Dame Elizabeth Taylor

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Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE

Hebrew: דיים אליזבט רוזמונד טילור, DBE
Also Known As: "Liz", "Kitten", "La Liz"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Hampstead, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom
Death: March 23, 2011 (79)
Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, United States (Congestive heart failure)
Place of Burial: Glendale, Los Angeles County, California, United States
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Francis Lenn Taylor and Sara Viola Taylor
Wife of Mike Todd
Ex-wife of Nicky Hilton; Michael Charles Gauntlet Wilding; Eddie Fisher; Richard Burton; Sen John Warner (R-VA) and 1 other
Mother of Private; Private; Private; Private and Private
Sister of Private

Occupation: actress
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Dame Elizabeth Taylor

Considered one of the great actresses of Hollywood's golden years, as well as a larger-than-life celebrity, Elizabeth Taylor has starred in over fifty films, winning two Academy Awards. As much as her acting skills and beauty has kept her in the public eye, she is also famous for her eight marriages and her devotion to raising money for research to fight AIDS.

Taylor was born on February 27, 1932 in Hampstead, a wealthy district of north-west London, the second child of Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and Sara Viola Warmbrodt (1895–1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor's older brother, Howard Taylor, was born in 1929. Both of her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Her father was an art dealer and her mother a former actress whose stage name was 'Sara Sothern'. Sothern retired from the stage when she and Francis Taylor married in 1926 in New York City. Taylor's two first names are in honour of her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Mary (Rosemond) Taylor. A dual citizen of the UK and the U.S., she was born a British subject through her birth on British soil and an American citizen through her parents.

She has had three fairly distinct career personas: as the winsome child star of movies like National Velvet (1944); as a fiery prima donna, the acknowledged "world's most beautiful woman" and star of movies like Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) and Butterfield 8 (1960); and as an older Hollywood grande dame, tabloid favorite, and friend to pop stars like Elton John and Michael Jackson. Her tempestuous marriage to Welsh actor Richard Burton made them Hollywood's reigning couple in the 1960s: they starred together as lovers in Cleopatra (1963, with Taylor as Cleopatra and Burton as Marc Antony) and then played battling spouses in the 1966 film Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Taylor had seven husbands and eight marriages in all: hotelier Nicky Hilton (1950-51, divorced), actor Michael Wilding (1952-57, divorced), producer Mike Todd (1957 until his 1958 death in a plane crash), singer Eddie Fisher (1959-64, divorced), actor Richard Burton (1964-74, divorced), Burton again (1975-76, divorced again), politician John Warner (1976-82, divorced), and construction worker Larry Fortensky (1991-96, divorced). Taylor won best actress Oscars for Butterfield 8 and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf. She was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE) in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II.

Taylor was the first actress to earn a million dollars for one film, for 1963's Cleopatra.

The American Film Institute named Taylor seventh on its Female Legends list.

In 1999, Taylor was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

Taylor and Wilding had two sons, Michael Howard Wilding, and Christopher Edward Wilding. She and Todd had one daughter, Elizabeth Frances Todd, called "Liza". In 1964 she and Fisher started adoption proceedings for a daughter, whom Burton later adopted, Maria Burton. She became a grandmother on 25 August 1971, at age 39.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Taylor

Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE (born 27 February 1932), also known as Liz Taylor, is an English-American actress. She is known for her acting talent and beauty, as well as her Hollywood lifestyle, including many marriages. Taylor is considered one of the great actresses of Hollywood's golden age.

The American Film Institute named Taylor seventh on its Female Legends list.

Early years (1932–1942)

Taylor was born in Hampstead, a wealthy district of north-west London, the second child of Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and Sara Viola Warmbrodt (1895–1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor's older brother, Howard Taylor, was born in 1929. Both of her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Her father was an art dealer and her mother a former actress whose stage name was 'Sara Sothern'. Sothern retired from the stage when she and Francis Taylor married in 1926 in New York City. Taylor's two first names are in honour of her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Mary (Rosemond) Taylor. A dual citizen of the UK and the U.S., she was born a British subject through her birth on British soil and an American citizen through her parents.

At the age of three, Taylor began taking ballet lessons with Vaccani. Shortly before the beginning of World War II, her parents decided to return to the United States to avoid hostilities. Her mother took the children first, arriving in New York in April 1939, while her father remained in London to wrap up matters in the art business, arriving in November.[3] They settled in Los Angeles, California, where Sara's family, the Warmbrodts, were then living.

Through Hopper, the Taylors were introduced to Andrea Berens, a wealthy English socialite and also fiancée of Cheever Cowden, chairman and major stockholder of Universal Pictures in Hollywood. Berens insisted that Sara bring Elizabeth to see Cowden, who she was adamant would be taken away by Elizabeth's breathtaking dark beauty; she was born with a mutation that caused double rows of eyelashes, which enhanced her appearance on camera. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer soon took interest in the British youngster as well but she failed to secure a contract with them after an informal audition with producer John Considine proved that she couldn't sing. However, on 18 September 1941, Universal Pictures signed Elizabeth to a six-month renewable contract at $100 a week.

Taylor appeared in her first motion picture at the age of nine in There's One Born Every Minute, her first and only film for Universal Pictures. Less than six months after she signed with Universal, her contract was reviewed by Edward Muhl, the studio's production chief. Muhl met with Taylor's agent, Myron Selznick (brother of David) and with Cheever Cowden. Muhl challenged Selznick's and Cowden's constant support of Taylor: "She can't sing, she can't dance, she can't perform. What's more, her mother has to be one of the most unbearable women it has been my displeasure to meet." Universal cancelled Taylor's contract just short of her tenth birthday in February 1942. Nevertheless on 15 October 1942, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer signed Taylor to $100 a week for up to three months to appear as Priscilla in Lassie Come Home.

Career

Adolescent star

Lassie Come Home featured child star Roddy McDowall, with whom Taylor would share a lifelong friendship. Upon its release in 1943, the film received favourable attention for both McDowall and Taylor. On the basis for her performance in Lassie Come Home MGM signed Taylor to a conventional seven-year contract at $100 a week but increasing at regular intervals until it reached a hefty $750 during the seventh year. Her first assignment under her new contract at MGM was a loan-out to 20th Century Fox for the character of Helen Burns in a film version of the Charlotte Bronte novel Jane Eyre (1944). During this period she also returned to England to appear in another Roddy McDowall picture for MGM, The White Cliffs of Dover (1944). But it was Taylor's persistence in campaigning for the role of Velvet Brown in MGM's National Velvet that skyrocketed Taylor to stardom at the tender age of 12. Taylor's character, Velvet Brown, is a young girl who trains her beloved horse to win the Grand National. National Velvet, which also costarred beloved American favorite Mickey Rooney and English newcomer Angela Lansbury, became an overwhelming success upon its release in December 1944 and altered Taylor's life forever. Also, many of her back problems have been traced to when she hurt her back falling off a horse during the filming of National Velvet.

