Chuqualatague Incalatanga Taltsuska "Doublehead"

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Incalatanga Taltsuska Chuqualataque Doublehead (Long Hair Clan)

Also Known As: "Double Head", "Two heads", "Incalatanga", "Taltsuska", "Chuqualatague", "Tal-tsu'tsa", "Talkauska", "Chief Doublehead"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Cherokee Nation East, Stearns, McCreary, KY, USA
Death: Died in TN, USA
Cause of death: Assassination
Place of Burial: Doublehead Gap, Wayne, KY, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of Willenawah "Great Eagle" and Woman of Ani'-wa'di
Husband of Great Priber; Creat "Crit" "Drags Blanket" Priber; NN Delaware Woman; Nannie Doublehead; Kateeyeah Doublehead and 1 other
Father of Saleechie Doublehead; Tuckahoe Doublehead; Gu-Lu-Sti-Yu Riley, Long Hair Clan; Tuskiahooto Colbert; Ni-gu-da-yi Riley and 11 others
Brother of Red Bird; Sister of Old Tassel Great Eagle; Wer-Teh; Standing Turkey; E-yah-chu-tlee (Pumpkin Boy) and 8 others

Occupation: Cherokee War Chief, Chief of the Cheroke, Cherokee Chief, Chief of Chickamaugua Cherokee
Managed by: Erin Spiceland
Last Updated:

About Chuqualatague Incalatanga Taltsuska "Doublehead"

Note that "Chuqualataque" is a title, not a name!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doublehead

Doublehead (1744–1807) or Incalatanga (Tal-tsu'tsa in Cherokee), was one of the most feared warriors of the Cherokee during the Chickamauga Wars. In 1788, his brother, Old Tassel, was chief of the Cherokee people, but was killed under a truce (negotiating peace) by frontier rangers. In 1791 Doublehead was among a delegation of Cherokees who visited U.S. President George Washington in Philadelphia. After the peace treaty at the Tellico Blockhouse in 1794, Doublehead served as one of the leaders of the Chickamauga (or "Lower Cherokee"). Upon the death of his nephew, Principal Chief John Watts, in 1802, Doublehead was chosen as leader of the Chickamauga (taking on the title Chuqualataque).

Personal life

It is thought that Doublehead's father was Great Eagle (or Willenewa), a nephew of Chief Old Hop and a cousin of Chief Attakullakulla (or Little Carpenter). One of his brothers was Old Tassel, killed while treating with the lost State of Franklin. Two of his relatives, Tahlonteeskee and John Jolly, were also leaders among the Chickamauga and both later became Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation—West. Doublehead's last wife was Nancy Drumgoole. Their youngest son, Bird Doublehead, was only twelve years old at the time of Doublehead's assassination.

Living in the Overhill Towns on the Little Tennessee River, he took only sporadic part in the campaigns of Dragging Canoe, until the murder of his brother, and another pacifist chief, Abraham of Chilhowee, under a flag of truce during an embassy to the State of Franklin in 1788. Thereafter, he became one of the most vicious fighters —and able leaders —of the Cherokee at war.

Beginnings as a war leader

His first act in his new crusade was to lead a party of warriors in concert with those of Dragging Canoe in an assault on White's Fort in East Tennessee that same year. Thereafter, he and his warriors operated somewhat independently, though occasionally joining Dragging Canoe's campaigns, operating from his new settlement of Coldwater at the head of the Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River in what is now the state of Alabama. The location at the time was within the territory claimed by the Chickasaw, but Doublehead solved that problem by marrying two daughters to George Colbert, the chief of the Chickasaw town at the foot of the Shoals. Doublehead's band included not only Cherokee, but Muskogee, Shawnee, and renegade Chickasaw (whose council and chiefs were adamantly opposed to the wars).

Activities in later years of the wars

Beginning in 1791, he began operating closely with the parties of his great-nephew, Bob Benge, who was to become one of the most feared warriors on the frontier, and Benge's brother, The Tail, who were then based in Willstown. Following the death of Dragging Canoe in 1792, he became part of a triumvirate of leaders among the Chickamauga, along with Bloody Fellow and his nephew, John Watts, who was recognized as the chief of them.

In September 1792, Watts orchestrated a large campaign into the Cumberland region of combined Cherokee and Muskogee forces which included a contingent of cavalry. It was to be a three-pronged attack in which Tahlonteeskee (or Talotiskee) of the Muskogee (who was either a Creek chief or a relative of Doublehead by that name) led a force to ambush the Kentucky road; Middle Striker led another to do the same on the Walton road; while Watts himself led the main army which was made up of 280 Cherokee, Shawnee, and Muskogee warriors and cavalry, against a settlement on the Cumberland River known as Buchanan's Station on Sept. 30, 1792. Among the attackers were the Shawnee Warrior (also known as Chiksika, or Cheeseekau), Tahlonteeskee, and Dragging Canoe's brother, Little Owl, all of whom died in the encounter. Also killed in the attack was Pumpkin Boy, a younger brother of Doublehead. One an earlier occasion, Doublehead, Pumpkin Boy, and their nephew Bob Benge, had led a raid into southwestern Kentucky during which their warriors, in an act initiated by Doublehead, cannibalized the enemies they had just killed. Their act was in imitation of the Iroquois, particularly the Mohawk, who did so to intimidate their enemies (especially during the Beaver Wars). Though every warrior present partook, Benge never operated with Doublehead afterward, sickened at his actions and at his own, nor did the later leader, The Ridge, who also took part.

Beginning of his troubles with James Vann

In 1793, a delegation of Shawnee stopped in Ustanali, the principal city of the Cherokee, on their way to call on the Muskogee and Choctaw to punish the Chickasaw for joining St. Clair's army in the north. Watts sent envoys to Knoxville, then the capital of the Southwest Territory, to meet with Governor William Blount to discuss terms for peace. This party, which included Bob McLemore, Tahlonteeskee, Captain Charley of Running Water, and Doublehead, along with the white delegation, was attacked by militia during a stop at the Overhill town of Coyatee. Hanging Maw (one of two men claiming the title of "First Beloved Man") was wounded, and several others, including his wife, daughter, and one of the white delegates were killed. The Cherokee (and, amazingly, Watts' hostile Chickamauga warriors) agreed to await the outcome of the subsequent trial, which proved to be a farce. This was in large part because the man responsible was a close friend of John Sevier.

