Edward II of England

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Edward II Plantagenet, King of England

Also Known As: "Edward of Caernarfon"
Birthplace: Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales
Death: Died in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England
Cause of death: Assassinated
Place of Burial: Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Edward I "Longshanks", King of England and Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of England
Husband of Isabella of France, Queen consort of England
Partner of unknown mother of Adam Fitzroy
Father of Adam Fitzroy Plantagenet; Edward III of England; John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall; Eleanor of Woodstock and Joan "of The Tower", Queen of Scots
Brother of Stillborn Daughter Plantagenet of England, Princess; Katherine Plantagenet, Princess of England; Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar; Joanna Plantagenet; John Plantagenet and 13 others
Half brother of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl o Norfolk; Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Eleanor Plantagenet

Occupation: King of England
Managed by: Ofir Friedman
Last Updated:

About Edward II of England

a short summary from Wikipedia:

Edward II

King of England

Reign: 7 July 1307 – 20 January 1327

Coronation: 25 February 1308

Predecessor: Edward I Longshanks

Successor: Edward III of Windsor


Isabella of France


Edward III of Windsor

John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall

Eleanor, Countess of Guelders

Joan, Queen of Scots

House: House of Plantagenet

Father: Edward I Longshanks

Mother: Eleanor of Castile

Born: 25 April 1284(1284-04-25)

Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd

Died: 21 September 1327 (aged 43)?

Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire

Burial: Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucestershire


"Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon,[1] was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed by his wife Isabella in January 1327. He was the sixth Plantagenet king, in a line that began with the reign of Henry II. Between the strong reigns of his father Edward I and son Edward III, the reign of Edward II was considered by some to be disastrous for England, marked by alleged incompetence, political squabbling and military defeats.

While Edward fathered at least five children by two women, he was rumoured to have been bisexual. His inability to deny even the most grandiose favours to his unpopular male favourites (first a Gascon knight named Piers Gaveston, later a young English lord named Hugh Despenser) led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition.

Edward I had pacified Gwynedd and some other parts of Wales and the Scottish lowlands, but never exerted a comprehensive conquest. However, the army of Edward II was devastatingly defeated at Bannockburn, freeing Scotland from English control and allowing Scottish forces to raid unchecked throughout the north of England.

In addition to these disasters, Edward II is remembered for his probable death in Berkeley Castle, allegedly by murder, and for being the first monarch to establish colleges at Oxford and Cambridge: Oriel College at Oxford and King's Hall, a predecessor of Trinity College, at Cambridge."


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Citations / Sources:

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), pages 89-91. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

[S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 20 . Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.

[S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

[S105] Brain Tompsett, Royal Genealogical Data, online http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/genealogy/royal/. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogical Data.

[S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 64. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.

[S452] #21 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (1910), Cokayne, George Edward (main author) and Vicary Gibbs (added author), (New edition. 13 volumes in 14. London: St. Catherine Press,1910-), vol. 2 p. 59 fn. (b); vol. 3 p. 179 fn. (a), 434, 436 fn. (a); vol. 10 appndx. A p. 30.

[S283] #2 Der Europäischen käyser- und königlichen Häuser historische und genealogische Erläuterung (1730-1731), Lohmeier, Georg von, und Johann Ludwig Levin Gebhardi, (3 volumes in 1. Luneburg: Sternischen Buchdruckerei, 1730-1731), FHL microfilm 1,051,694, items 4-6., vol. 1 p. 69, 72.

[S41] #1325 Ogle and Bothal; or, A history of the baronies of Ogle, Bothal, and Hepple, and of the families of Ogle and Bertram, Ogle, Henry A., (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England : Reid, 1902), 929.242 Og5o., p. 298a.

[S712] #1039 Pedigrees of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire Families: with Their Collateral Branches in Denbighshire, Merionethshire (1914), Griffith, John Edwards, (Horncastle, England: W.K. Morton, 1914), FHL book Folio 942.9 D2gr; FHL microfilm 468,334., p. I, 305.

[S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (filmed 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Books A to H. National Library of Wales MSS 12359-12360D. Manuscript filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,355 and 104,390 item 2., book 6 p. F3*, 9*.

[S673] #1079 A History of Monmouthshire from the Coming of the Normans into Wales down to the Present Time (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, number 8. Five volumes in 13. London: Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke, 1904-1993), FHL book 942.43 H2b., vol. 1 p. 5*.

[S338] Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families (2004), Richardson, Douglas, edited by Kamball G. Everingham, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2004), FHL book 942 D5rd., p. xxviii, xxix.

[S635] #23 Genealogies of European Families from Charlemagne to the Present Date, August 1957, Paget, Gerald, (Manuscript, filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), FHL microfilms 170,050-170,062., Gueldres [film 17053].

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Edward II of England's Timeline

April 25, 1284
Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales
Age 5

The relationship between the nations of England and Scotland by the 1280s was one of relatively harmonious coexistence. The issue of homage did not reach the same level of controversy as it did in Wales; in 1278 King Alexander III of Scotland paid homage to Edward I, but apparently only for the lands he held of Edward in England. Problems arose only with the Scottish succession crisis of the early 1290s. In the years from 1281 to 1284, Alexander's two sons and one daughter died in quick succession. Then, in 1286, King Alexander died himself, leaving as heir to the throne of Scotland the three-year-old Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was born in 1283 to Alexander's daughter Margaret and King Eric II of Norway. By the Treaty of Birgham it was agreed that Margaret should marry King Edward's then one-year-old son Edward of Carnarvon, though Scotland would remain free of English overlordship.

The Scottish coronation stone remained at Westminster until it was returned to Scotland in 1996.Margaret, by now seven years of age, sailed from Norway for Scotland in the autumn of 1290, but fell ill on the way and died in Orkney. This left the country without an obvious heir, and led to the succession dispute known to history as the Great Cause. Even though as many as fourteen claimants put forward their claims to the title, the real contest was between John Balliol and Robert Bruce. The Scottish magnates made a request to Edward to arbitrate in the dispute. At Birgham, with the prospect of a personal union between the two realms, the question of suzerainty had not been of great importance to Edward. Now he insisted that, if he were to settle the contest, he had to be fully recognised as Scotland's feudal overlord. The Scots were reluctant to make such a concession, and replied that since the country had no king, no one had the authority to make this decision. This problem was circumvented when the competitors agreed that the realm would be handed over to Edward until a rightful heir had been found.[

Age 11

The battle of Dunbar effectively ended the war of 1296. The remainder of the campaign was little more than a grand mopping-up operation. James, the hereditary High Steward of Scotland, surrendered the important fortress at Roxburgh without attempting a defence, and others were quick to follow his example. Only Edinburgh Castle held out for a week against Edward's siege engines. A Scottish garrison sent out to help King John, who had fled north to Forfar, were told to provide for their own safety. Edward himself, true to his word, advanced into central and northern Scotland in pursuit of King John. Stirling Castle, which guarded the vital passage across the River Forth was deserted save for a janitor who stayed behind to hand the keys to the English. Edward reached Perth on 21 June, where he received messages from John asking for peace.

John Balliol, in surrendering, submitted himself to a protracted abasement. At Kincardine Castle on 2 July he confessed to rebellion and prayed for forgiveness. Five days later in the kirkyard of Stracathro he abandoned the treaty with the French. The final humiliation came at Montrose on 8 July. Dressed for the occasion John was ceremoniously stripped of the vestments of royalty. Antony Bek, the Bishop of Durham, ripped the red and gold arms of Scotland from his surcoat, thus bequeathing to history the nickname Toom Tabard (empty coat) by which John has been known to generations of Scottish schoolchildren. He and his son Edward were sent south into captivity. Soon after, the English king followed, carrying in his train the Stone of Scone and other relics of Scottish nationhood

February 7, 1301
Age 16

He was the first English prince to hold the title Prince of Wales, which was formalized by the Parliament of Lincoln.

Age 16
Wales, United Kingdom
Age 20
Windsor, Berkshire, England
February 10, 1306
- March 25, 1306
Age 21

The situation changed again on 10 February 1306, when Robert the Bruce murdered his rival John Comyn and few weeks later, on 25 March, had himself crowned king of Scotland. Bruce now embarked on a campaign to restore Scottish independence, and this campaign took the English by surprise. Edward was suffering ill health by this time, and instead of leading an expedition himself, he gave different military commands to Aymer de Valence and Henry Percy, while the main royal army would be led by the Prince of Wales

Age 22
- 1314
Age 22

Robert the Bruce had been steadily reconquering Scotland. Each campaign begun by Edward, from 1307 to 1314, had ended in Robert clawing back more of the land that Edward I had taken during his long reign. Robert's military successes against Edward II were due to a number of factors, not the least of which was the Scottish king's strategy. He used small forces to trap an invading English army, took castles by stealth to preserve his troops and he used the land as a weapon against Edward by attacking quickly and then disappearing into the hills instead of facing the superior numbers of the English.

Bruce united Scotland against its common enemy and is quoted as saying that he feared more the dead Edward I than the living Edward II. By June 1314, only Stirling Castle and Berwick remained under English control.

Age 22