National Velvet grossed over US$4 million at the box office and Taylor was signed to a new long-term contract that raised her salary to $30,000 per year. To capitalize on the box office success of Velvet, Taylor was shoved into another animal opus, Courage of Lassie, in which a different dog named "Bill", cast as an Allied combatant in World War II, regularly outsmarts the Nazis, with Taylor going through another outdoors role. The 1946 success of Courage of Lassie led to another contract drawn up for Taylor earning her $750 per week, her mother $250, as well as a $1,500 bonus. Her roles as Mary Skinner in a loan-out to Warner Brothers' Life With Father (1947), Cynthia Bishop in Cynthia (1947), Carol Pringle in A Date with Judy (1948) and Susan Prackett in Julia Misbehaves (1948) all proved to be successful. Her reputation as a bankable adolescent star and nickname of "One-Shot Liz" (referring to her ability to shoot a scene in one take) promised her a full and bright career with Metro. Taylor's portrayal as Amy, in the American classic Little Women (1949) would prove to be her last adolescent role. In October 1948, she sailed aboard the RMS Queen Mary travelling to England where she would begin filming on Conspirator, where she would play her first adult role.

Transition into adult roles

When released in 1949, Conspirator bombed at the box office, but Taylor's portrayal of 21-year-old debutante Melinda Grayton (keeping in mind that Taylor was only 16 at the time of filming) who unknowingly marries a communist spy (played by 38-year-old Robert Taylor), was praised by critics for her first adult lead in a film, even though the public didn't seem ready to accept her in adult roles. Taylor's first picture under her new salary of $2,000 per week was The Big Hangover (1950), both a critical and box office failure, that paired her with screen idol Van Johnson. The picture also failed to present Taylor with an opportunity to exhibit her newly-realized sensuality. Her first box office success in an adult role came as Kay Banks in the romantic comedy Father of the Bride (1950), alongside Spencer Tracy and Joan Bennett. The film spawned a sequel, Father's Little Dividend (1951), which Taylor's costar Spencer Tracy summarised with "boring...boring...boring." The film was received well at the box office but it would be Taylor's next picture that would set the course for her career as a dramatic actress.

In late 1949, Taylor had begun filming George Stevens' A Place In The Sun. Upon its release in 1951, Taylor was hailed for her performance as Angela Vickers, a spoiled socialite who comes between George Eastman (Montgomery Clift) and his poor, pregnant factory-working girlfriend Alice Tripp (Shelley Winters).

The film became the pivotal performance of Taylor's career as critics acclaimed it as a classic, a reputation it sustained throughout the next 50 years of cinema history. The New York Times' A.H. Weiler wrote, "Elizabeth's delineation of the rich and beauteous Angela is the top effort of her career," and the Boxoffice reviewer unequivocally stated "Miss Taylor deserves an Academy Award." "If you were considered pretty, you might as well have been a waitress trying to act – you were treated with no respect at all", she later bitterly reflected.

Even with such critical success as an actress, Taylor was increasingly unsatisfied with the roles being offered to her at the time. While she wanted to play the leads in The Barefoot Contessa and I'll Cry Tomorrow, MGM continued to restrict her to mindless and somewhat forgettable films such as: a cameo as herself in Callaway Went Thataway (1951), Love Is Better Than Ever (1952), Ivanhoe (1952), The Girl Who Had Everything (1953) and Beau Brummel (1954).

Taylor had made it perfectly clear that she wanted to play the role of Lady Rowena in Ivanhoe, but the part had already been given to Joan Fontaine and she was handed the thankless role of Rebecca. When she became pregnant with her first child, MGM forced her through The Girl Who Had Everything (even adding two hours to her daily work schedule) so as to get one more film out of her before she became too heavily pregnant. Taylor lamented that she needed the money, as she had just bought a new house with second husband Michael Wilding and with a child on the way things would be pretty tight. Taylor had been forced by her pregnancy to turn down Elephant Walk (1954), though the role had been designed for her. Vivien Leigh, to whom Taylor bore a striking resemblance, got the part and went to Ceylon to shoot on location. Leigh had a nervous breakdown during filming, and Taylor finally reclaimed the role after the birth of her child Michael Wilding, Jr. in January 1953.

Taylor's next screen endeavor, Rhapsody (1954), another tedious romantic drama, proved equally frustrating. Taylor portrayed Louise Durant, a beautiful rich girl in love with a temperamental violinist (Vittorio Gassman) and an earnest young pianist (John Ericson). A film critic for the New York Herald Tribune wrote: "There is beauty in the picture all right, with Miss Taylor glowing into the camera from every angle...but the dramatic pretenses are weak, despite the lofty sentences and handsome manikin poses."

Taylor's fourth period picture, Beau Brummell, made just after Elephant Walk and Rhapsody, cast her as the elaborately costumed Lady Patricia, which many felt was only a screen prop—a ravishing beauty whose sole purpose was to lend romantic support to the film's title star, Stewart Granger.

The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954) fared only slightly better than her previous pictures, with Taylor being reunited with The Big Hangover costar Van Johnson. The role of Helen Ellsworth Willis was based on that of Zelda Fitzgerald and, although pregnant with her second child, Taylor went ahead with the film, her fourth in twelve months. Although proving somewhat successful at the box office, she still yearned for meatier roles.

1955–1979

Following a more substantial role opposite Rock Hudson and James Dean in George Stevens' epic Giant (1956), Taylor was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for the following films: Raintree County (1957) opposite Montgomery Clift; Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) opposite Paul Newman; and Suddenly, Last Summer (1959)[8] with Montgomery Clift, Katharine Hepburn and Mercedes McCambridge.

In 1960, Taylor became the highest paid actress up to that time when she signed a one million dollar contract to play the title role in 20th Century Fox's lavish production of Cleopatra, which would eventually be released in 1963. During the filming, she began a romance with her future husband Richard Burton, who played Mark Antony in the film. The romance received much attention from the tabloid press, as both were married to other spouses at the time.

Taylor won her first Academy Award, for Best Actress in a Leading Role, for her performance as Gloria Wandrous in BUtterfield 8 (1960), which co-starred then husband Eddie Fisher.

Her second and final Academy Award, also for Best Actress in a Leading Role, was for her performance as Martha in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), playing opposite then husband Richard Burton. Taylor and Burton would appear together in six other films during the decade – The V.I.P.s (1963), The Sandpiper (1965), The Taming of the Shrew (1967), Doctor Faustus (1967), The Comedians {1967} and Boom! (1968).

Taylor appeared in John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye (1967) opposite Marlon Brando (replacing Montgomery Clift who died before production began) and Secret Ceremony (1968) opposite Mia Farrow. However, by the end of the decade her box-office drawing power had considerably diminished, as evidenced by the failure of The Only Game in Town (1970), with Warren Beatty.

Taylor continued to star in numerous theatrical films throughout the 1970s, such as Zee and Co. (1972) with Michael Caine, Ash Wednesday (1973), The Blue Bird (1976) with Jane Fonda and Ava Gardner, and A Little Night Music (1977). With then-husband Richard Burton, she co-starred in the 1972 films Under Milk Wood and Hammersmith Is Out, and the 1973 made-for-TV movie Divorce His, Divorce Hers.

1980–2003

Taylor starred in the 1980 mystery/thriller The Mirror Crack'd opposite Kim Novak. In 1985, she played movie gossip columnist Louella Parsons in the TV film Malice in Wonderland opposite Jane Alexander, who played Hedda Hopper; and also appeared in the miniseries North and South. Her last theatrical film to date was 1994's The Flintstones. In 2001, she played an agent in the TV film These Old Broads. She has also appeared on a number television series, including the soap operas General Hospital and All My Children, as well as the animated series The Simpsons—once as herself, and once as the voice of Maggie Simpson. She has not done any acting since 2003.