Watts responded by invading the Holston area with one of the largest Indian forces ever seen in the region —over one thousand Cherokee, Muskogee, and Shawnee —intending to attack Knoxville itself. On the way, the Cherokee leaders were discussing among themselves whether to kill all the inhabitants of Knoxville, or just the men, James Vann advocating the latter while Doublehead argued for the former. Further on the way, they encountered a small settlement called Cavett's Station. After they had surrounded the place, Benge negotiated with the inhabitants, agreeing that if they surrendered, their lives would be spared. However, after the settlers had walked out, Doublehead's group and his Muskogee allies attacked and began killing them over the pleas of Benge and the others. Vann managed to grab one small boy and pull him onto his saddle, only to have Doublehead smash the boy's skull with an axe. Watts intervened in time to save another young boy, handing him to Vann, who put the boy behind him on his horse and later handed him over to three of the Muskogee for safe-keeping. Unfortunately, one of the Muskogee chiefs killed the boy and scalped him a few days later.

Because of the above incident, Vann called Doublehead "Babykiller" for the remainder of his life. This incident also began a lengthy feud which defined the politics of the early 19th century Cherokee Nation.

After the wars

Doublehead, as well as being one of the leaders of the Lower Towns, was elected first Speaker of the Cherokee National Council, when the Cherokee formed its first nascent national government, in 1794. He became one of the foremost advocates of acculturation and one of the richest men in The Cherokee Nation —the Lower Towns then being the wealthiest section of the entire country. He was also a chief advocate of land sales, along with several older chiefs in the Lower Towns, whose number included Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle at Home. This only increased the enmity between him and his chief rival, James Vann, who was the richest man in "The Nation."

Death

In August 1807, because of his ongoing machinations with U.S. Indian Affairs Commissioner Return J. Meigs, Jr. regarding under-the-table land deals, as well as personal animosity going back nearly two decades, several of the younger leaders of the Nation, led by James Vann, conspired to assassinate Doublehead. Meanwhile, Doublehead lost part of his thumb in a scuffle with a Cherokee named Bone Polisher. Vann, because of his personal animosity toward Doublehead going back nearly two decades, had initially planned to lead the assault, but had become too drunk to take part. The Ridge (later known as Major Ridge) and Alexander Sanders, shot the injured chief in McIntosh's Tavern at the Hiwassee Garrison near the Cherokee Agency (now Calhoun, Tennessee). The badly wounded Doublehead sought safety in the attic of schoolmaster Jonathan Blacke's house, where the assassins finished the job with knives and tomahawks.[2] Upon news of Doublehead's death, several white business associates of the old chief rushed to his settlement at Mussel Shoals, to remove as much portable property (livestock, trade goods, and slaves) as they could. These men were Samuel Riley, Jr. (who married two of Doublehead's daughters), James Chisolm (uncle of Jesse Chisholm, and Thomas Norris Clark (founder of Kingston, TN). Among the booty was Doubleheads prized race horse, "Postman."

A historical irony deserves mention here. Walker's Ferry on the Hiwasssee River was owned by John Walker, Jr., a mixed blood who was one of Vann's associates. In July 1834, because of his advocacy of removal in the years leading up to the Treaty of New Echota, Walker was assassinated on the road home from Red Clay, TN after a meeting of the Cherokee National Council. His killers were James Foreman and his half brother Anderson Springston. In June 1839 after the Cherokee Removal to Indian Territory, Major Ridge, his son John Ridge, and nephew Elias Boudinot (Cherokee) were accused of the same crime as that of Doublehead and themselves became the targets of assassins. Among the killers of Major Ridge were James Foreman, Anderson Springston, Isaac Springston, and Bird Doublehead. They were all maternal half-brothers whose mother was Nancy Drumgoole, last wife of Doublehead. Their son, Bird Doublehead, was twelve years old and residing at the home of Thomas Norris Clark when his father, Doublehead, was murdered by the Cherokee assassins, Alexander Sanders and Major Ridge.


http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~brockfamily/KinshipNotes-KBTankersley.html

DOUBLEHEAD was born sometime in the latter half of the 18th century in Stearns, Kentucky. Charles Hicks, Alexander Saunders, and Major Ridge assassinated him on August 9, 1807 in McIntosh Tavern, Hiawassee, Tennessee. DOUBLEHEAD had at least four, and possibly five wives.

First Wife

DOUBLEHEAD first married CREAT PRIBER sometime in the middle of the 18th century in Stearns, Kentucky. She was born in Tellico Plains, Tennessee, daughter of CHRISTIAN GOTTILIEB PRIBER, and died around the turn of the 19th century, possibly in McCreary County, Kentucky. The children of DOUBLEHEAD and CREAT PRIBER include:

1. TUKAHO DOUBLEHEAD was born in the middle of the 18th century, and married MARGARET MOUNCE, Chery (sic) Fork, (Helenwood, Tennessee); about 1768. He was murdered in 1807 at Doublehead's Gap, Kentucky.

2. TUSGIAHUTE DOUBLEHEAD was born in the middle of the 18th century and died about 1817 at Colbert Ferry, Colbert County, Alabama. She married a Chickasaw, COLONEL GEORGE COLBERT. He died on January 7, 1839, at Ft Towson, in Oklahoma.

3. SALITSI DOUBLEHEAD was born in the middle of the 18th century and died February 1, 1846, in Oklahoma. She was also reported to have married to the Chickasaw COLONEL GEORGE COLBERT.

4. NIGUDAYI was born in the middle of the 18th century. She married SAMUEL RILEY. He died in 1819.

5. GULUSTIYU was born in the middle of the 18th century. She was also reportedly married to SAMUEL RILEY.

Second Wife

DOUBLEHEAD is thought to have married a Delaware woman sometime in the middle of the 18th century when the Cherokee and Delaware leaders were seeking inter-tribal peace. Although no written documentation exists of this marriage, oral traditions in southern Kentucky are pleantiful.

