Matching family tree profiles for Alfonso X el Sabio, rey de Castilla y León
About Alfonso X el Sabio, rey de Castilla y León
A María en el mes de mayo
Bienvenido Mayo, y con alegría; por eso roguemos a Santa María que pida a su Hijo aún todavía que de pecado y locura nos guarde. Bienvenido Mayo. Bienvenido seas, y con alegría. Alfonso X El Sabio. Rey de Castilla y de León. (Toledo, 1221 - Sevilla, 1284). Dios te salve, María, llena eres de gracia, el Señor es contigo, bendita tú eres entre todas las mujeres y bendito es el fruto de tu vientre, Jesús. Santa María, Madre de Dios, ruega por nosotros, pecadores, ahora y en la hora de nuestra muerte. Amen. Alfonso X de Castilla y León, llamado el Sabio (Toledo, 23 de noviembre de 1221 — Sevilla, 4 de abril de 1284), fue rey de Castilla y de León (1252-1284). A la muerte de su padre, Fernando III El Santo, reanudó la ofensiva contra los musulmanes, ocupando Jerez (1253) y Cádiz (c. 1262). En 1264 tuvo que hacer frente a una importante revuelta de los mudéjares de Murcia y el valle del Guadalquivir. Como hijo de Beatriz de Suabia, aspiró al trono del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, proyecto al que dedicó más de la mitad de su reinado sin obtener éxito alguno. Los últimos años de su reinado fueron especialmente sombríos, debido al conflicto sucesorio provocado por la muerte prematura de Fernando de la Cerda y la minoridad de los hijos de éste, lo que desembocó en la rebelión abierta del infante Sancho y gran parte de la nobleza y las ciudades del reino. Murió Alfonso en Sevilla durante el transcurso de esta revuelta, no sin antes haber desheredado a su hijo Sancho. Llevó a cabo una activa y beneficiosa política económica, reformando la moneda y la hacienda, concediendo numerosas ferias y reconociendo al Honrado Consejo de la Mesta. También es reconocido por su inmensa obra literaria y jurídica. En 1935, se le reconoce como astrónomo nombrándole en su honor el cráter lunar «Alphonsus». También es famoso su patrocinio artístico y cultural. Fruto de su matrimonio con la reina Violante de Aragón, hija de Jaime I el Conquistador, rey de Aragón nacieron varios hijos: 1) Berenguela (1253 - 1300). Fue proclamada heredera del reino en 1254, pero el nacimiento de su hermano Fernando la postergó. Estuvo prometida a Luis de Francia, hijo y heredero de Luis IX, pero no se llegaron a casar por la muerte prematura del novio en 1260. Fue la única de los hijos legítimos del rey que permaneció junto a él durante la rebelión del infante Sancho. 2) Beatriz (1254-1280). Se casó con el marqués Guillermo VII de Montferrato (vicario de Alfonso X en el Imperio) en 1271, en Murcia. 3) Fernando de la Cerda (1255 - 1275). Heredero del trono castellano, se casó en 1269 con Blanca de Francia, hija de Luis IX de Francia, con quien tuvo dos hijos. Su muerte prematura permitió que su hermano Sancho se convirtiera en rey. Fue enterrado en el Monasterio de Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas de Burgos. 4) Leonor (1256 - 1275). 5) Sancho IV "el Bravo" (1258-1295), rey de Castilla y León a la muerte de Alfonso X el Sabio. Sepultado en el presbiterio de la Catedral de Toledo. 6) Constanza (1259 - 1280), monja en el Monasterio de Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas y sepultada allí. 7) Pedro (1260 - 1283). Padre de Sancho de Castilla "el de la Paz" fue sepultado en el desaparecido Convento de San Francisco de Valladolid. 8) Juan (1264 - 1319), casado con María Díaz I de Haro, Señora de Vizcaya, fue padre de Don Juan el Tuerto. Murió en el Desastre de la Vega de Granada y fue sepultado en el presbiterio de la Catedral de Burgos. 9) Isabel de Castilla y Aragón (1263-1264). Murió en la infancia. 10) Violante (1265- ¿?), contrajo matrimonio con Diego López V de Haro, señor de Vizcaya. 11) Jaime (1267-1284). Señor de los Cameros.