Taylor has also acted on the stage, making her Broadway and West End debuts in 1982 with a revival of Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes. She was then in a production of Noel Coward's Private Lives (1983), in which she starred with her former husband, Richard Burton. The student-run Burton Taylor Theatre in Oxford was named for the famous couple after Burton appeared as Doctor Faustus in the Oxford University Dramatic Society (OUDS) production of the Marlowe play. Taylor played the ghostly, wordless Helen of Troy, who is entreated by Faustus to 'make [him] immortal with a kiss'.

Retirement, 2003–present

In November 2004, Taylor announced that she had been diagnosed with congestive heart failure, a progressive condition in which the heart is too weak to pump sufficient blood throughout the body, particularly to the lower extremities: the ankles and feet. She has broken her back five times, had both her hips replaced, has survived a benign brain tumor operation, has survived skin cancer, and has faced life-threatening bouts with pneumonia twice. She is reclusive and sometimes fails to make scheduled appearances due to illness or other personal reasons. She now uses a wheelchair and when asked about it she said that she has osteoporosis and was born with scoliosis.

In 2005, Taylor was a vocal supporter of her friend Michael Jackson in his trial in California on charges of sexually abusing a child. He was acquitted.

On 30 May 2006, Taylor appeared on Larry King Live to refute the claims that she has been ill, and denied the allegations that she was suffering from Alzheimer's disease and was close to death.

In late August 2006, Taylor decided to take a boating trip to help prove that she was not close to death. She also decided to make Christie's auction house the primary place where she will sell her jewellery, artwork, clothing, furniture and memorabilia (September 2006).

The February 2007 issue of Interview magazine was devoted entirely to Taylor. It celebrated her life, career and her upcoming 75th birthday.

On 5 December 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Taylor into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.

Taylor was in the news recently for a rumoured ninth marriage to her companion Jason Winters. This has been dismissed as a rumour. However, she was quoted as saying, "Jason Winters is one of the most wonderful men I've ever known and that's why I love him. He bought us the most beautiful house in Hawaii and we visit it as often as possible," to gossip columnist Liz Smith. Winters accompanied Taylor to Macy's Passport HIV/AIDS 2007 gala, where Taylor was honoured with a humanitarian award. In 2008, Taylor and Winters were spotted celebrating the 4th of July on a yacht in Santa Monica, California. The couple attended the Macy's Passport HIV/AIDS gala again in 2008.

On 1 December 2007, Taylor acted on-stage again, appearing opposite James Earl Jones in a benefit performance of the A. R. Gurney play Love Letters. The event's goal was to raise $1 million for Taylor's AIDS foundation. Tickets for the show were priced at $2,500, and more than 500 people attended. The event happened to coincide with the 2007 Writers Guild of America strike and, rather than cross the picket line, Taylor requested a "one night dispensation." The Writers Guild agreed not to picket the Paramount Pictures lot that night to allow for the performance.

In October 2008, Taylor and Winters took a trip overseas to England. They spent time visiting friends, family and shopping.

Other interests

Taylor has a passion for jewellery. She is a client of well-known jewellery designer, Shlomo Moussaieff. Over the years she has owned a number of well-known pieces, two of the most talked-about being the 33.19-carat (6.64 g) Krupp Diamond and the 69.42-carat (13.88 g) pear-shaped Taylor-Burton Diamond, which were among many gifts from husband Richard Burton. Taylor also owns the 50-carat (10 g) La Peregrina Pearl, purchased by Burton as a Valentine's Day present in 1969. The pearl was formerly owned by Mary I of England, and Burton sought a portrait of Queen Mary wearing the pearl. Upon the purchase of the painting, the Burtons discovered that the British National Portrait Gallery did not have an original painting of Mary, so they donated the painting to the Gallery. Her enduring collection of jewellery has been documented in her book My Love Affair with Jewelry (2002) with photographs by the New York photographer John Bigelow Taylor (no relation).

Taylor started designing jewels for The Elizabeth Collection, creating fine jewellery with elegance and flair. The Elizabeth Taylor collection by Piranesi is sold at Christie's. She has also launched three perfumes, "Passion," "White Diamonds," and "Black Pearls," that together earn an estimated US$200 million in annual sales. In fall 2006, Taylor celebrated the 15th anniversary of her White Diamonds perfume, one of the top 10 best selling fragrances for more than the past decade.

Taylor has devoted much time and energy to AIDS-related charities and fundraising. She helped start the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) after the death of her former costar and friend, Rock Hudson. She also created her own AIDS foundation, the Elizabeth Taylor Aids Foundation (ETAF). By 1999, she had helped to raise an estimated US$50 million to fight the disease.

In 2006, Taylor commissioned a 37-foot (11 m) "Care Van" equipped with examination tables and X Ray equipment and also donated US$40,000 to the New Orleans Aids task force, a charity designed for the New Orleans population with AIDS and HIV. The donation of the van was made by the Elizabeth Taylor HIV/AIDS Foundation and Macy's.[28]

In the early 1980s, Taylor moved to Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, which is her current home. She also owns homes in Palm Springs, London and Hawaii. The fenced and gated property is on tour maps sold at street corners and is frequently passed by tour guides.

Taylor was also a fan of the soap opera General Hospital. In fact, she was cast as the first Helena Cassadine, matriarch of the Cassadine family.

Taylor is a supporter of Kabbalah and member of the Kabbalah Centre. She encouraged long-time friend Michael Jackson to wear a red string as protection from the evil-eye during his 2005 trial for molestation, where he was eventually cleared of all charges. On 6 October 1991, Taylor had married construction worker Larry Fortensky at Jackson's Neverland Ranch.[citation needed] In 1997, Jackson presented Taylor with the exclusively written-for-her epic song "Elizabeth, I Love You", performed on the day of her 65th birthday celebration.

In October 2007, Taylor won a legal battle, over a Vincent van Gogh painting in her possession, when the US Supreme Court refused to reconsider a legal suit filed by four persons claiming that the artwork belongs to one of their Jewish ancestors, regardless of any statute of limitations.

Taylor attended Michael Jackson's private funeral on 3 September 2009.

Personal life

Marriages

Taylor has been married eight times to seven husbands:

Conrad "Nicky" Hilton (6 May 1950 – 29 January 1951) (divorced)

Michael Wilding (21 February 1952 – 26 January 1957) (divorced)

Michael Todd (2 February 1957 – 22 March 1958) (widowed)

Eddie Fisher (12 May 1959 – 6 March 1964) (divorced)

Richard Burton (15 March 1964 – 26 June 1974) (divorced)

Richard Burton (again) (10 October 1975 – 29 July 1976) (divorced)

John Warner (4 December 1976 – 7 November 1982) (divorced)

Larry Fortensky (6 October 1991 – 31 October 1996) (divorced)

Children

With Wilding (2 sons)

Michael Howard Wilding (born 6 January 1953)

Christopher Edward Wilding (born 27 February 1955)

With Todd (1 daughter)

Elizabeth Frances "Liza" Todd (born 6 August 1957)

With Burton (1 daughter)

Maria Burton (born 1 August 1961; adopted 1964)

In 1971 Taylor became a grandmother at the age of 39. She has 9 grandchildren.

Treatment for alcoholism

In the 1980s, she received treatment for alcoholism.

Filmography

List of awards and honours

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Elizabeth Taylor

Taylor was the second actress to win two Academy Awards both for Best Actress, the first award from a color film and the second from a black and white film. The first was Vivien Leigh. In 1999, Taylor was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

About Dame Elizabeth Taylor (עברית)

דיים אליזבת רוזמונד טיילור

''''''(באנגלית: Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor;‏ 27 בפברואר 1932 – 23 במרץ 2011) הייתה שחקנית בריטית-אמריקאית. זוכת שני פרסי אוסקר.