6. CORNBLOSSOM (PAWALIN in Delaware) was born in the middle of the 18th century and, possibly 1767, and died in 1810, and thought to be buried in Pine Knot in McCreary County, Kentucky.

Third Wife

DOUBLEHEAD married NANNIE DRUMGOOLE in the late 18th century. She was the daughter of ALEXANDER DRUMGOOLE and NANCY AUGUSTA and died on July 23, 1850. The children of DOUBLEHEAD and NANNIE DRUMGOOLE include:

7. BIRD TAIL DOUBLEHEAD was born in 1795 in Tennessee and died in the middle of the 19th century. He married TIMSON, born in the early half of the 19th century and died in the early second half.

8. PEGGY DOUBLEHEAD was born and died in the first half of the 19th century. She married WILLIAM WILSON on April 4, 1824 in Madison County, Alabama.

Fourth Wife

DOUBLEHEAD married KATEEYEAH WILSON in the late 18th century. She was born in the early second half of the 18th century. The children of DOUBLEHEAD and KATEEYEAH WILSON include:

9. TASSEL DOUBLEHEAD was born in the late 18th century and died in the early 19th century.

10. ALCY DOUBLEHEAD was born and died in the first half of the 19th century. She married GILES MCNULTY.

11. SUSANNAH DOUBLEHEAD was born and died in the first half of the 19th century. She married GEORGE CHISHOLM.

Fifth Wife

DOUBLEHEAD married an UNKNOWN CHEROKEE woman in the early 19th century. The children of DOUBLEHEAD and UNKNOWN CHEROKEE include:

12. TWO HEADS DOUBLEHEAD was born in the early 19th century.

13. DOUBLEHEAD DOUBLEHEAD was born in the early 19th century.

14. WILLIAM DOUBLEHEAD was born in the early 19th century.


http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/AMERIND-US-SE/2000-12/0977343614

Testimony of Bird Doublehead re: Estate of Doublehead

Cherokee Agency East Bird Doublehead, Son of Doublehead, a Cherokee Chief, makes that he had for some years previous to the time his father was killed as well as after and recalls its about 29 years ago he had been living at [Thomas Aorned: Clark's] at Kingston [Inn pu] for the purpose of going to school and was living at Clark's at the time his father was killed. In the fall prior to his death affiant went home to his father's at the Muscle Schoals on the Tennessee river on a visit and remained at his fathers house about 3 months, and again at the expiration of that time affiant returned to Clark's and continued to reside with him as affiant some time in the year 1812 and was residing there at the time of his father's death. At the time affiant was at his father's last before his father's death and at during another time which affiant lived at home. Affiant recollects well to have seen a considerable quantity of property belonging to his father. Consisting ^of a large stock of horses, he thinks 30 or 40 head, old and young. Among them one brown stud horse purchased by affiant's father from Old Peelin for the sum of $1000, one thousand dollars. This horse [mah] a stand at South West Point. Affiant's father was a stock [rairer] and had some fine breed mares and was trying to improve his stock of horses. There was also a large stock of cattle of which affiant's father had given affiant 20 head as part of the cattle belonging to affiants step mother the wife of the Chief Doublehead which part affiant presumes Thomas Wilson her brother got at Doublehead's death, but Doublehead still owned a considerable stock of cattle besides. He had as affiant believes also a large stock of hogs he is unable to say how many. He also had a large quantity of valuable household and kitchen furniture worth as affiant believes at least $600. affiant states there was a store there but affiant is unable to give any account of the quantity or value of the goods therein but thinks there was a pretty general aportionment. Affiant remembers that when affiant went home the fall before his ^father carried down the [money] in the boat an [abhtimal] stock of goods and after [setting/selling] some of them in the boat he put the ballance in the store with the other goods and a white man called Phillips kept the store. affiant thinks there could not have been less than $3000 worth of goods in the store. Affiant thinks the goods were not sold on a credit. Doublehead had also a considerable stock of negroes besides those afterwards brought from Georgia. Those negroes he had owned many years [torn part] of time before the recollection of affiant. Others were born there, and [Ms yellow boyz Bins oGimjyd] very likely were bought by Doublehead a few years before his death but affiant cannot recollect the precise numbers but believes there were at least 20 perhaps more at and before the time of Doublehead's death. Affiant's brother Tassel also went with him and boarded at Clark's. Affiant thinks $100 per year was the sum agreed to be paid to Clark for boarding each of us affiant and Tassel. Tassel died at Clark's about 2 weeksafter Doublehead was killed. affiant was then about 12 years of age, continued boarding at Clark's and did not go home but remained there at school. Affiant had no guardian appointed for him, nor did he directly or indirectly take upon himself the control or management of the property of his father's estate. Affiant had 3 sisters none of whom were at home when Doublehead was killed. One of them, Peggy, was living with her mother in what is now McMinn Co, TN. The others, Ms Susannah & Alcy were at Hiwassee Garrison at school. The next fall after Doublehead was killed Clark went to the Muscle Shoals and to the late residence of affiant's father's ^he did not inform affiant when he started what was his beliefs or where he was going. After an absence of some weeks Clark returned home to Kingston and brought with him 21, twenty one, negroes & some horses. Phillips the store keeper also came back with Clark. Phillips informed affiant that Clark had got the negroes and horses at the residence of affiant's father's and that some other negroes had also been taken that belonged to Doublehead [torn part] and had been by him delivered over to some other men, one of them to [Wau hatchy] one to [Ulau hatchy] his brother, two Cherokees, and one to Chisholm a white man, and the balance to some person or persons who are not recalled at present. Affiant was confident Phillips statement in relation to the property was true from the fact that of the negroes brought by Clark there were several affiant had himself known to have been in his father's family many years Jarrit, Austin, Magin, Andrew and Pheby and Peter Dempsy and some others which affiant understood had come from Georgia. affiant underst^ands that Clark has disposed of the property which he took of the estate of affiant's father and has applied the [proceeds] to his own use [some] of the property affiant knows he sold one negro, Peter, to Sam [Martin] and other portions of the property affiant is informed he sold of which is one negro, Dempsy, a [brother?] to [Crozing] of Knoxville. affiant remained at Clark's for upwards of 2 years perhaps 3 years after his father's death. The latter part of which time Clark did not send affiant to school but put him in the field to plough and about 6 months of the time in a Black Smith Shop to blow and strike. When affiant's mother came after him and took him away. When affiant started Clark let him have one [Roane] pony 5 or 6 years old to ride away with his mother and an old saddle and bridle worth in all not exceeding $32 or 40. Clark never let affiant have any of the property or money of said estate except the pony, bridle, saddle, noit even money to bear affiant's expenses home. Nor did affiant believe Clark ever accounted to affiant's said sisters for one cent of the proceeds of the property of said estate. Nor has he to the knowledge of affiant ever accounted in any way for said property. Affiant further states that in the year [1827] he employed Col Zacharah Sims to assist affiant to get his property or compensation for it from Clark and procured him to come on for that purpose to Jackson's [Troly?] where he and affiant were about to make an effort for that purpose when a complaint was made against Sims and he was ordered to be driven by the Light Horse out of the Cherokee Nation. Affiant recollects that John Benge then living as affiant thinks on Battle Creek was Capt of the Light Horse and had Sims arrested. Affiant don't recollect how he obtained his release but remembers that he left the Nation. Affiant then became discouraged and did not then further [implicate] his claim but the next fall immigrated to Arkansas where he remained until recently. He has returned to again assert his rights. Affiant has now two sisters surviving namely Susannah the wife of George Chisholm and Alcy the wife of Giles McNulty. Affiant's other sister Peggy has departed this life leaving four children surviving [her hissy at laws] by her husband William Wilson who is also dead. The eldest named Jane Wilson, the 2d Elzrah Wilson, the third George Wilson and the fourth Bird Wilson.