Alfonso X el Sabio tuvo varios hijos ilegítimos, frutos de diversas relaciones extramatrimoniales. Aquí figuran los nombres de algunos de ellos:
- Beatriz (1244-1303), Señora de Alcocer, Salmerón y Vadesliras. Contrajo matrimonio en 1253 con Alfonso III de Portugal y fue madre de Dionisio I de Portugal. Hija de Alfonso X y de Mayor Guillén de Guzmán. Se encuentra sepultada en el Monasterio de Alcobaca.
- Alfonso Fernández "el Niño" (1242-1281), señor de Molina y de Mesa por su matrimonio con Blanca Alfonso de Molina, bisnieta de Alfonso IX de León. Hijo de Alfonso X y de Elvira Rodríguez de Villada.
- Martín Alfonso (¿? - ¿?), abad en Valladolid. Mencionado como hermano de Urraca Alfonso en el codicilo del testamento del rey.
- Urraca Alfonso (¿? - ¿?). Citada también en el codicilo del testamento de Alfonso X, que le encomendó a su hija natural Beatriz la misión de casarla honradamente. Contrajo matrimonio con Pedro Núñez de Guzmán.
- Berenguela Alfonso (¿? - ¿?). Contrajo matrimonio (después de 1264) con Pedro Núñez de Guzmán
Alfonso X de Castilla y de León, llamado el Sabio (Toledo, 23 de noviembre de 1221 — Sevilla, 4 de abril de 1284), fue rey de Castilla y de León (1252-1284). A la muerte de su padre, Fernando III El Santo, reanudó la ofensiva contra los musulmanes, ocupando Jerez (1253) y Cádiz (c. 1262). En 1264 tuvo que hacer frente a una importante revuelta de los mudéjares de Murcia y el valle del Guadalquivir. Como hijo de Beatriz de Suabia, aspiró al trono del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, proyecto al que dedicó más de la mitad de su reinado sin obtener éxito alguno. Los últimos años de su reinado fueron especialmente sombríos, debido al conflicto sucesorio provocado por la muerte prematura de Fernando de la Cerda, primogénito de Alfonso X, y la minoridad de sus hijos, lo que desembocó en la rebelión abierta del infante Sancho y gran parte de la nobleza y las ciudades del reino. Murió Alfonso en Sevilla durante el transcurso de esta revuelta, no sin antes haber desheredado a su hijo Sancho. Llevó a cabo una activa y beneficiosa política económica, reformando la moneda y la hacienda, concediendo numerosas ferias y reconociendo al Honrado Consejo de la Mesta. También es reconocido por su inmensa obra literaria y jurídica. En 1935, se le reconoce como astrónomo nombrándole en su honor el cráter lunar «Alphonsus». También es famoso su patrocinio artístico y cultural.
1221-84. Son and heir of Ferdinand III of Castile; king of Castile and Leon (1252-84). His sister, Eleanor of Castile, married Edward I of England (then Prince Edward) in 1255. Alfonso was chosen king fo the Romans (ie Holy Roman Emperer-elect) by a faction of German nobles in 1257, in opposition to Richard, 34d earl of Cornall, King John of England's second son. Papal and domestic opposition kept him in Spain and he renounced his claim in 1275. Alfonso seized several territories from the Moors, notably Cadiz in 1262; but his reign was also significant for an influx of Moorish culture into Europe, thanks to his generous patronage of Muslim scholars.
Source: Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry/Four Gothic Kings (US edn): 80, 84, 187 Input by Mimi Arcala
Prince Afonso, Lord of Portalegre
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Infante Afonso of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu]; English: Alphonzo or Alphonse) was a Portuguese infante (prince), son of King Afonso III of Portugal and his second wife Beatrice of Castile. He was titled Lord of Portalegre, Castelo de Vide, Arronches, Marvão and Lourinhã.