בצעירותה נחשבה לאחת הנשים היפות בעולם, בין היתר בשל צבע עיניה הייחודי, המזכיר את הצבע סגול. הייתה ידועה באורח חייה הראוותני, בנישואיה הרבים לבעלים שונים, במתנות הראוותניות שהעניקו לה בזמן יחסיהם ובכך שמכרה אותם בגיל מבוגר יותר במחיר מופקע, לאור השתייכותם אליה. ובמערכת היחסים המתוחה עם אחד מבעליה, השחקן ריצ'רד ברטון, ובידידותה עם מייקל ג'קסון.

טיילור נולדה למשפחה נוצרית. שניים מבעליה היו יהודים (אדי פישר ומייק טוד) וטענה שהגיור הרפורמי שלה לא היה רק למענם. טיילור הייתה ידועה בפועלה ומאמציה למען הציונות ולמען יהודים.

תוכן עניינים 1 ילדות ונעורים - ילדת הפלא בהוליווד 2 קריירת משחק בוגרת 3 חייה הפרטיים 3.1 נישואים 3.2 עסקים והתנדבות 4 פרסים ותוארי כבוד 5 מותה 6 קישורים חיצוניים ילדות ונעורים - ילדת הפלא בהוליווד אליזבת טיילור נולדה ברובע המפסטד, לונדון שבאנגליה. הוריה פרנסיס לן טיילור ושרה ויולה וורמברודט, שהיו אמריקנים שחיו בבריטניה. בזכותם בנוסף לאזרחותה הבריטית השיגה גם אזרחות אמריקאית. מצד אביה, טיילור היא צאצאית לבתי אצולה אנגליים ולבית המלוכה הסקוטי, כמו גם לבית פלנטג'נט.

הוריה של טיילור באו מארקנסו סיטי, קנזס. אביה היה סוחר אמנות ואמה שחקנית לשעבר, שפרשה מעולם התיאטרון על מנת להינשא לאביה של טיילור בשנת 1926. בגיל שלוש החלה טיילור ללמוד בלט. לאחר כניסת בריטניה למלחמת העולם השנייה, החליטו הוריה לחזור לארצות הברית, על מנת שלא להיקלע ללוחמה. המשפחה השתקעה בלוס אנג'לס.

בגיל תשע הופיעה טיילור בסרטה הראשון עבור אולפני יוניברסל. אולפנים אלו לא העריכו את כישוריה, ואיפשרו לה לחתום על חוזה עם חברת MGM. חברה זו ליהקה את טיילור לתפקיד הראשי בשובר הקופות הקלאסי "לאסי חוזרת הביתה" (1943), שהיווה את פריצתה בעולם הקולנוע. לאחר מספר סרטים נוספים היא הופיעה לראשונה בתפקיד הראשי כ"ולווט בראון", נערה העוסקת באילוף סוסים, בסרט "נשיונל ולווט" (1944). הסרט זכה להצלחה גדולה ואיפשר לטיילור לחתום עם MGM על חוזה ארוך טווח. טיילור המשיכה להופיע בסרטים, במקביל ללימודיה בבית הספר התיכון. בשנים אלו הופיעה במספר המשכים לסדרת "לאסי", וכן שיחקה בסרט "ג'יין אייר" (1943), ובלהיטים כגון "החיים עם אבא" (1947), "אבי הכלה" (1950) (כבתו של ספנסר טרייסי, סרט שהיה להצלחה והוליד סרט המשך בשנת 1951 בשם "הרווח הקטן של אבא"), או "נשים קטנות" (1949). בסרטים אלו שיחקה דמות חיובית של מתבגרת חביבה וספורטיבית.

בשנת 1950 סיימה את לימודיה בבית הספר התיכון, ובשנה זו נישאה בפעם הראשונה, ליורש אימפריית המיליונים של מלונות הילטון, קונרד הילטון הבן. היו אלו נישואי בוסר שהסתיימו לאחר מספר חודשים, והיו אך הראשונים בשורה ארוכה של זיווגים כושלים, ולעיתים טראגיים.

קריירת משחק בוגרת החל משנות ה-50 נחשבה טיילור לאחת השחקניות המובילות בהוליווד, מעמד בו החזיקה עד לסוף שנות ה-60. היא זכתה פעמיים בפרס האוסקר כשחקנית הטובה ביותר. בפעם הראשונה בשנת 1960 עבור הסרט "באטרפילד 8", בו גילמה פרוצה יוקרתית החווה חיי אהבה מתוסבכים, ובו שיחקה לצד בעלה, השחקן אדי פישר. בשנת 1966 זכתה טיילור בפרס פעם נוספת בשל משחקה בסרט "מי מפחד מוירג'יניה וולף?", דרמה העוסקת בחיי הנישואים של זוג במשבר, בו שיחקה לצד בעלה, השחקן הוולשי ריצ'רד ברטון. טיילור הייתה מועמדת לפרס בשנת 1957 עבור תפקידה בסרט "ריינטרי קאונטי", בו שיחקה אל מול מונטגומרי קליפט, בשנת 1958 עבור תפקידה בסרט על פי מחזהו של טנסי ויליאמס, "חתולה על גג פח לוהט" בו שיחקה לצד פול ניומן, ובשנת 1959 עבור תפקידה בסרט "פתאום, בקיץ האחרון", אף הוא על פי מחזהו של טנסי ויליאמס, בו שיחקה לצד קתרין הפבורן ומונטגומרי קליפט.

בנוסף לסרטים אלו שיחקה בלהיטים הוליוודיים גדולים כקוו ואדיס (1951), "מקום תחת השמש" (1951), "הפעם האחרונה שראיתי את פריז" ו"ענק" (1956) סרט בו שיחקה לצד רוק הדסון ואגדת הקולנוע ג'יימס דין שהיה זה אחד משלושת הסרטים שצילם בימי חייו.

בניגוד לתדמיתה מהסרטים בהם הופיעה כנערה וכילדה, עסקו סרטיה כבוגרת בנושאים "קשים", כשבר בחיי נישואין, תשוקות מודחקות, והומוסקסואליות. דמותה הקולנועית הבוגרת מתקופה זו הייתה של אישה סוערת, מינית ומפתה. חייה הפרטיים הסוערים, השערוריות בהן הייתה מעורבת, כאשר השחקן אדי פישר עזב למענה את אשתו, דבי ריינולדס לאחר שהשניים נחשבו לזוג ההוליוודי המושלם, רק על מנת להעזב על ידי טיילור שנים ספורות לאחר מכן לטובת השחקן ריצ'רד ברטון, אשר אף הוא היה נשוי לאחרת כשהחל את יחסיו עם טיילור, תרמו לתדמית זו, והביאו את הקהל אל הקופות.

בשנת 1963 הייתה טיילור לשחקנית שקיבלה את השכר הגבוה ביותר בהוליווד, כאשר קיבלה את הסכום של מיליון דולר, על מנת לשחק בהפקת הראווה "קלאופטרה". הרומן שניהלה טיילור כקלאופטרה אל מול המצלמות עם ריצ'רד ברטון, ששיחק את מרקוס אנטוניוס לווה ברומן אמיתי בין טיילור וברטון, שלא חמק מעיני צלמי המגזינים.

