was of Davidic descent. Given this connotation the mis-use of the word 'Exilarch' in an official communication would seem to be unlikely. It is worth noting, in this context, that David Einsiedler in his article 'Descent From King David - Part II' (Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy, 1993, Vol. IX, No. 2, page 34) states that 'Genealogists who value religious tradition could say that our rabbis and sages did not make statements about Davidic descent lightly [and calling someone 'Exilarch' amounted to a statement about Davidic descent], that they were trustworthy and insisted on truth.' •Shalom, the 75th and apparently last Exilarch was deposed by Tamerlane in 1401 when he sacked Baghdad; •Don Abraham Senior was described as Exilarch in 1487 in an authoritative Jewish document; •members of the families of a number of Exilarchs (and even a deposed Exilarch) fled to or settled in Spain at various times and there is therefore a high probablility (pretty much near certainty in my view) that they left descendants in that country and, in fact, this is stated in various places (see above) to have been the case; •no-one else has ever been described as Exilarch without being recognised by the Jewish authorities as a (not 'the' since the title seems to have been elective within the male members of the Exilarch's family) senior heir of the House of David (although there must have been disputes at times); •that the Jewish authorities have never recognised someone as Exilarch without good reason; in other words at the time of the appointment of each Exilarch, amongst those making the appointment would always have been people who could attest authoritatively (e.g. religious elders) and personally to the fact that the candidate was a male-line descendant of a previous Exilarch, or who could attest that they had received similar information from someone they regarded as authoritative, meaning that there has been a living chain of memory stretching back over a period of 2000 years.
This line of thought seems quite logical to me. I merely put it forward as a valid area for further research and, in any event, I don't think one can dismiss the letter of 1487 out of hand. Professor Haim Beinart
Note: Haim Beinart is an emeritus professor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has more than three hundred publications to his credit, almost all of them dealing with the history of the Jews in Spain in the Middle Ages and their subsequent expulsion. He was elected to the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1981 and has received many other prizes and honours for his scholarly work, including the Ruppin Prize (1966), the Isaac Ben-Zvi Award (1976), the Wiznitzer Prize for the best book published in Jewish History (1981), and the Tri-Cultural Prize of the University of Cordova (1981). In 1989 he became a Doctor Honoris Causa of the Complutense University of Madrid and in 1992 a Dr. Lit. of the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. He has held visiting professorships in Berne, London, Lucerne, and Princeton, and a visiting fellowship at Wolfson College, Oxford.
- Regedor de Segovia
- Viveu pelos anos de 1492
- último Rabino-mór de Castela
- Conselheiro da rainha Isabel
- encarregado das finanças do país
- Forçado, converteu-se ao catolicismo, adotando o nome “Fernán Núñez Coronel”, sendo batizado no Monastério de Guadalupe
- Chamou-se Abraham Seneor, antes da conversão (15.6.1492), de que foram padrinhos os Reis Católicos.
ABRAHAM SENIOR (1 e 2), Grão-Rabino de Castela, Conselheiro da rainha Isabel e Encarregado das Finanças do Reino da Espanha, foi um banqueiro e político judeu de destaque no século XV. Nasceu e faleceu em Segóvia, Espanha (1412-1493).
Simon Wiesenthal (5) menciona a ingratidao e fraqueza de carater de Fernando, o rei espanhol, com os judeus, que sempre o apoiaram e a seu pai. O rei Joao de Aragao, pai de Fernando, mantinha um bom relacionamento com os judeus, tendo sido curado de uma cegueira por um medico judeu.
Fernando era um principe pobre, sem condicoes de se aproximar da princesa Isabela de Castela, que tinha fortes pretendentes, como os reis da Inglaterra e da Franca. Quem ajudou o principe a se casar com Isabel foi Abraham Senior, com o apoio da comunidade judaica espanhola.
Desde os recursos financeiros, até a estratégia de poder encontrar a princesa secretamente na casa do rabino, longe dos olhares de opositores, e o rico colar oferecido de presente para conquista-la, foram custeados pelos judeus da Espanha.
Porém, ao invés de gratidão, após o êxito do casamento com Isabela de Castela, que resultou na uniao dos reinos de Aragão e Castela, tomado por uma cobiça insana, ingratidão e ódio injustificado, o rei Fernando decidiu perseguir o povo judeu.
Aliou-se a maus dirigentes da igreja catolica, para confiscar os bens, prender, matar e expulsar os judeus da Espanha.
Quando o decreto de expulsão dos judeus da Espanha (31 de março de 1492) tornou-se do conhecimento geral, o rabino Abraham Senior, juntamente com seu amigo Isaac Abravanel, apressou-se em ir até a rainha Isabel, implorando-lhe para poupar seu povo, sem sucesso.
Em 15 de junho de 1492, com oitenta anos, abatido e cansado, juntamente com seu filho, foi batizado em Valladolid, na presenca do rei e da rainha da Espanha.
Adotou o nome cristão novo de'' ''Fernando Nunes Coronel'', e seu filho o rabino Meier Melamed, o nome de Fernando Perez Coronel, tendo como “padrinhos” Isabel e Fernando de Castela.
O sobrenome "cristão novo" do filho de Abraham, o rabino Meir Melamed, "Co-Ronel Perez" pode ser lido em uma mistura de castelhano e hebraico, como "cantando a Deus perecer", enquanto "Núñez Coronel" de Abraham Senior, lido como "No-Nizco-Ronel" significa "lembre-se de cantar para Deus", em mensagens criptocrafadas fora do conhecimento dos monarcas espanhóis.
Desde o dia seguinte do seu batismo, suas altezas saíram e eles foram para a sinagoga secretamente, para orar com outros judeus (Martin MONTESDEOCA, 1556, citado em Eugenio Asensio, Delia Luisa López De León Fray Luis de Quevedo e hum outros estudos da Universidade de Salamanca, 2005, ISBN 8478008462, pg 56.
Morreu recitando o “ Shema Israel “, oração milenar de fé do povo judeu (Sefarad Paul A. Chami, disse Ignacio López Calvo por Secret Crypto).
Com a perversa e implacável perseguição da inquisicao dos reis espanhóis mancomunados com a igreja católica aos judeus na Espanha (confisco dos bens, prisões e pena de morte na fogueira), idoso, doente e amargurado, Abraham Senior falece no ano seguinte após a sua conversão e de seu filho, em 1493.
A SINAGOGA SECRETA
Em 2009, foi descoberta uma sinagoga secreta na casa de Dom Abraham Senior – Fernando Nunes Coronel-, por uma descendente israelense, Sra. Banda (6), em visita turística na casa de nosso antepassado em Segovia. Este fato comprova que ele continuava a praticar a sua religião secretamente.
Dom Abraham Senior – Fernando Nunes Coronel - casou duas vezes: viúvo da primeira esposa, Violante de Cabrera, casou-se posteriormente com Maria Sanchez Del Rio Abulafia, tendo muitos descendentes na Holanda, Inglaterra, Estados Unidos da America do Norte, Caribe, Israel e Brasil.
A sua ampla casa em Segovia, Espanha, abriga o "Centro Didáctico de la Judería" (Jewish Educational Center), centro de estudos judaicos naquela tradicional cidade, com as iniciais “A S” Abraham Senior, na entrada.
ABRAHAM SENIOR e o apoio a COLOMBO (4 e 5):
As negociações de Colombo com os reis da Espanha para seu projeto de navegação tinham sido quebradas, ao ponto dele ter a firme intenção de falar com o rei da França.
Mas, conversas influentes de Colombo em Málaga, Espanha, coordenadas pelo rabino Abraham Senior mudaram aquele curso desfavorável das coisas (4). O célebre navegador contou com a ajuda do colega judeu Abraão Zacuto (autor das tabelas astronômicas e matemáticas de valor inestimável, que acompanharam Colombo em suas viagens, e permitiu a Vasco da Gama descobrir o Cabo da Boa Esperança) e seu amigo Antonio Marchena Rábida. Naqueles dias, as conversações tiveram lugar em Málaga, entre Cristóvão Colombo e dois dos mais proeminentes judeus de Espanha: rabino Abraham Senior e seu amigo Isaac Abravanel. A partir dessas conversas surgiu em Málaga o primeiro apoio financeiro eficaz para o empreendimento de Colombo e a organização de um grupo de homens judeus abraçando a causa de Colombo. Estes foram: Juan Cabrero, Luis Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez e Alonso Cavalaria.
O projeto estava prestes a falhar, mas com a intervenção do judeu convertido Luis Santangel (escriba da casa real e tesoureiro da Coroa de Aragão, que gozava da confiança total do rei Fernando).
Luis Santangel influenciado por Abraham Senior, custeou a maior parte do dinheiro que foi necessário para a empreitada histórica de navegação.
Nos livros de contas de Santángel Luis, preservados no Arquivo das Índias, em Sevilha, é creditado Santángel um jogo de 1.140.000 maravedis, que tinha dado o bispo de Ávila para a expedição de Colombo, com a contribuição pessoal de Colombo de 500.000 maravedis, que financiaram o projeto total (1,64 milhões) do orçamento.
Das negociações de empréstimo em Málaga, coordenadas pelo rabino Abraham Senior com seu amigo Isaac Abravanel e Luis de Santagel, veio o apoio material e pessoal a Colombo, pois a partir dessas conversas conduzidas por Senior, a jornada de finanças da descoberta do Novo Mundo foi formada.
Outros autores (nomeadamente Salvador de Madariaga e Simon Wiesenthal) tem especulado os anseios de judeus que apoiaram Colombo pelos sonhos compartilhados de encontrar abrigo para o povo de Moises perseguido pela cruel inquisição européia, no Novo Mundo.
Joseph Adler escreve: "A tradição diz que Colombo encontrou em Málaga o plano financeiro delineado lá, recebendo a promessa e apoio que o fez Abraham Senior.
O Dr. Adler Kayserlig Meyer em seu artigo sobre Cristóvão Colombo e os judeus, publicado em Nova York em 1894 afirma:
"Em Salamanca Colombo tornou-se amigo pessoal de Zacuto, a quem louvou seus trabalhos científicos. Em Málaga ele conheceu Abraham Senior e Isaac Abravanel, que foi o primeiro a ajudar no financiamento do seu negócio.
“A relação entre Colombo e os Judeus
Simon Wiesenthal, obra citada (5)
“...Estamos na noite de 2 de agosto de 1492. De pé sobre o cais, Colombo vê embarcarem os últimos marinheiros e outros membros da expedição. Ele dera ordem para que todos estivessem a bordo às 23 horas em ponto.
Com efeito, 2 de agosto de 1492 é um dia memorável; de acordo com o decreto dos reis espanhóis Fernando e Isabel, nenhum judeu tem o direito de permanecer em solo espanhol depois da meia-noite desse dia. Esse decreto atinge os membros da expedição? Há alguns judeus nos navios de Colombo? Existe alguma ligação entre sua viagem e a expulsão dos judeus? E, finalmente, há alguma relação entre sua viagem e a perseguição dos judeus?...”
“...O fato de que Colombo estivesse com toda sua tripulação a bordo às 23 horas, ou seja, uma hora antes da entrada em vigor do édito de expulsão, faz parte dos numerosos enigmas que nos são postos por Colombo e sua viagem. Colombo sabia que, exatamente uma hora depois, a polícia espanhola, a milícia da cidade e os familiares da Inquisição se poriam em campo para verificar se, a despeito do decreto, ainda permaneciam judeus na Espanha...”
“A ligação entre Colombo e os judeus não é fortuita, mas desejada por ambas as partes. Ela surpreendeu mais de um investigador e constituiu objeto de vários estudos, nos quais se tentou descobrir as razões dessa ligação. Até hoje, ainda não se esclareceu inteiramente esse enigma.
Numerosos investigadores observaram que o grupo de pessoas que apoiavam os planos de Colombo era composto, em sua maioria, por judeus e judeus batizados (...). O certo é que - e todos os historiadores estão de acordo quanto a isso - a viagem de Colombo não teria ocorrido sem a ajuda dessas pessoas (intervenção junto aos reis, contribuição material, contribuição científica e náutica).
(...) Mas, ainda uma vez, sem o apoio dos judeus, Colombo não teria podido realizar sua expedição. Isso só pode ser explicado quando se estuda a situação dos judeus na Espanha daquela época.”
Descendentes brasileiros de Abraham Senior/Fernando Nunes Coronel: No Brasil há vários descendentes do ultimo rabino de Castela, por parte de sua filha Constança Coronel, em tradicionais famílias do Estado da Bahia.
Os irmãos Mateus e Luis Lopes Franco, descendentes de Fernando Nunes Coronel, foram presos pela pratica de judaísmo por inquisidores em visitação na Bahia, tendo cumprido pena de prisão em Lisboa, por professarem religião proibida pela intolerância religiosa. Da tradicional família baiana Carneiro da Rocha, com origem em Ana de Menezes e Castro em Itaparica (que foi casada com Francisco de Abreu da Costa Doria), descendente de Constança Coronel, vem nossa ascendência ate o rabino Abraham Sênior/Fernando Nunes Coronel.
Também descende deste ramo baiano a celebre Condessa de Barral – Luisa Margarida de Barros Portugal, mulher de grande culta e inteligência vivaz, educadora das princesas do Brasil. Segundo alguns historiadores, ela foi o grande amor de D. Pedro II, ultimo imperador do Brasil, tendo notória influencia na Corte, fato que despertava ciúmes de alguns ministros e conselheiros reais. Mantendo intensa correspondência com a Condessa de Barral, mesmo após a mudança dela para a França, até o falecimento dela, Dom Pedro II morreu um ano depois, no Brasil, inconsolado, se lamentando da perda da grande amiga e confidente.
O conceituado genealogista brasileiro professor Francisco Antonio Doria (7), que pesquisou a genealogia de Ana de Menezes e Castro, descobriu que também o famoso cantor e compositor brasileiro Chico Buarque (Francisco Buarque de Holanda) também é descendente, pelo lado baiano, da mesma Ana que viveu em Itaparica, por parte da filha Inácia, irmã de nosso antepassado Manuel de Sá Doria.
3- Martin MONTESDEOCA, 1556, citado em Eugenio Asensio, Delia Luisa López De León Fray Luis de Quevedo e hum outros estudos da Universidade de Salamanca, 2005, ISBN 8478008462, pg 56.
5- WIESENTHAL, Simon. A Missão Secreta de Cristóvão Colombo: Velas da Esperança; tradução de Carlos Nelson Coutinho. Rio de Janeiro, Civilização Brasileira, 1975.Compilação: Claudia Gouveia, pesquisadora AHJPE e GIEJ. Fev/2002).
7- •Genealogia Família Dória, por Francisco Antonio Dória; doria.genealogias.org/CostaDoria.pdf
ABRAHAM SENIOR (1 & 2), Grand Rabbi of Castile, Queen Elizabeth Advisor and Head of Finance of the Kingdom of Spain, was a Jewish banker and politician prominent in the fifteenth century. He was born and died in Segovia, Spain (1412-1493).
Simon Wiesenthal (5) mentions the ingratitude and weakness of character of Ferdinand, the Spanish king, the Jews, who have always supported him and his father. King John of Aragon, father of Ferdinand, kept a good relationship with the Jews, having been cured of blindness by a Jewish doctor.
Fernando was a poor prince, unable to approach the princess Isabella of Castile, who had strong suitors, as the kings of England and France. Who helped the prince to marry Isabel was Abraham Senior, with the support of the Spanish Jewish community.
Since the financial resources, to the strategy of being able to find the princess secretly in the rabbi's house, away from the eyes of opponents, and the rich silver gift offered to conquer it, were funded by the Jews of Spain.
But instead of gratitude, after the success of marriage to Isabella of Castile, which resulted in the union of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, seized by an insane greed, ingratitude and unjustified hatred, King Ferdinand decided to pursue the Jewish people.
Allied with evil leaders of the Catholic church, for the confiscation of property, arrest, kill and expel the Jews from Spain.
When the decree of expulsion of Jews from Spain (March 31, 1492) became widely known, Rabbi Abraham Senior, along with his friend Isaac Abravanel, hastened to go to Queen Isabella, begging him to spare his people, without success.
On June 15, 1492, eighty years old, haggard and tired, along with his son, was baptized in Valladolid, in the presence of the King and Queen of Spain.
Adopted the new Christian name Fernando Nunes Colonel'''''', and his son Rabbi Melamed Meier, the name of Colonel Fernando Perez, with the "godfathers" Isabella and Ferdinand of Castile.
The surname "new Christian" the son of Abraham, Rabbi Meir Melamed, "Co-Ronel Perez" can be read in a mixture of Spanish and Hebrew, as "singing to God perish" while "Núñez Coronel" Abraham Senior, read as "No-Nizco-Ronel" means "remember to sing to God," in messages criptocrafadas outside the knowledge of the Spanish monarchs.
From the day of his baptism, Their Highnesses left and they went to the synagogue secretly to pray with other Jews (Martin MONTESDEOCA, 1556, quoted in Eugenio Asensio, Delia Luisa López de León Fray Luis de Quevedo hum and other studies at the University Salamanca, 2005 ISBN 8478008462, pg 56.
He died reciting the "Shema Israel", ancient prayer of faith of the Jewish people (Sefarad Paul A. Chami, said Ignacio López Calvo by Secret Crypto).
With the perverse and relentless pursuit of inquisition of Spanish kings in cahoots with the Catholic Church to the Jews in Spain (confiscation of property, imprisonment and the death penalty at the stake), elderly, sick and embittered, Abraham Senior died the following year after his conversion and his son, in 1493.
THE SECRET SYNAGOGUE
In 2009, a secret synagogue was discovered in the house of Don Abraham Senior - Fernando Nunes Colonel, for an Israeli descendant, Mrs Banda (6), tourist visit the home of our ancestor in Segovia. This fact proves that he continued to practice their religion secretly.
Don Abraham Senior - Fernando Nunes Colonel - married twice: widower of his first wife, Violante de Cabrera, later married to Maria Sanchez Del Rio Abulafia, having many descendants in the Netherlands, England, United States of North America, the Caribbean, Israel and Brazil.
The large house in Segovia, Spain, houses the "Didactic Centre de la Judería" (Jewish Educational Center), the center of traditional Jewish studies in that city, with the initials "AS" Abraham Senior, at the entrance.
SENIOR ABRAHAM and supporting COLOMBO (4:05):
Negotiations of Columbus and the kings of Spain for your navigation project had been broken to the point he had every intention of talking to the king of France.
But influential conversations Colombo in Malaga, Spain, coordinated by Rabbi Abraham Senior unfavorable that changed the course of things (4). The famous explorer enlisted the help of the Jewish colleague Abraham Zacuto (author of astronomical and mathematical tables priceless, who accompanied Columbus on his voyages, and allowed Vasco da Gama discover the Cape of Good Hope) and his friend Antonio Marchena Rabida. In those days, the talks took place in Malaga, between Columbus and two of the most prominent Jews in Spain: Senior Rabbi Abraham Isaac Abravanel and his friend. From these conversations the first effective financial support for the development of Colombo and the organization of a group of Jewish men embracing the cause of Colombo emerged in Malaga. These were: Juan Cabrero, Luis Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez and Alonso Cavalry.
The project was about to fail, but with the intervention of the converted Jew Luis Santangel (scribe of the royal house and treasurer of the Crown of Aragon, which enjoyed the full confidence of King Ferdinand).
Luis Santangel influenced by Abraham Senior, paid for most of the money that was needed for the historical works of navigation.
In the books of accounts Santángel Luis, preserved in the Archive of the Indies in Seville, is credited Santángel a game of 1,140,000 maravedis, which had given the bishop of Avila for the expedition of Columbus, with the personal contribution of 500,000 maravedis Colombo which funded the total project (1.64 million) of the budget.
Negotiations loan in Malaga, coordinated by the Senior Rabbi Abraham with his friend Isaac Abravanel and Luis de Santagel came the material and personal support to Colombo because from these conversations led by Senior, the journey of discovery of the finances of the New World was formed.
Other authors (including Salvador de Madariaga and Simon Wiesenthal) have speculated the yearnings of Jews who supported Colombo by shared dreams of finding shelter for the people of Moses chased by European cruel Inquisition in the New World.
Joseph Adler writes: "Tradition says that Columbus found in Málaga financial plan outlined there, receiving the promise and support that made Abraham Senior.
Dr. Adler Kayserlig Meyer in his article about Christopher Columbus and the Jews, published in New York in 1894 says:
"In Salamanca Colombo became a personal friend of Zacuto, who praised his scientific works. Malaga in he met Abraham and Isaac Abravanel Senior, who was the first to help in financing your business.
"The relationship between Colombo and the Jews
Simon Wiesenthal, said (5) work
"... We are on the night of August 2, 1492. Standing on the pier, embark Colombo sees the last sailors and other members of the expedition. He gave the order for everyone to be on board at 23 o'clock.
Indeed, August 2, 1492 is a memorable day; according to the decree of the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, any Jew has the right to remain on Spanish soil after midnight that day. This decree reaches the expedition? There are some Jews in Columbus ships? Is there any connection between his trip and the expulsion of the Jews? And finally, is there any relationship between their trip and the persecution of the Jews? ... "
"... The fact that Columbus was with all her crew on board at 23 hours, or one hour prior to the entry into force of the edict of expulsion, a part of numerous puzzles that are put in by Columbus and his voyage. Columbus knew exactly an hour later, the Spanish police, the militia of the city and the relatives of the Inquisition would put the court to ascertain whether, despite the decree were still Jews in Spain ... "
"The link between Colombo and the Jews is not fortuitous, but desired by both parties. She surprised more than one investigator and was the subject of several studies in which we attempted to discover the reasons for this connection. Even today, if not yet fully clarified this conundrum.
Numerous investigators have observed that the group of people who supported the plans of Columbus was composed mostly by Jews and baptized Jews (...). The truth is - and all historians are in agreement on this - the voyage of Columbus would not have occurred without the help of these people (with the kings speech, material assistance, scientific contribution, and boating).
(...) But, once again, without the support of the Jews, Columbus would not have been able to accomplish your expedition. This can only be explained when studying the situation of the Jews in Spain at that time. "
Brazilian descendants of Abraham Senior / Fernando Nunes Colonel: In Brazil there are several descendants of the last rabbi of Castile, by his daughter Constance Colonel in traditional families of Bahia.
The Matthew and Luis Lopes Franco, descendants of Colonel Fernando Nunes brothers were arrested for practicing Judaism for inquisitors in visitation in Bahia, having served time in prison in Lisbon, for professing religion prohibited by religious intolerance. Traditional family Bahia Carneiro da Rocha, originated in de Menezes and Ana Castro in Itaparica (who was married to Francisco de Abreu Costa Doria), a descendant of Colonel Constance, comes our ancestry until Rabbi Abraham Senior / Fernando Nunes Colonel.
Bahia is also descended from this branch celebrated the Countess of Barral - Luisa Barros Daisy Portugal, cultured woman of great intelligence and vivacious educator Princesses of Brazil. According to some historians, it was the great love of Dom Pedro II, the last emperor of Brazil, having notable influence at court, a fact that aroused jealousy of some ministers and royal advisers. Keeping intense correspondence with the Countess of Barral, even after her move to France until the death of her, Dom Pedro II died a year later, in Brazil, inconsolado, lamenting the loss of a great friend and confidant.
The renowned Brazilian genealogist Professor Francisco Antonio Doria (7), who has researched the genealogy of de Menezes and Ana Castro, who also discovered the famous Brazilian singer and composer Chico Buarque (Francisco Buarque de Hollanda) is also a descendant, the Bahian side, the same Ana lived in Itaparica, by the daughter Ignacia, sister of our ancestor Manuel de Sá Doria.
Bibliography / sources:
3- Martin MONTESDEOCA, 1556, quoted in Eugenio Asensio, Delia Luisa López de León Fray Luis de Quevedo hum and other studies from the University of Salamanca, 2005 ISBN 8478008462, pg 56.
5- Wiesenthal, Simon. The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus: Candles of Hope; Carlos Nelson Coutinho translation. Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Civilization 1975 Synthesis and assembly of the text:. Gouveia Claudia, researcher and AHJPE GIEJ. Feb/2002). http://www.arquivojudaicope.org.br/2012/pt/compilacoes/wiesenthal.html
6-http://melbourneblogger.blogspot.com.br/2011/02/segovias-secret-synagogue-revealed.html 7- Doria Family Genealogy, by Francisco Antonio Doria: doria.genealogias.org/CostaDoria.pdf
D. Abraham ben Eliyahu Senior Coronel's Timeline
October 12, 1412
Segovia, Segovia, Castile and León, Spain
June 15, 1492