Afonso was born on February 8, 1263 and in 1287 married Violante of Castile, daughter of Castilian Infante Juan Manuel of Castile.
Afonso died on November 2, 1312 in Lisbon.
By his wife Violante Manuel of Castile he had five children:
Infante Afonso, Lord of Leiria
Infanta Maria, Lady of Menezes and Orduña
Infanta Isabel, Lady of Penela
Infanta Constança of Portalegre
Infanta Beatriz, Lady of Lemos
Infante dom AFONSO de Portugal ([Lisbon] 8 Feb 1263-Lisbon 2 Nov 1312, bur Lisbon Dominican monastery). The Chronicon Conimbricensi records the birth “VIII Id Feb” in 1263 of “Infans Doñs Alfonsus filius Regis Domni Alfonsi et Reginæ Domnæ Beatricis”. Senhor de Portoalegre Castel-de-Vides Ourem Sintra Marvam e Arronches Leyra and Lourignan 1299. Governor of Guarda Lamego and Viseu. m () doña VIOLANTE Manuel de Castilla, daughter of Infante don JUAN Manuel de Castilla Duque de Penafiel y Escalona & his first wife Infanta doña Constanza de Aragón (-Lisbon 1314, bur Lisbon Dominican monastery). The mid-14th Century Nobiliario of don Pedro de Portugal Conde de Barcelós names “doña Violante, hija del infante don Manuel de Castilla é de la infanta doña Constanza de Aragon” as wife of “el infante don Alonso de Portugal”. Señora de Elda, Novelda, Medellín y ½ Peñafiel. Infante dom Afonso & his wife had five children:
a) dom AFONSO de Portugal (-1300). Senhor de Leiria.
b) dona MARIA de Portugal (-). The mid-14th Century Nobiliario of don Pedro de Portugal Conde de Barcelós records that “don Fernando” married “doña Maria, hija del infante don Alonso de Portugal é de doña Violante hija del Infante don Manuel”, adding that she had previously married “don Tello”. m firstly ([1308/12]) don TELLO Afonso de Meneses 8th Señor de Meneses, Montealegre y San Ramón, son of don ALFONSO Téllez de Molina [Castilla] 7th Señor de Meneses & his wife doña Teresa Pérez de Asturias (-Tardejas 1315). m secondly (1315) don FERNANDO Díaz de Haro, Señor de Orduña y Valmaseda, son of don DIEGO López de Haro Señor Soberano de Vizcaya, Señor de Haro & his wife Infante doña Violante de Castilla.
c) dona ISABEL de Portugal (-shortly before 1367). The mid-14th Century Nobiliario of don Pedro de Portugal Conde de Barcelós records that “don Juan el Tuerto” married “doña Isabel, hija del infante don Alonso de Portugal é de doña Violante, hija del infante don Manuel de Castilla é de la infanta doña Constanza de Aragon”. Senhora de Pinella e Miranda. m don JUAN de Castilla "el Tuerto" Señor Soberano de Vizcaya, son of Infante don JUAN de Castilla y León Señor de Valencia de Campos & his second wife doña María Díaz de Haro Señora Soberana de Vizcaya (after 1293-murdered Toro 2 Dec 1326).
d) dona COSTANÇA de Portugal (-). m (, not consummated) don NUÑO González de Lara, son of don JUAN Núñez de Lara & his second wife doña Teresa Díaz de Haro (-Valladolid 1296). Alférez of don Fernando IV "el Ajurno" King of Castile 3 Aug 1295 to 1296.
e) dona BRITES de Portugal (-). m as his first wife, don PEDRO Fernández de Castro "él de la Guerra" Señor de Lemos y Sarria, son of don Fernán Rodríguez de Castro & doña Violante Sánchez de Castilla (-killed in battle near Algeciras early Jun 1342).
Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X (November 23, 1221, Toledo, Spain – April 4, 1284, Seville, Spain) was a Spanish monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected German King (formally King of the Romans) in 1257. His nicknames were "el Sabio" ("the Wise" or "the Learned") and "el Astrólogo" ("the Astronomer").