פרשה זו קיבעה את תדמיתה של טיילור כ"קוטלת גברים", פאם פאטאל ברונטית, המשתמשת בגברים וזורקת אותם לאחר מכן לפי צרכיה. עם זאת, מערכת יחסיה עם ברטון נמשכה זמן רב וידעה עליות ומורדות, והסתיימה בצורה טרגית עם מותו הפתאומי של ברטון בגיל 58, בשנת 1984.

לאחר הסרט "קלאופטרה" הופיעה טיילור כ"מרתה" בסרט "מי מפחד מווירג'יניה וולף?" (1966). דמות זו מיצתה את כישרון המשחק של טיילור, שהציגה דמות של אישה קולנית, מתוסבכת, ואף מוזנחת, השקועה במערכת יחסים הרסנית עם בעלה, שגולם על ידי ברטון. סרט זה הביא לטיילור את פרס האוסקר השני בקריירה שלה, אך סימן מפנה לרעה, שכן לאחריו לא זכתה עוד טיילור לככב בלהיט קולנועי מהשורה הראשונה.

מאמצע שנות השבעים פג קסמה של טיילור. היא שמנה, הופעותיה הקולנועיות הפכו לנדירות, והסרטים בהם הופיעה לא נחשבו לחשובים, ולא זכו לפרסים. מתפקידיה האחרונים זכורה טיילור בתפקיד שולי כאמו החורגת של פרד בסרט "משפחת פלינסטון" וכן על קריינותה בסרט "ג'נוסייד". טיילור הופיעה לעיתים בטלוויזיה (לרבות הופעה בכמה מפרקי הסדרה משפחת סימפסון, פעם בדיבוב מגי ופעם בדיבוב דמותה המצוירת של עצמה), וכן בתיאטרון, בו זכתה להצלחה על בימות ברודוויי בשנות השמונים.

חייה הפרטיים נישואים במשך חייה הייתה טיילור נשואה שמונה פעמים לשבעה בעלים:

קונרד (ניקי) הילטון (6 במאי 1950 - 29 בינואר 1951). נישואי בוסר אלו הסתיימו בגירושים. השחקן מייקל וילדינג (21 בפברואר 1952 - 26 בינואר 1957). נישואים אלו הסתיימו בגירושים. המפיק מייק טוד (2 בפברואר 1957 - 22 במרץ 1958) נישואים אלו הסתיימו בצורה טראגית עם מותו של טוד. השחקן והזמר אדי פישר (12 במאי 1959 - 6 במרץ 1964) נישואים אלה הסתיימו בגירושים. השחקן ריצ'רד ברטון (15 במרץ 1964 - 26 ביוני 1974 ושוב בין 10 באוקטובר 1975 ל-29 ביולי 1976). שני הניסיונות הסתיימו בגירושים. סנטור ג'ון וורנר (4 בדצמבר 1976 - 7 בנובמבר 1982) נישואים אלה הסתיימו בגירושים. מפעיל הציוד המכני לארי פורטנסקי (6 באוקטובר 1991 - 31 באוקטובר 1996). גם נישואים אלו הסתיימו בגירושים. מנישואיה לווילדינג נולדו לטיילור שני בנים, מייקל הווארד וילדינג (1953) וכריסטופר אדוארד וילדינג (1955). מנישואיה לטוד נולדה לטיילור בת בשם אליזבת פרנסס ב-1957. בעת נישואיה לפישר החלה טיילור בהליכי אימוץ של בת, שהושלמו לאחר נישואיה לברטון. הבת, מריה ברטון, היא ילידת שנת 1961.

טיילור לא הייתה אזרחית ארצות הברית, שכן ויתרה על אזרחותה בתקופת נישואיה לברטון. היא התגוררה בשנותיה האחרונות בשכונת בל אייר בלוס אנג'לס במעמד של תושבת חוקית קבועה.

עסקים והתנדבות טיילור הייתה ידועה בחיבתה לתכשיטים. לאורך השנים רכשה מספר פריטים ידועי שם, לרבות יהלומים מפורסמים. בשנת 2002 כתבה ספר בשם "סיפור האהבה שלי עם תכשיטים", ובשנת 2005 יצרה מיזם עסקי עם תכשיטנים נודעים בלוס אנג'לס לשיווק תכשיטים תחת השם המסחרי "אליזבת טיילור". כן שיווקה במסגרת זו בשמים שזכו להצלחה.

זמן רב השקיעה טיילור במאבק במחלת האיידס. היא סייעה להקמת המרכז האמריקני למחקר האיידס, לאחר מותו של ידידה השחקן רוק הדסון שהיה אחד הידוענים הראשונים שנפלו קורבן למחלה. היא הקימה את מכון האיידס על שמה. מעריכים כי עד לשנת 1999 סייעה טיילור בהשגת מימון בסך חמישים מיליון דולר למחקר המחלה.

פרסים ותוארי כבוד טיילור הייתה מועמדת פעמים רבות לפרס האוסקר וזכתה בו פעמיים. כן זכתה בפרס האקדמיה לאמנויות הקולנוע על שם ג'ין הרשהולט, עבור פעילותה ההומניטרית, בשנת 1992. פרס נוסף על הישגיה במשחק קיבלה ממכון הסרטים האמריקאי בשנת 1993.

בשנת 1999 זכתה בתואר "דיים מפקדת" במסדר האימפריה הבריטית (DBE - Dame Commander of the British Empire) אותו קיבלה מהמלכה אליזבת השנייה. כן קיבלה בשנת 2001 את מדליית האזרחות של הנשיא, מנשיא ארצות הברית ביל קלינטון. התואר הוא השני בחשיבותו בתוארי הכבוד המוענקים לאזרחי ארצות הברית, והוא ניתן למי שביצעו מעשים ושירותים יוצאי דופן.

מפקד מסדר האמנויות והספרות גבירה מפקדת במסדר האימפריה הבריטית מדליית האזרחים הנשיאותית פרס מריאן אנדרסון (2000) פרס ז'אן הרשולט לפעילות הומניטרית פרס באפט"א למפעל חיים (1999) פרס אוסקר לשחקנית הטובה ביותר (1960) פרס אוסקר לשחקנית הטובה ביותר (1966) פרס מיוחד של עולם התאטרון (1981) פרס גילדת שחקני המסך למפעל חיים היכל התהילה של קליפורניה (2007) פרס מרכז קנדי פרס מכון הסרטים האמריקאי על מפעל חיים (1993) דוב הכסף לשחקנית הטובה ביותר (1972) מסדר האימפריה הבריטית פרס אוסקר האקדמיה הבריטית לאומנויות הקולנוע והטלוויזיה (1967) פרס גלובוס הזהב (1960) פרס גילדת שחקני המסך (1998) פרס גלובוס הזהב לשחקנית הטובה ביותר - סרט דרמה (1959) פרס דוד די דונטלו לשחקנית הזרה הטובה ביותר (1972) גלובוס הזהב על שם ססיל ב. דה-מיל (1984) פרס מועצת המבקרים הלאומית לשחקנית הטובה ביותר (1966) GLAAD Vanguard Award (2000) דוב הכסף לשחקנית הטובה ביותר פרס קריסטל (1985) מותה טיילור התמודדה עם מספר בעיות בריאות במהלך השנים. ב-2004 הוכרז כי היא סובלת מאי ספיקת לב גדושה, וב-2009 היא עברה ניתוח לב להחלפת מסתם לב. בפברואר 2011 הביאו תסמינים חדשים הקשורים לאי ספיקת לב לאשפוזה במרכז הרפואי סדרס-סיני בלוס אנג'לס לטיפול.