[Signed] Bird Doublehead

Sworn to oath inscribed before me this 21st June 1838 David [Sauam-ate.: C]

---------------------------

DoubleHead

[1467]

ABT 1744 - 9 AUG 1807

   * BIRTH: ABT 1744, Stearns, McCreary Co., KY
   * DEATH: 9 AUG 1807, Hiwasse River, TN
   * EVENT: Chief Chuqualataque
     AKA:
   * EVENT: Ani'-Wâ'di = Red Paint (Wurteh)
     Clan: 

Father: Willenawah or Great (or Grey) Eagle

Mother: Woman of Ani'-Wa'di

Family 1 : Creat PRIBER

   * MARRIAGE: ABT 1757 
  1.  Tuckaho DOUBLEHEAD
  2.  Tuskiahoote DOUBLEHEAD
  3. +Saleechie DOUBLEHEAD
  4. +Ni-Go-Di-Ge-Yu DOUBLEHEAD
  5. +Gu-Lu-Sti-Yu DOUBLEHEAD 

Family 2 : Nannie DRUMGOOLE

   * MARRIAGE: ABT 1794 
  1. +Bird Tail DOUBLEHEAD
  2. +Peggy DOUBLEHEAD 

Family 3 : Kateeyeah WILSON

   * MARRIAGE: ABT 1797 
  1.  Tassel DOUBLEHEAD
  2. +Alcy DOUBLEHEAD
  3.  Susannah DOUBLEHEAD
  4. +__??__ DOUBLEHEAD 

http://www.three-systems.com/Gen/moytoy/d0000/g0000002.html#I28487


1. info from www.comanchelodge.com/cherokee-chiefs.html

Doublehead, brother of Old Tassel. The Cherokee term for Doublehead was Tultsuska or Taliwuaska-skule. He was sometimes called Autowee and "Kill Baby". Autowee may be the same term as Ahtowhee or "Walking". After 1800, he lived near the present site of Center Star, Alabama. He was murdered by Alexander Sanders at Hiwassee Ferry in the Summer of 1807. He was a Cherokee man.

2. info from familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/h/i/c/James-R-Hicks/BOO....

from Don Chesnut's web page: www.users.mis.net/~chesnut/pages/cherokee.htm

Tal=tsu'ska': "Two-heads", from ta'li, two, and tsu'ska', plural of uska', (his) head. A Cherokee chief about the year 1800, known to the whites as Doublehead. Doublehead's Indian name has also been listed as Dsu-gwe-la-de-gi and as Chuqualatague.


Charles Hicks, Alexander Saunders, and Major Ridge assassinated him on August 9, 1807 in McIntosh Tavern, Hiawassee, Tennessee.


Chief DOUBLEHEAD was a very prominent War Chief. He collected a multitude of scalps and, was the custom of many Native Americans (although it is politically incorrect to mention this now) ceremonially ate portions of the enemies he killed in battle. These were cruel times and the fight for the frontier was fierce, unrelenting, and without any quarter. Whites killed Native Americans and Native Americans killed whites. Neither side respected the gender nor age of their victims. In fact, Cherokee women and children were particular targets of the white settlers under the slogan "from nits grow lice".

Samuel Riley, along with James Chisolm and Thomas Norris Clark, were three white men who seized much of the property (mostly slaves) of Chief Doublehead after his assassination in 1807. Chisolm and Clard were business partners of Chief Doublehead; Riley may well have been his son-in-law.

Chief Doublehead, the Cherokee Cannibal




For longer than anyone could remember, the Tennessee Valley had been the

ancestral hunting grounds of the Cherokee, Chickasaw and Creek nations. This

was a land where Indians could live peacefully without fear of encroachment

from the whites.

By the late 1700s, however, times began to change as white settlers from

Virginia, Tennessee and Georgia began moving onto the Indian lands.

The great Indian nations, decimated by war and fragmented by internal strife,

could no longer offer resistance. Only one man stood in the way of this

movement.

Part cannibal, part savage and part statesman, Chief Doublehead would leave

his bloody mark on the pages of the Tennessee Valley's history.