As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. The Fuero Real was undoubtedly his work. He began the code called the Siete Partidas, which, however, was only promulgated by his great-grandson. Because of this, he is one of the 23 lawmakers depicted in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives.
Alfonso was the first king who initiated the use of the Castilian language extensively, although his father, Fernando III had begun to use it for some documents, instead of Latin, as the language used in courts, churches, and in books and official documents.
Throughout his reign, Alfonso contended with the nobles, particular the families of Nuño González de Lara, Diego López de Haro and Esteban Fernández de Castro, all of whom were formidable soldiers and instrumental in maintaining Castile's military strength in frontier territories. According to some scholars, Alfonso lacked the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles. Others have argued that his efforts were too singularly focused on the diplomatic and financial arrangements surrounding his bid for Holy Roman Emperor.
Alfonso's descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of the emperor Philip of Swabia, gave him a claim to represent the Swabian line. Alfonso's election by the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire in 1257 misled him into wild schemes that involved excessive expense but never took effect. To obtain money, he debased the coinage and then endeavoured to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff. The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended. His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him.
As a writer and intellectual he gained considerable scientific fame based on his encouragement of astronomy and the Ptolemaic cosmology as known to him through the Arabs. (Because of this, the Alphonsus crater on the Moon is named after him). His fame extends to the preparation of the Alfonsine tables, based on calculations of al-Zarqali Alzarquel. One famous quote attributed to him was supposedly said upon hearing an explanation of Ptolemy's theory of astronomy and being shown the extremely complicated mathematics required to "prove" it - "If the Lord Almighty had consulted me before embarking on creation thus, I should have recommended something simpler." The validity of this quotation is questioned by some historians.
From the beginning of his reign, Alfonso began employing Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars at his court, primarily for the purpose of translating books from Arabic into Old Spanish. Most of these books survive in only one manuscript and were almost certainly created for the private use of Alfonso and his inner circle, which included Jewish and Christian courtiers. The first translation, commissioned by his brother, Fernando de la Cerda -- who had extensive experience, both diplomatic and military, among the Muslims of southern Spain and north Africa -- was a Spanish version of the animal fable Kalila wa-Dimna, a book that belongs to the genre of wisdom literature labeled Mirrors for Princes: stories and sayings meant to instruct the monarch in proper and effective governance.
The primary intellectual work of these scholars centered on astronomy and astrology. The early period of Alfonso's reign saw the translation of selected works of magic (Lapidario, Picatrix, Libro de las formas et las ymagenes) all translated by a Jewish scholar named Yehudah ben Moshe (Yhuda Mosca, in the Old Spanish source texts). These were all highly ornate manuscripts (only the Lapidario survives in its entirety) containing what was believed to be secret knowledge on the magical properties of stones and talismans. In addition to these books of astral magic, Alfonso ordered the translation of well-known Arabic astrological compendia including, the Libro de las cruzes and Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas. The first of these was, ironically, translated from Latin (it was used among the Visigoths), into Arabic, and then back into Spanish and Latin.
Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. These works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer and the Cantigas de Santa Maria.
Among the most important of the works by Alfonso X was the celebrated Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Songs to the Virgin Mary"), one of the largest collections of vernacular monophonic songs to survive from the Middle Ages. The Cantigas de Santa Maria consists of 420 poems written in Galician-Portuguese with musical notation. The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary. One of the miracles Alfonso relates is his own healing in Puerto de Santa María.
Alfonso's eldest son, Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile, died in 1275, leaving two infant sons. Alfonso's second son, Sancho, claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. A bitter civil war broke out resulting in 1282 Alfonso's being forced to accept Sancho as his heir instead of his young grandsons. Son and nobles alike supported the Moors when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with Abu Yusuf Yakub, the ruling Marinid Sultan of Morocco, they denounced him as an enemy of the faith. A reaction in his favor was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville, leaving a will, by which he endeavored to exclude Sancho, and a heritage of civil war.