ב-23 במרץ 2011 נפטרה טיילור, מוקפת בארבעת ילדיה במרכז הרפואי סדרס-סיני בלוס אנג'לס שבקליפורניה, והיא בת 79. היא נקברה בטקס הלוויה צנוע בבית הקברות "פורסט לואן" בלוס-אנג'לס ליד קברי הוריה, ובסמוך לקברו של מייקל ג'קסון חברה הטוב.

קישורים חיצוניים מיזמי קרן ויקימדיה ויקיציטוט ציטוטים בוויקיציטוט: אליזבת טיילור ויקישיתוף תמונות ומדיה בוויקישיתוף: אליזבת טיילור Green globe.svg אתר האינטרנט הרשמי

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Considered one of the great actresses of Hollywood's golden years, as well as a larger-than-life celebrity, Elizabeth Taylor has starred in over fifty films, winning two Academy Awards. As much as her acting skills and beauty has kept her in the public eye, she is also famous for her eight marriages and her devotion to raising money for research to fight AIDS.

Taylor was born on February 27, 1932 in Hampstead, a wealthy district of north-west London, the second child of Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and Sara Viola Warmbrodt (1895–1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor's older brother, Howard Taylor, was born in 1929. Both of her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Her father was an art dealer and her mother a former actress whose stage name was 'Sara Sothern'. Sothern retired from the stage when she and Francis Taylor married in 1926 in New York City. Taylor's two first names are in honour of her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Mary (Rosemond) Taylor. A dual citizen of the UK and the U.S., she was born a British subject through her birth on British soil and an American citizen through her parents.

She has had three fairly distinct career personas: as the winsome child star of movies like National Velvet (1944); as a fiery prima donna, the acknowledged "world's most beautiful woman" and star of movies like Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) and Butterfield 8 (1960); and as an older Hollywood grande dame, tabloid favorite, and friend to pop stars like Elton John and Michael Jackson. Her tempestuous marriage to Welsh actor Richard Burton made them Hollywood's reigning couple in the 1960s: they starred together as lovers in Cleopatra (1963, with Taylor as Cleopatra and Burton as Marc Antony) and then played battling spouses in the 1966 film Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Taylor had seven husbands and eight marriages in all: hotelier Nicky Hilton (1950-51, divorced), actor Michael Wilding (1952-57, divorced), producer Mike Todd (1957 until his 1958 death in a plane crash), singer Eddie Fisher (1959-64, divorced), actor Richard Burton (1964-74, divorced), Burton again (1975-76, divorced again), politician John Warner (1976-82, divorced), and construction worker Larry Fortensky (1991-96, divorced). Taylor won best actress Oscars for Butterfield 8 and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf. She was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE) in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II.

Taylor was the first actress to earn a million dollars for one film, for 1963's Cleopatra.

The American Film Institute named Taylor seventh on its Female Legends list.

In 1999, Taylor was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

Taylor and Wilding had two sons, Michael Howard Wilding, and Christopher Edward Wilding. She and Todd had one daughter, Elizabeth Frances Todd, called "Liza". In 1964 she and Fisher started adoption proceedings for a daughter, whom Burton later adopted, Maria Burton. She became a grandmother on 25 August 1971, at age 39.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Taylor

Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE (born 27 February 1932), also known as Liz Taylor, is an English-American actress. She is known for her acting talent and beauty, as well as her Hollywood lifestyle, including many marriages. Taylor is considered one of the great actresses of Hollywood's golden age.

The American Film Institute named Taylor seventh on its Female Legends list.

Early years (1932–1942)

Taylor was born in Hampstead, a wealthy district of north-west London, the second child of Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and Sara Viola Warmbrodt (1895–1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor's older brother, Howard Taylor, was born in 1929. Both of her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Her father was an art dealer and her mother a former actress whose stage name was 'Sara Sothern'. Sothern retired from the stage when she and Francis Taylor married in 1926 in New York City. Taylor's two first names are in honour of her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Mary (Rosemond) Taylor. A dual citizen of the UK and the U.S., she was born a British subject through her birth on British soil and an American citizen through her parents.

At the age of three, Taylor began taking ballet lessons with Vaccani. Shortly before the beginning of World War II, her parents decided to return to the United States to avoid hostilities. Her mother took the children first, arriving in New York in April 1939, while her father remained in London to wrap up matters in the art business, arriving in November.[3] They settled in Los Angeles, California, where Sara's family, the Warmbrodts, were then living.

Through Hopper, the Taylors were introduced to Andrea Berens, a wealthy English socialite and also fiancée of Cheever Cowden, chairman and major stockholder of Universal Pictures in Hollywood. Berens insisted that Sara bring Elizabeth to see Cowden, who she was adamant would be taken away by Elizabeth's breathtaking dark beauty; she was born with a mutation that caused double rows of eyelashes, which enhanced her appearance on camera. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer soon took interest in the British youngster as well but she failed to secure a contract with them after an informal audition with producer John Considine proved that she couldn't sing. However, on 18 September 1941, Universal Pictures signed Elizabeth to a six-month renewable contract at $100 a week.

Taylor appeared in her first motion picture at the age of nine in There's One Born Every Minute, her first and only film for Universal Pictures. Less than six months after she signed with Universal, her contract was reviewed by Edward Muhl, the studio's production chief. Muhl met with Taylor's agent, Myron Selznick (brother of David) and with Cheever Cowden. Muhl challenged Selznick's and Cowden's constant support of Taylor: "She can't sing, she can't dance, she can't perform. What's more, her mother has to be one of the most unbearable women it has been my displeasure to meet." Universal cancelled Taylor's contract just short of her tenth birthday in February 1942. Nevertheless on 15 October 1942, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer signed Taylor to $100 a week for up to three months to appear as Priscilla in Lassie Come Home.

Career

Adolescent star

Lassie Come Home featured child star Roddy McDowall, with whom Taylor would share a lifelong friendship. Upon its release in 1943, the film received favourable attention for both McDowall and Taylor. On the basis for her performance in Lassie Come Home MGM signed Taylor to a conventional seven-year contract at $100 a week but increasing at regular intervals until it reached a hefty $750 during the seventh year. Her first assignment under her new contract at MGM was a loan-out to 20th Century Fox for the character of Helen Burns in a film version of the Charlotte Bronte novel Jane Eyre (1944). During this period she also returned to England to appear in another Roddy McDowall picture for MGM, The White Cliffs of Dover (1944). But it was Taylor's persistence in campaigning for the role of Velvet Brown in MGM's National Velvet that skyrocketed Taylor to stardom at the tender age of 12. Taylor's character, Velvet Brown, is a young girl who trains her beloved horse to win the Grand National. National Velvet, which also costarred beloved American favorite Mickey Rooney and English newcomer Angela Lansbury, became an overwhelming success upon its release in December 1944 and altered Taylor's life forever. Also, many of her back problems have been traced to when she hurt her back falling off a horse during the filming of National Velvet.