Doublehead was born into the Cherokee aristocracy in the Cumberland foothills

of Tennessee. His father had been a ferocious warrior, well-known for his

bravery and his brother, Tassel, was a principal chief and statesman. His

oldest sister, Wurteh, married a white man, Nathan Gist, and produced a son

who was destined to become the greatest of all Cherokees, Sequoyah. Another

sister married a white soldier and their son, John Watts, became the Chief of

Chiefs among the Cherokee Nation.

The Indian nations were a scene of much turmoil during Doublehead's youth.

Part of the tribes wanted to fight the white men who were taking their lands,

while others, guided by their heads rather than their hearts, charted a

course of peaceful cooperation.

To say that Doublehead was a rebellious youth would be an understatement.

Even as a child, barely out of puberty, Doublehead began leading raiding

parties against white settlers. Although too young to fight, the youths would

lie in wait until the settlers were away from home, then sneak in, burn their

cabins and run off the livestock.

Soon tiring of this, Doublehead began to look for other ways to harass the

settlers. The isolated settlements depended on traveling peddlers for

necessities such as salt, gunpowder and cloth. Realizing this, Doublehead

fanned his group of teenage warriors out across the wilderness trails where

they laid in ambush. Within a short while no peddler dared to enter the

territory unless provided with a large armed escort. The few brave souls who

did go alone met with a premature, and often gruesome death.

Doublehead purposely cultivated his image as a bloodthirsty savage. Though

the taking of scalps was not common among the Cherokees, he quickly made it

his trademark. Even more grisly was his habit of cannibalizing his enemies'

bodies. After a successful raid he would cut a piece of flesh from one of his

victims, and often with blood running down his chin, eat it as a sign of the

conquered's impotence. Afterwards, he would demand that his warriors, as a

symbolic blood oath, do the same.

Years later, when in Philadelphia meeting with President George Washington,

an inquisitive reporter asked Doublehead's opinion of the white race. Without

even giving the matter a moment's thought, the chief replied: "Too salty."

In order to keep his warriors loyal to him, Doublehead knew he had to do more

than merely lead them on raiding parties. He made the acquaintance of several

white traders who quickly met an untimely death. Soon he was selling their

goods to stores in the white settlements. Doublehead made enough money to

supply his band with guns, powder and other items not normally available to

the Indians.

Despite Doublehead's growing popularity among the tribes, his days of running

wild throughout the Cumberlands were numbered. The whites were putting

increasing pressure on the Indians as a result of the raids and even many of

his own tribesmen were beginning to turn against him.

Realizing this, Doublehead gathered his band, a motley mix of Cherokees,

Chickasaws and Creeks and moved to the sanctuary of the Tennessee Valley.

They settled on a site several miles south of the present day Athens,

Alabama, which in a few years became a thriving village.

The land was supposed to be shared as a hunting ground by the Cherokees and

Chickasaws, with none of them actually living on it. Doublehead quickly

solved this problem by giving two of his sisters to George Colbert, the chief

of the Chickasaw Nation.

Though Doublehead continued to be a nuisance, leading occasional raiding

parties against the Tennessee settlements, it was the murder of his brother,

Tassel, that ignited the fires of open hostility.

Tassel, head chief of the Cherokees, had been invited to meet with Major John

Hubbert under a flag of truce. After a series of talks, the unarmed chief was

escorted to a smoke house where he was to spend the night. That night, with

Hubbert guarding the door, a youth armed with a tomahawk, entered the

building and killed the chief as he lay sleeping. To the whites this was only

justice, as the youth had recently lost his parents to a Cherokee war party.

A murderous rage descended upon the Tennessee Valley when Doublehead learned

of his brother's death. His name soon became synonymous with terror as his

band fanned out for hundreds of miles in every direction dealing death and

destruction to any settlements in their paths.

Knowing the importance of symbolism among his Indian warriors, he used the

death of Captain William Overall to enhance his already gruesome reputation.

Overall had distinguished himself as a particularly brave fighter before

finally falling under Doublehead's tomahawk.

Doublehead carried the captain's body back to his village, where in full view

of everyone he dismembered the body and began eating the choicest parts,

inviting his tribesmen to join him.

"The white man is no more than a dog, or a pig of the woods," he reputedly

said, "and should be treated the same way."

Perhaps the most unforgivable atrocity, and the one that turned many of the

Cherokees against him, happened in 1793. Doublehead's brother, Pumpkin Boy,

had been killed in a recent raid against the whites and he was still bitter

about it when he entered a village and saw a small white child mounted on a

horse behind his nephew, John Watts. Watts had captured the child while

assaulting a white settlement, and as was Cherokee custom, had taken the

child to raise as his own.

With a wild scream of uncontrollable rage, Doublehead charged, burying his

tomahawk deeply in the body of the small child. Afterwards for the rest of

his life he was known as "Kill Baby" to many of the Indians who were shocked

by the ghastly incident.

Suddenly and with no apparent reason, in 1794 Doublehead abruptly quit the

warpath. Almost immediately he began displaying a new found wealth. Indian

couriers were sent to Nashville on a regular basis to purchase furniture and

other items for his house. He became a collector of fine race horses, once

sending all the way to Charleston, South Carolina to purchase one that had

captured his fancy. He even began to dress the part of a wealthy man.

The source of his wealth became an item of speculation for people who knew

him. Especially intriguing was the fact that much of his wealth seemed to be

in the form of bars of silver bullion. At first it was supposed that this was

treasure he had stolen during his days on the warpath, but as time went on

people realized there had to be another answer.

Before long everyone in his tribe was wondering about the source of the

bullion. According to legend, Doublehead once asked two of his warriors to

accompany him on a trip. After walking for days he finally led them to a cave

where a great quantity of silver was stored. The men loaded as much as they

could carry in backpacks before returning to the village, where Doublehead

warned the Indians against ever revealing his secret, under pain of death.

Quite naturally, as Doublehead had expected, later that night one of the

Indians revealed to his wife what he had seen. Doublehead, who was lurking

outside the cabin listening, immediately burst into the cabin and killed the

hapless Indian.

No one in Doublehead's tribe ever again spoke of the mysterious silver

bullion.