In 1246, Alfonso X married Violante of Aragon, the daughter of King James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary in 1249, although betrothed already in 1246. Because of her young age (Violante was only 13-years-old at the time of the marriage), she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have ten children:
Fernando, died in infancy, and buried in Las Huelgas in Burgos.
Berengaria of Castile (1253-after 1284). She was betrothed to Louis, the son and heir of King Louis IX of France, but her fiance died prematurely in 1260. She entered the convent in Las Huelgas, where she was living in 1284.
Beatriz of Castile (1254-1280). She married William VII, Marquess of Montferrat.
Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile (October 23, 1255-July 25, 1275). He married Blanche, the daughter of King Louis IX of France, by whom he had two children. Because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho inherited the throne.
Leonor of Castile (1257-1275)
Sancho IV of Castile (May 13, 1258-1295)
Constanza of Castile (1258-August 22, 1280), a nun at Las Huelgas.
Pedro of Castile (June 1260-October 10, 1283)
Juan of Castile, Lord of Valencia (March or April, 1262-June 25, 1319).
Isabella, died young.
Violante of Castile (1265-1296). She married Diego Lopez de Haro
Jaime of Castile (August 1266-August 9, 1284)
Alfonso X also had several illegitimate children. His illegitimate daughter, Beatriz de Castilla, married King Alfonso III of Portugal. An illegitimate son, Martin, was Abbot of Valladolid.
Alfonso III of Leon and Galicia (August 15, 1171 – September 23 or 24, 1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, was the king of León from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun, he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.
Alfonso was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal. Though he took a part in the work of the reconquest, this king is chiefly remembered for the difficulties into which his successive marriages led him with the Pope. He was first married in 1191 to his cousin Teresa of Portugal, who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young.
He married Eleanor, Queen of Castile & Princess of England. The marriage was declared null by the Pope; however, Alfonso paid no attention until he was presumably tired of his wife. His next step was to marry his second cousin, Berenguela of Castile, in 1197. For this act of contumacy, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict.
The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy. Eleanor left him after the birth of five children, and the king then returned to Teresa, to whose daughters he left his kingdom in his will.
Alfonso's children by Teresa of Portugal were:
Fernando (ca. 1192-August 1214), unmarried and without issue
Blessed Sancha (ca. 1193-1270) Dulce, also called Aldonza (1194/ca. 1195-ca./aft. 1243), unmarried and without issue
His eldest daughter, Sancha, was engaged to her cousin King Henry I of Castile, but Henry died in 1217 before the marriage could be solemnized. Wanting to disinherit his eldest son, Fernando, King Alfonso invited John of Brienne to marry his daughter Sancha and thus inherit the Leonese throne. However, Queen Berenguela convinced John of Brienne to marry one of her daughters instead. Though she was the nominal heiress on her father's death in 1230, Sancha was easily set aside by Berenguela and Fernando. Sancha became a nun at Cozollos, where she died in 1270; she was later beatified. Her sister Dulce-Aldonza spent her life with their mother in Portugal.
Alfonso's children by Berenguela of Castile were:
Leonor (1198/1199-October 31, 1210)
King Fernando III the Saint (1200-1252)
Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203-1272)
Berenguela of Leon (1204-1237), married John of Brienne
Constanza (May 1, 1200 or 1205-September 7, 1242), became a nun at Las Huelgas, Burgos, where she died
Alfonso also fathered many illegitimate children:
Alfonso's children by Aldonza Martínez da Silva (daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva & Urraca Rodrigues and subsequently wife with issue of Diego Froilaz, Conde de Cifuentes, had issue):
Pedro Alfonso of León, 1st Lord of Tenorio (ca. 1196/ca. 1200-1226), Grand Master of Santiago, married N de Villarmayor, and had issue
Alfonso Alfonso of León, died yong
Fernando Alfonso of León, died young
Rodrigo Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-ca. 1267), 1st Lord of Aliger and Governor of Zamora, married ca. 1240 to Inés Rodriguez de Cabrera (ca. 1200-), and had issue
Teresa Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-), wife of Nuno Gonzalez de Lara, el Bueno, señor de Lara
Aldonza Alonso of León (ca. 1212/ca. 1215-1266), wife of Diego Ramírez Froilaz, nephew of her stepfather, without issue, and of Pedro Ponce de Cabrera (ca. 1210-), and had issue, ancestors of the Ponce de León
Alfonso's child by Inés Iñíguez de Mendoza (ca. 1180-) (daughter of Lope Iñiguez de Mendoza, 1st Lord of Mendoza (ca. 1140-1189) and wife Teresa Ximénez de los Cameros (ca. 1150-)):
Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/ca. 1197-), first wife ca. 1230 of Lopo III Díaz de Haro (1192-December 15, 1236), 11th Sovereign Lord of Viscaya, and had issue
Alfonso's child by Estefánia Pérez de Limia, daughter of Pedro Arias de Limia and wife, subsequently wife of Rodrigo Suárez, Merino mayor of Galicia, had issue):
Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1211-), died young
Alfonso's children by Maua, of unknown origin:
Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1215/1218/1220-Salamanca, 1278/1279), Archdean of Santiago, married to Aldara de Ulloa and had issue
Alfonso's children by Dona Teresa Gil de Soverosa (ca. 1170-) (daughter of Dom Gil Vasques de Soverosa & first wife Maria Aires de Fornelos):
María Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/1200/1222-aft. 1252), married as his second wife Soeiro Aires de Valadares (ca. 1140-) and had issue and Álvaro Fernández de Lara (ca. 1200-) and had female issue, later mistress of her nephew Alfonso X of Castile
Sancha Alfonso of León (1210/ca. 1210-1270), a Nun after divorcing without issue Simón Ruíz, Lord of Los Cameros.
Martín Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/ca. 1225-1274/ca. 1275)
Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/1228-aft.1252, married twice, first to García Romeu of Tormos, without issue, then Pedro Núñez de Guzmán
Alfonso's other illegitimate child, mother unknown:
Mayor Alfonso de León, married Rodrigo Gómez de Trava, without issue
Alfonso IX was the first King in Western Europe who summoned the citizens to the Parliament (León's Cortes of 1188). He also founded the University of Salamanca in 1208.
Alfonso X (23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected King of the Germans in 1257.
He established Castilian as a language of higher learning and earned his nicknames "the Wise" or "the Learned" (Spanish: 'el Sabio', Galician: 'O Sabio') and "the Astrologer" (Spanish: 'el Astrólogo', Galician: 'O Astrólogo') through his own prolific writings, including Galician poetry.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso X, Alphonse X, or Alfons X, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. During the Imperial election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum; German: Römisch-deutscher König) on 1 April. He renounced his imperial claim in 1275, and in creating an alliance with England in 1254 his claim on Gascony also.
Alfonso X fostered the development of a cosmopolitan court that encouraged learning. Jews, Muslims, and Christians had prominent roles in his court. As a result of his encouraging the translation of works from Arabic and Latin into the vernacular of Castile, many intellectual changes took place, perhaps the most notable being encouragement of the use of Castilian as a primary language of higher learning, science, and law. Alfonso was a prolific author of Galician poetry, such as the Cantigas de Santa Maria, which are equally notable for their musical notation as for their literary merit. Alfonso's scientific interests—he is sometimes nicknamed "the Astrologer" (el Astrólogo)—led him to sponsor the creation of the Alfonsine tables, and the Alphonsus crater on the moon is named after him. As a legislator he introduced the first vernacular law code in Spain, the Siete Partidas. He created the Mesta, an association of sheep farmers in the central plain, but debased the coinage to finance his claim to the German crown. He fought a successful war with Portugal, but a less successful one with Granada. The end of his reign was marred by a civil war with his eldest surviving son, the future Sancho IV, which would continue after his death.
Alfonso X el Sabio, rey de Castilla y León's Timeline
Toledo, Castilla La Mancha, España
November 23, 1221
Toledo, Castille La Mancha, España
Of, Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Castle, Toledo Spain
Castle, Toledo Spain
October 23, 1255
Valladolid, Valladolid, Castilla y León, España
Seville, AL, Spain