National Velvet grossed over US$4 million at the box office and Taylor was signed to a new long-term contract that raised her salary to $30,000 per year. To capitalize on the box office success of Velvet, Taylor was shoved into another animal opus, Courage of Lassie, in which a different dog named "Bill", cast as an Allied combatant in World War II, regularly outsmarts the Nazis, with Taylor going through another outdoors role. The 1946 success of Courage of Lassie led to another contract drawn up for Taylor earning her $750 per week, her mother $250, as well as a $1,500 bonus. Her roles as Mary Skinner in a loan-out to Warner Brothers' Life With Father (1947), Cynthia Bishop in Cynthia (1947), Carol Pringle in A Date with Judy (1948) and Susan Prackett in Julia Misbehaves (1948) all proved to be successful. Her reputation as a bankable adolescent star and nickname of "One-Shot Liz" (referring to her ability to shoot a scene in one take) promised her a full and bright career with Metro. Taylor's portrayal as Amy, in the American classic Little Women (1949) would prove to be her last adolescent role. In October 1948, she sailed aboard the RMS Queen Mary travelling to England where she would begin filming on Conspirator, where she would play her first adult role.

Transition into adult roles

When released in 1949, Conspirator bombed at the box office, but Taylor's portrayal of 21-year-old debutante Melinda Grayton (keeping in mind that Taylor was only 16 at the time of filming) who unknowingly marries a communist spy (played by 38-year-old Robert Taylor), was praised by critics for her first adult lead in a film, even though the public didn't seem ready to accept her in adult roles. Taylor's first picture under her new salary of $2,000 per week was The Big Hangover (1950), both a critical and box office failure, that paired her with screen idol Van Johnson. The picture also failed to present Taylor with an opportunity to exhibit her newly-realized sensuality. Her first box office success in an adult role came as Kay Banks in the romantic comedy Father of the Bride (1950), alongside Spencer Tracy and Joan Bennett. The film spawned a sequel, Father's Little Dividend (1951), which Taylor's costar Spencer Tracy summarised with "boring...boring...boring." The film was received well at the box office but it would be Taylor's next picture that would set the course for her career as a dramatic actress.

In late 1949, Taylor had begun filming George Stevens' A Place In The Sun. Upon its release in 1951, Taylor was hailed for her performance as Angela Vickers, a spoiled socialite who comes between George Eastman (Montgomery Clift) and his poor, pregnant factory-working girlfriend Alice Tripp (Shelley Winters).

The film became the pivotal performance of Taylor's career as critics acclaimed it as a classic, a reputation it sustained throughout the next 50 years of cinema history. The New York Times' A.H. Weiler wrote, "Elizabeth's delineation of the rich and beauteous Angela is the top effort of her career," and the Boxoffice reviewer unequivocally stated "Miss Taylor deserves an Academy Award." "If you were considered pretty, you might as well have been a waitress trying to act – you were treated with no respect at all", she later bitterly reflected.

Even with such critical success as an actress, Taylor was increasingly unsatisfied with the roles being offered to her at the time. While she wanted to play the leads in The Barefoot Contessa and I'll Cry Tomorrow, MGM continued to restrict her to mindless and somewhat forgettable films such as: a cameo as herself in Callaway Went Thataway (1951), Love Is Better Than Ever (1952), Ivanhoe (1952), The Girl Who Had Everything (1953) and Beau Brummel (1954).

Taylor had made it perfectly clear that she wanted to play the role of Lady Rowena in Ivanhoe, but the part had already been given to Joan Fontaine and she was handed the thankless role of Rebecca. When she became pregnant with her first child, MGM forced her through The Girl Who Had Everything (even adding two hours to her daily work schedule) so as to get one more film out of her before she became too heavily pregnant. Taylor lamented that she needed the money, as she had just bought a new house with second husband Michael Wilding and with a child on the way things would be pretty tight. Taylor had been forced by her pregnancy to turn down Elephant Walk (1954), though the role had been designed for her. Vivien Leigh, to whom Taylor bore a striking resemblance, got the part and went to Ceylon to shoot on location. Leigh had a nervous breakdown during filming, and Taylor finally reclaimed the role after the birth of her child Michael Wilding, Jr. in January 1953.

Taylor's next screen endeavor, Rhapsody (1954), another tedious romantic drama, proved equally frustrating. Taylor portrayed Louise Durant, a beautiful rich girl in love with a temperamental violinist (Vittorio Gassman) and an earnest young pianist (John Ericson). A film critic for the New York Herald Tribune wrote: "There is beauty in the picture all right, with Miss Taylor glowing into the camera from every angle...but the dramatic pretenses are weak, despite the lofty sentences and handsome manikin poses."

Taylor's fourth period picture, Beau Brummell, made just after Elephant Walk and Rhapsody, cast her as the elaborately costumed Lady Patricia, which many felt was only a screen prop—a ravishing beauty whose sole purpose was to lend romantic support to the film's title star, Stewart Granger.

The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954) fared only slightly better than her previous pictures, with Taylor being reunited with The Big Hangover costar Van Johnson. The role of Helen Ellsworth Willis was based on that of Zelda Fitzgerald and, although pregnant with her second child, Taylor went ahead with the film, her fourth in twelve months. Although proving somewhat successful at the box office, she still yearned for meatier roles.

1955–1979

Following a more substantial role opposite Rock Hudson and James Dean in George Stevens' epic Giant (1956), Taylor was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for the following films: Raintree County (1957) opposite Montgomery Clift; Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) opposite Paul Newman; and Suddenly, Last Summer (1959)[8] with Montgomery Clift, Katharine Hepburn and Mercedes McCambridge.

In 1960, Taylor became the highest paid actress up to that time when she signed a one million dollar contract to play the title role in 20th Century Fox's lavish production of Cleopatra, which would eventually be released in 1963. During the filming, she began a romance with her future husband Richard Burton, who played Mark Antony in the film. The romance received much attention from the tabloid press, as both were married to other spouses at the time.

Taylor won her first Academy Award, for Best Actress in a Leading Role, for her performance as Gloria Wandrous in BUtterfield 8 (1960), which co-starred then husband Eddie Fisher.

Her second and final Academy Award, also for Best Actress in a Leading Role, was for her performance as Martha in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), playing opposite then husband Richard Burton. Taylor and Burton would appear together in six other films during the decade – The V.I.P.s (1963), The Sandpiper (1965), The Taming of the Shrew (1967), Doctor Faustus (1967), The Comedians {1967} and Boom! (1968).

Taylor appeared in John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye (1967) opposite Marlon Brando (replacing Montgomery Clift who died before production began) and Secret Ceremony (1968) opposite Mia Farrow. However, by the end of the decade her box-office drawing power had considerably diminished, as evidenced by the failure of The Only Game in Town (1970), with Warren Beatty.

Taylor continued to star in numerous theatrical films throughout the 1970s, such as Zee and Co. (1972) with Michael Caine, Ash Wednesday (1973), The Blue Bird (1976) with Jane Fonda and Ava Gardner, and A Little Night Music (1977). With then-husband Richard Burton, she co-starred in the 1972 films Under Milk Wood and Hammersmith Is Out, and the 1973 made-for-TV movie Divorce His, Divorce Hers.

1980–2003

Taylor starred in the 1980 mystery/thriller The Mirror Crack'd opposite Kim Novak. In 1985, she played movie gossip columnist Louella Parsons in the TV film Malice in Wonderland opposite Jane Alexander, who played Hedda Hopper; and also appeared in the miniseries North and South. Her last theatrical film to date was 1994's The Flintstones. In 2001, she played an agent in the TV film These Old Broads. She has also appeared on a number television series, including the soap operas General Hospital and All My Children, as well as the animated series The Simpsons—once as herself, and once as the voice of Maggie Simpson. She has not done any acting since 2003.