Though secure in his new found wealth, Doublehead still took his life in his

hands when he traveled outside of the Indian lands. For the people whose

relatives had been murdered by Doublehead, there could be no forgiveness.

In 1794, a leading group of Cherokees had been invited to Philadelphia to

meet with the president, and Doublehead, aware of the political ramifications

of such a visit, appointed himself as the spokesman. With his tall,

foreboding looks and dressed in an elaborate costume, he was the center of

attention. People nudged and poked one another to catch a glimpse of the man

reputed to be the most bloodthirsty savage in America.

Doublehead undoubtedly capitalized on his reputation, for when he left,

Secretary of War Henry Knox awarded him an annual annuity of $5,000. Knox

probably realized this was cheaper than having Doublehead return to the

warpath.

This also placed Doublehead under the protection of the United States

Government, much to the ire of the whites who had lost their homes and

relatives to his murderous band.

Doublehead quickly settled into his new life-style. He made frequent trips to

New Orleans, Pensacola, Charleston and even visited New York once, where he

was described as "the classic example of the noble savage." Strangely enough,

Doublehead, who once feasted on his enemies' bodies, even visited some of the

finer restaurants and attended a play while in New York.

Unfortunately, although Doublehead had become wealthy and was prospering, the

Cherokee nation was not. Every year with every treaty the Indian lands became

smaller. John Hunt had already settled near the Big Spring in northern

Alabama and more settlers were pouring in every day.

In January of 1806, Doublehead and the other chiefs of the Cherokee nation

signed a treaty giving up all the land lying between the Tennessee and Duck

rivers. Unbeknownst to the other chiefs, Doublehead had negotiated a secret

agreement with the Indian agent where he received a large tract of land,

numbering in the tens of thousands of acres, in exchange for signing the

treaty.

If Doublehead was hoping his duplicity in the treaty would go undiscovered he

was sadly mistaken. Several months later, while attending an Indian ball game

at Hiwassee, in the Indian Nation, he was accosted by a fellow chief named

Bone Polisher, who loudly denounced him and called him a traitor to his

people.

As matters reached the boiling point, Bone Polisher drew his tomahawk and

rushed Doublehead, swinging wildly at his head. Doublehead, despite having

received numerous wounds managed to shoot his assailant through the heart.

Onlookers carried the wounded chief to McIntosh's Tavern where they sought

assistance. Instead of help, however, they were confronted by another group

of angry accusers who also called Doublehead a traitor. Someone in the tavern

(it's never been established who) extinguished the light. Instantly, as soon

as the tavern went dark, a shot rang out. When finally the light was relit.

Doublehead was lying on the floor mortally wounded.

Friends hastily carried the chief across the field to the home of the

schoolmaster where they attempted to hide him. Unfortunately, his blood trail

was easy to follow and within minutes another group of avengers appeared to

finish the task.

Doublehead, the scourge of the Tennessee Valley, was dead.

Doublehead's death signaled the end of the Cherokees in North Alabama. Though

they would remain here for another thirty years, they would never again be a

powerful force.

Almost immediately after Doublehead's death, people began searching for the

source of his wealth. In 1840 two prominent men of the Shoals area, Levi

Cassity and James Thompson found a cave that they believed to be the source

of Doublehead's treasure trove. In the cave they found tools and crucibles

used for melting silver. Many of the tools still had traces of silver on

them.

But there was no mine or any ore. The closest thing resembling a treasure

were a few old Spanish coins retrieved from the cave floor.

Were the coins part of Doublehead's treasure? Many people think so. When

Hernando de Soto visited North Alabama during his explorations he was alleged

to have hidden a large amount of silver coins somewhere in present day

Jackson County. Could Doublehead have stumbled across the treasure and

transported part of it to a cave closer to where he lived? If so, it would

explain the tools and crucibles, as many people who would readily accept

bullion would not take two hundred year old Spanish coins.

We will never know, for as Doublehead once said, "When I die, my secrets are

forever buried.


•ID: I61041 •Name: Chief Doublehead •Given Name: Chief •Surname: Doublehead •Sex: M •_UID: A5044FB7D0C42F479D7B0E06D33292108C77 •Change Date: 24 Jul 2008 •Note: He was a Cherokee Indian Chief about the year 1800. He was knownto the whites as Chief Doublehead, his Indian name has also been listed as Dsu-gwe-la-de-gi and also as Chuqualatague.

Doublehead was assassinated by other Cherokee's who were displeased with the dealings he had been making with the white settlers, according to the stories written in "Trail of Tears" bu John Ehle. Doublehead had enriched himself with bribes and gifts offered to induce the sale of Indian lands to the whites. He also set up stores and river crossing ferries, and built large farms which he worked wioth slaves, both black and Indian. He apparently gained much wealth from all of this. •Birth: ABT 1744 in Stearns, KY •Death: 9 AUG 1807 in Hiwasse River, TN

Father: Willenawah b: ABT 1710 Mother: Cherokee

Marriage 1 Nanie Drumgoole •Married:

Marriage 2 Kateeyeah Wilson •Married:

Marriage 3 Create Priber b: ABT 1740 in Stearns, KY •Married: 1757 in Stearns, KY Children 1. Gu-Lu-Sti-Yu Doublehead b: ABT 1766 2. Ni-Go-Di-Ge-Yu Doublehead b: ABT 1764 3. Cornblossom Doublehead b: ABT 1760 4. Tuckaho Doublehead b: ABT 1762


Appears usually as "Doublehead" on all lists to 11/97. Doublehead's "home" appears to have been in and around Stearns, KY. He was associated with a place called "Sand Cliffs" which is "nearby to Stearns". Doublehead Cave is also reportedly

near Stearns. Doublehead Gap is within an hours drive, or less, of Stearns

The white men of the area called him Chief Doublehead. Tal-tsu'ska means "Two-heads". He was also known as Chuqualatague and Dsu-gwe-la-de-gi.

One theory says that he was killed by John Rogers, great grandfather of Will Rogers, for selling land to the white man.

I think Chuqualataque means Red Paint Claw of the Cherokees.

He was either born in Pulaski Co.,KY near Somerset. In the vicinity of the Cumberland River in Indian Nation or in Dunk Town,TN

Info from various internet sources. 1 in paticular, with much info on descendents is http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/h/i/cJames-R-Hicks/BOOK-0001/00 25-001.html. He uses much documentation from many books,ie,"Cherokee Tragedy";"Old Frontiers" by John P. Brown;"Indian Countryman" of Hiawassee; the Emmet Starr book on the Cherokee;and Don Chestnut's website-www.users.mis.net/ ~chestnut/pages/cherokee.htm

Chief Chugqualatague, or Doublehead, was the last Cherokee Chief to exercise control over the upper Cumberland plateau and was a lieutenant of Dragging Canoe. He was born near the present town of Somerset, KY, and had two known children by his wife who was reported to be of French-Indian extraction. These children were Cornblossom and Tuckaho.

Chief Doublehead was a brother of Chief Old Tassel, as well as Pumpkin Boy. After the signing of the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785, delegates from Congress were trying to keep the peace between the Cherokees and squatters on their lands. In June 1788, Old Tassel was killed by a renegade settler by the name of Kirk while under a flag of truce and war became unavoidable. Old Tassel's death united the Cherokees under Little Turkey, including the Chickamaugas under Dragging Canoe, who split from the other Cherokee tribes some time earlier. In May 1792, John Watts succeeded Dragging Canoe as War Chief with Doublehead as his second in command. In Sep 1893, Watts and Doublehead led a campaign against the white settlers.

A great atrocity was perpetrated on this campaign. Doublehead, his brother Pumpkin Boy, and their nephew Bench (Bob Benge) ambushed Capt. Overall, a known Indian fighter, and a companion named Burnett near Dripping Spring in KY. After they killed and scalped the two men, the Indians drank their whiskey, cut strips off the dead men, then roasted and devoured their flesh. At some time, Pumpkin Boy was killed on this campaign. John Sevier launched a campaign against the Cherokee towns and after a battle at Etowah, forced the Cherokees to sue for peace. Although another Treaty was signed in 1794, Brigadier General James Robertson had to tell Major James Ore to lead another campaign against the Chickamaugas before peace was restored.

In 1796, Chief Doublehead had become the Speaker for the Cherokee Nation and became the chief spokesman for all negotiations with the Federal government. There were 3 cessions made of Cherokee lands in 1798 and it was common knowledge that Doublehead had prospered as a result. By 1804, he had become a prosperous land owner with about two dozen slaves. The Secretary of War, Dearborn, in fact, had given instructions that all agents were to deal specifically with Doublehead on the assumption he could be bribed. In 1805, Dearborn had Col. Return Jonathan Meigs acquire several valuable tracts of land with the promise that two tracts at the mouth of the Clinch and Hiwasee Rivers be exclusively for Doublehead's use. To add fuel to the fire, Doublehead had also leased several tracts at Muscle Choals to white farmers from a treaty he signed in Dec. 1806.

By this time, a Cherokee faction led by James Vann, Major Ridge, and Alexander Saunders decided Doublehead should die for his crimes. Vann had a family score to settle. Doublehead had married a sister to Vann's wife and had treated her brutally, beating her to death while she was pregnant.

Therefore, the three men decided to execute the traitor in Aug. 1807, when the Cherokees collected the annual annuity from the Federal agent. However, on the way, Vann fell ill and could not continue.

On Aug. 9, 1807, Ridge and Saunders arrived at McIntosh's Tavern on the Hiwassee and waited for an opportunity. Doublehead had been playing ball 3 miles away where he had killed a man called Bone-Polisher who had become abusive. Therefore, he didn't arrive until after dark, half drunk. Suddenly, Ridge blew out the candle in the Tavern and fired a shot at Doublehead which shattered his jaw. Having thought they killed him, they slipped out into the dark.

However, they soon learned the tavernkeeper had moved the wounded Chief to his house and then again to the loft of a Mr. Black, who taught in Gideon Blackburn's school. By then, two men from Bone Polisher's clan had joined them and together they rushed the room where Doublehead lay. As they approached, the wounded chief sprang up, drew a dirk, and tried to draw a pistol but was caught up in the sheet around him. Both Ridge and Saunders leveled their guns at him but misfired. Doublehead then grappled with Ridge but Saunders drove his tomahawk into Doublehead's skull so hard that it took two hands and a foot to pry it loose. After the killing, most of the Cherokees felt it was justified and his relatives were not forced by clan responsibility to exact revenge. This led to the abolition of clan revenge at the Council of Broomstown on Sept. 11, 1808. However, James Vann was killed in 1809 possibly for his part in the execution."

Notes of Cora Mae Martin Shirley "The Roots of Yesterday" state that Doublehead died Aug 9, 1807 at Hiwasse Station, Indian Nation, Which later became the state of Tennessee.

Original Wayne Co. included "Prices Station" in "Prices Meadow" near Touristville, KY.-crossing on Cumberland river-Domain of Cherokee Indian Chief, CHUQALATAGUE, (Doublehead)

"Ancestors of Nancy Faye Gregory" quotes follows:

"Now, as for Chief Doublehead, I originally quoted the following from the "Jonathan Blevins" book which is partially inaccurate (concerning his death).

Chief Chugqualatague, or Doublehead, was the last Cherokee Chief to exercise control over the upper Cumberland plateau and was a lieutenant of Dragging Canoe. He was born near the present town of Somerset, KY, and had two known children by his wife who was reported to be of French-Indian extraction. These children were Cornblossom and Tuckaho.

I have found several good books on Cherokee history, some of which give a good account of the circumstances of Doublehead's death. They are "Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People", by Thurman Wilkins, 1986, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, "The Cherokees", by Grace Steele Woodward, 1963, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, and "Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Indian Nation", by John Ehle, 1988, Anchor Books (Doubleday). The first books gives the most detailed account and quotes two primary sources in its bibliography as follows:

1) The Deposition of Caleb Starr concerning the death of Doublehead, dated Aug. 11, 1838, in the National Archives, RG75, Office of Indian Affairs, Removal Records (Cherokee), First Board of Cherokee Commissioners files, Heirs of Doublehead for spoilations."

Notes of Cora Mae Martin Shirley "The Roots of Yesterday" state that Doublehead died Aug 9, 1807 at Hiwasse Station, Indian Nation, Which later became the state of Tennessee.

Original Wayne Co. included "Prices Station" in "Prices Meadow" near Touristville, KY.-crossing on Cumberland river-Domain of Cherokee Indian Chief, CHUQALATAGUE, (Doublehead)

"Ancestors of Nancy Faye Gregory" quotes follows:

"Now, as for Chief Doublehead, I originally quoted the following from the "Jonathan Blevins" book which is partially inaccurate (concerning his death).

Chief Chugqualatague, or Doublehead, was the last Cherokee Chief to exercise control over the upper Cumberland plateau and was a lieutenant of Dragging Canoe. He was born near the present town of Somerset, KY, and had two known children by his wife who was reported to be of French-Indian extraction. These children were Cornblossom and Tuckaho.

I have found several good books on Cherokee history, some of which give a good account of the circumstances of Doublehead's death. They are "Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People", by Thurman Wilkins, 1986, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, "The Cherokees", by Grace Steele Woodward, 1963, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, and "Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Indian Nation", by John Ehle, 1988, Anchor Books (Doubleday). The first books gives the most detailed account and quotes two primary sources in its bibliography as follows:

1) The Deposition of Caleb Starr concerning the death of Doublehead, dated Aug. 11, 1838, in the National Archives, RG75, Office of Indian Affairs, Removal Records (Cherokee), First Board of Cherokee Commissioners files, Heirs of Doublehead for spoilations."

2) "Col. Phillips' testimony relating to the death of Doublehead...Highwasee, Aug. 15, 1807", in National Archives, RG75, Records of the Cherokee Agency in Tennessee, M-208, Roll 3.....I will try to summarize as best I can.

Chief Doublehead was a brother of Chief Old Tassel, as well as Pumpkin Boy. After the signing of the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785, delegates from Congress were trying to keep the peace between the Cherokees and squatters on their lands. In June 1788, Old Tassel was killed by a renegade settler by the name of Kirk while under a flag of truce and war became unavoidable. Old Tassel's death united the Cherokees under Little Turkey, including the Chickamaugas under Dragging Canoe, who split from the other Cherokee tribes some time earlier. In May 1792, John Watts succeeded Dragging Canoe as War Chief with Doublehead as his second in command. In Sep 1893, Watts and Doublehead led a campaign against the white settlers.

A great atrocity was perpetrated on this campaign. Doublehead, his brother Pumpkin Boy, and their nephew Bench (Bob Benge) ambushed Capt. Overall, a known Indian fighter, and a companion named Burnett near Dripping Spring in KY. After they killed and scalped the two men, the Indians drank their whiskey, cut strips off the dead men, then roasted and devoured their flesh. At some time, Pumpkin Boy was killed on this campaign. John Sevier launched a campaign against the Cherokee towns and after a battle at Etowah, forced the Cherokees to sue for peace. Although another Treaty was signed in 1794, Brigadier General James Robertson had to tell Major James Ore to lead another campaign against the Chickamaugas before peace was restored.

In 1796, Chief Doublehead had become the Speaker for the Cherokee Nation and became the chief spokesman for all negotiations with the Federal government. There were 3 cessions made of Cherokee lands in 1798 and it was common knowledge that Doublehead had prospered as a result. By 1804, he had become a prosperous land owner with about two dozen slaves. The Secretary of War, Dearborn, in fact, had given instructions that all agents were to deal specifically with Doublehead on the assumption he could be bribed. In 1805, Dearborn had Col. Return Jonathan Meigs acquire several valuable tracts of land with the promise that two tracts at the mouth of the Clinch and Hiwasee Rivers be exclusively for Doublehead's use. To add fuel to the fire, Doublehead had also leased several tracts at Muscle Choals to white farmers from a treaty he signed in Dec. 1806.

By this time, a Cherokee faction led by James Vann, Major Ridge, and Alexander Saunders decided Doublehead should die for his crimes. Vann had a family score to settle. Doublehead had married a sister to Vann's wife and had treated her brutally, beating her to death while she was pregnant.

Therefore, the three men decided to execute the traitor in Aug. 1807, when the Cherokees collected the annual annuity from the Federal agent. However, on the way, Vann fell ill and could not continue.

On Aug. 9, 1807, Ridge and Saunders arrived at McIntosh's Tavern on the Hiwassee and waited for an opportunity. Doublehead had been playing ball 3 miles away where he had killed a man called Bone-Polisher who had become abusive. Therefore, he didn't arrive until after dark, half drunk. Suddenly, Ridge blew out the candle in the Tavern and fired a shot at Doublehead which shattered his jaw. Having thought they killed him, they slipped out into the dark.

However, they soon learned the tavernkeeper had moved the wounded Chief to his house and then again to the loft of a Mr. Black, who taught in Gideon Blackburn's school. By then, two men from Bone Polisher's clan had joined them and together they rushed the room where Doublehead lay. As they approached, the wounded chief sprang up, drew a dirk, and tried to draw a pistol but was caught up in the sheet around him. Both Ridge and Saunders leveled their guns at him but misfired. Doublehead then grappled with Ridge but Saunders drove his tomahawk into Doublehead's skull so hard that it took two hands and a foot to pry it loose. After the killing, most of the Cherokees felt it was justified and his relatives were not forced by clan responsibility to exact revenge. This led to the abolition of clan revenge at the Council of Broomstown on Sept. 11, 1808. However, James Vann was killed in 1809 possibly for his part in the execution."


AKA Chuqualataque.

view all 25

Chuqualatague Incalatanga Taltsuska "Doublehead"'s Timeline

1744
1744
Stearns, McCreary, KY, USA
1750
1750
Age 6
1756
1756
Age 12
Davidson, TN
1757
1757
Age 13
1764
1764
Age 20
Echota Village, Monroe, Tennessee, United States
1766
1766
Age 22
United States
1770
1770
Age 26
Wayne, Kentucky, United States
1795
1795
Age 51
1795
Age 51
Tennessee, United States