Taylor has also acted on the stage, making her Broadway and West End debuts in 1982 with a revival of Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes. She was then in a production of Noel Coward's Private Lives (1983), in which she starred with her former husband, Richard Burton. The student-run Burton Taylor Theatre in Oxford was named for the famous couple after Burton appeared as Doctor Faustus in the Oxford University Dramatic Society (OUDS) production of the Marlowe play. Taylor played the ghostly, wordless Helen of Troy, who is entreated by Faustus to 'make [him] immortal with a kiss'.

Retirement, 2003–present

In November 2004, Taylor announced that she had been diagnosed with congestive heart failure, a progressive condition in which the heart is too weak to pump sufficient blood throughout the body, particularly to the lower extremities: the ankles and feet. She has broken her back five times, had both her hips replaced, has survived a benign brain tumor operation, has survived skin cancer, and has faced life-threatening bouts with pneumonia twice. She is reclusive and sometimes fails to make scheduled appearances due to illness or other personal reasons. She now uses a wheelchair and when asked about it she said that she has osteoporosis and was born with scoliosis.

In 2005, Taylor was a vocal supporter of her friend Michael Jackson in his trial in California on charges of sexually abusing a child. He was acquitted.

On 30 May 2006, Taylor appeared on Larry King Live to refute the claims that she has been ill, and denied the allegations that she was suffering from Alzheimer's disease and was close to death.

In late August 2006, Taylor decided to take a boating trip to help prove that she was not close to death. She also decided to make Christie's auction house the primary place where she will sell her jewellery, artwork, clothing, furniture and memorabilia (September 2006).

The February 2007 issue of Interview magazine was devoted entirely to Taylor. It celebrated her life, career and her upcoming 75th birthday.

On 5 December 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Taylor into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.

Taylor was in the news recently for a rumoured ninth marriage to her companion Jason Winters. This has been dismissed as a rumour. However, she was quoted as saying, "Jason Winters is one of the most wonderful men I've ever known and that's why I love him. He bought us the most beautiful house in Hawaii and we visit it as often as possible," to gossip columnist Liz Smith. Winters accompanied Taylor to Macy's Passport HIV/AIDS 2007 gala, where Taylor was honoured with a humanitarian award. In 2008, Taylor and Winters were spotted celebrating the 4th of July on a yacht in Santa Monica, California. The couple attended the Macy's Passport HIV/AIDS gala again in 2008.

On 1 December 2007, Taylor acted on-stage again, appearing opposite James Earl Jones in a benefit performance of the A. R. Gurney play Love Letters. The event's goal was to raise $1 million for Taylor's AIDS foundation. Tickets for the show were priced at $2,500, and more than 500 people attended. The event happened to coincide with the 2007 Writers Guild of America strike and, rather than cross the picket line, Taylor requested a "one night dispensation." The Writers Guild agreed not to picket the Paramount Pictures lot that night to allow for the performance.

In October 2008, Taylor and Winters took a trip overseas to England. They spent time visiting friends, family and shopping.

Other interests

Taylor has a passion for jewellery. She is a client of well-known jewellery designer, Shlomo Moussaieff. Over the years she has owned a number of well-known pieces, two of the most talked-about being the 33.19-carat (6.64 g) Krupp Diamond and the 69.42-carat (13.88 g) pear-shaped Taylor-Burton Diamond, which were among many gifts from husband Richard Burton. Taylor also owns the 50-carat (10 g) La Peregrina Pearl, purchased by Burton as a Valentine's Day present in 1969. The pearl was formerly owned by Mary I of England, and Burton sought a portrait of Queen Mary wearing the pearl. Upon the purchase of the painting, the Burtons discovered that the British National Portrait Gallery did not have an original painting of Mary, so they donated the painting to the Gallery. Her enduring collection of jewellery has been documented in her book My Love Affair with Jewelry (2002) with photographs by the New York photographer John Bigelow Taylor (no relation).

Taylor started designing jewels for The Elizabeth Collection, creating fine jewellery with elegance and flair. The Elizabeth Taylor collection by Piranesi is sold at Christie's. She has also launched three perfumes, "Passion," "White Diamonds," and "Black Pearls," that together earn an estimated US$200 million in annual sales. In fall 2006, Taylor celebrated the 15th anniversary of her White Diamonds perfume, one of the top 10 best selling fragrances for more than the past decade.

Taylor has devoted much time and energy to AIDS-related charities and fundraising. She helped start the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) after the death of her former costar and friend, Rock Hudson. She also created her own AIDS foundation, the Elizabeth Taylor Aids Foundation (ETAF). By 1999, she had helped to raise an estimated US$50 million to fight the disease.

In 2006, Taylor commissioned a 37-foot (11 m) "Care Van" equipped with examination tables and X Ray equipment and also donated US$40,000 to the New Orleans Aids task force, a charity designed for the New Orleans population with AIDS and HIV. The donation of the van was made by the Elizabeth Taylor HIV/AIDS Foundation and Macy's.[28]

In the early 1980s, Taylor moved to Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, which is her current home. She also owns homes in Palm Springs, London and Hawaii. The fenced and gated property is on tour maps sold at street corners and is frequently passed by tour guides.

Taylor was also a fan of the soap opera General Hospital. In fact, she was cast as the first Helena Cassadine, matriarch of the Cassadine family.

Taylor is a supporter of Kabbalah and member of the Kabbalah Centre. She encouraged long-time friend Michael Jackson to wear a red string as protection from the evil-eye during his 2005 trial for molestation, where he was eventually cleared of all charges. On 6 October 1991, Taylor had married construction worker Larry Fortensky at Jackson's Neverland Ranch.[citation needed] In 1997, Jackson presented Taylor with the exclusively written-for-her epic song "Elizabeth, I Love You", performed on the day of her 65th birthday celebration.

In October 2007, Taylor won a legal battle, over a Vincent van Gogh painting in her possession, when the US Supreme Court refused to reconsider a legal suit filed by four persons claiming that the artwork belongs to one of their Jewish ancestors, regardless of any statute of limitations.

Taylor attended Michael Jackson's private funeral on 3 September 2009.

Personal life

Marriages

Taylor has been married eight times to seven husbands:

Conrad "Nicky" Hilton (6 May 1950 – 29 January 1951) (divorced)

Michael Wilding (21 February 1952 – 26 January 1957) (divorced)

Michael Todd (2 February 1957 – 22 March 1958) (widowed)

Eddie Fisher (12 May 1959 – 6 March 1964) (divorced)

Richard Burton (15 March 1964 – 26 June 1974) (divorced)

Richard Burton (again) (10 October 1975 – 29 July 1976) (divorced)

John Warner (4 December 1976 – 7 November 1982) (divorced)

Larry Fortensky (6 October 1991 – 31 October 1996) (divorced)

Children

With Wilding (2 sons)

Michael Howard Wilding (born 6 January 1953)

Christopher Edward Wilding (born 27 February 1955)

With Todd (1 daughter)

Elizabeth Frances "Liza" Todd (born 6 August 1957)

With Burton (1 daughter)

Maria Burton (born 1 August 1961; adopted 1964)

In 1971 Taylor became a grandmother at the age of 39. She has 9 grandchildren.

Treatment for alcoholism

In the 1980s, she received treatment for alcoholism.

Filmography

List of awards and honours

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Elizabeth Taylor

Taylor was the second actress to win two Academy Awards both for Best Actress, the first award from a color film and the second from a black and white film. The first was Vivien Leigh. In 1999, Taylor was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

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Dame Elizabeth Taylor's Timeline

1932
February 27, 1932
London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom