Edward I "Longshanks", King of England

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About Edward I "Longshanks", King of England

read : https://www.ourfamtree.org/browse.php/Eleanor-of-Castile/p13 ___________________

Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks". He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries. Nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticized him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

Reign: 16 November 1272 – 7 July 1307

Coronation: 19 August 1274

Predecessor : Henry III

Successor: Edward II

Spouse: Eleanor of Castile

m. 1254; dec. 1290

Margaret of France

m. 1299; wid. 1307

among others Issue

John

Henry

Eleanor, Countess of Bar

Joan, Countess of Hertford

Alphonso, Earl of Chester

Margaret, Duchess of Brabant

Mary of Woodstock

Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford

Edward II of England

Thomas, Earl of Norfolk

Edmund, Earl of Kent

House: House of Plantagenet

Father: Henry III of England

Mother: Eleanor of Provence

Born: 17/18 June 1239

Palace of Westminster, London, England

Died: 7 July 1307 (aged 68)

Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, England

Burial: Westminster Abbey, London, England

Religion: Roman Catholic

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Wikipedia links:

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One of the most effective English kings, Edward was also one of Scotland's greatest adversaries. Through his campaigns against Scotland he would come to be known after his death as 'Scottorum malleus' – the Hammer of the Scots.

Intelligent and impatient, Edward proved to be a highly effective king. The reign of his father, Henry III, was marked by internal instability and military failure. Upon succeeding to the throne on 1272 Edward did much to rectify these issues. He managed to control and placate the unruly English barons and unite them behind him.

A learned scholar, Edward also took great personal interest in matters of administration and government and introduced reforms and ideas learnt whilst staying abroad in the family-held territory of Gascony. He also made great use of his Parliament – a strategy that helped maintain stability in the country and, more importantly for Edward, brought in regular sums of money to enable Edward to pursue his ambitions. Edward also devised far uglier means of raising money.

In 1275 Edward issues the Statute of Jewry that persecuted the Jewish population of England and imposed severe taxation on them. Proving both lucrative and popular, Edward extended this policy further. In 1290 the Jews were expelled from England – minus their money and property. The money raised from this dark practise was used to fund his his ambition to be overlord of the Scotland and Wales.

As a younger man Edward forged an impressive reputation as a man of action. Domestically and abroad Edward proved himself as a soldier and a leader of men. In 1266 Edward received international accolade for his role in the 8th and 9th Crusades to the Holy Land where he helped secure the survival of the beleagured coastal city of Acre.

It was while returning from the Crusade that Edward learned that his father, Henry III, had died and that he was now the King of England. Ambitious and impulsive, Edward wasted no time in enforcing his will on his neighbours.

As an ominous precursor for his plans for Scotland, Edward attacked Wales.

Edward attacks Wales

During the 1250s Edward's father, Henry III, had mounted military campaigns in an attempt to control and dominate Wales. After a series of disastrous defeats Henry was forced to negotiate a peace that saw the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd extend his territories into England. Henry also had to recognise the royal status of Llewelyn as Prince of Wales. Llywelyn in turn was to acknowledge Henry as his overlord.

Edward had experienced these failed campaigns first hand as part of his father's retinue and was determined not to repeat the same mistakes. Using the pretence of Llywelyn's refusal to pay homage to him in 1274 Edward raised a sizeable army and invaded Wales. Llywelyn was defeated and stripped of his territories.

In another uncanny foreshadowing of events to come in Scotland Edward's complete conquest of his neighbour was to be thrown into doubt by a courageous campaign for liberation.

In 1282 Llywelyn's brother Dafydd sparked a rebellion to rid Wales of English dominance. With Edward caught off-guard the rising had initial success. The death of Llywelyn in battle turned the tide for Edward however. Soon after Dafydd was captured and executed. Without strong leadership the Welsh rising failed.

To consolidate his stranglehold, Edward built a series of impressive castles across Wales (such as Caernarfon Castle) and in 1284 Edward issued the Statute of Rhuddlan that effectively annexed Wales and made it a province of England. The title Prince of Wales was handed to Edward's eldest son, Prince Edward (later Edward II) – a practise that continues to this day.

Edward plots against Scotland

In 1287 Alexander III, King of Scots, died suddenly after falling from his horse at Kinghorn. The succession crisis that followed presented Edward with a golden opportunity to expand on his conquest of Wales.

With the absence of an immediate heir, the Scots throne looked likely to pass to Alexander's infant granddaughter, Margaret (the 'Maid of Norway') – the daughter of the King of Norway.

Rival Scottish claims for the right to succeed as the next monarch led to the Norwegians approaching Edward. Edward planned to wed his own son Edward to Margaret and thus control Scotland via matrimonial rights.

The Scots nobles, fearful of such a takeover, agreed that Margaret should be queen – but at the expense of Edward's marriage plans. Events were thrown into turmoil when Margaret died en route to Scotland.

Edward the Kingmaker

With the succession crisis still looming large and rival claimants still in fierce competition the Guardians of Scotland needed to find someone to adjudicate the claims and help break the deadlock. The perfect candidate was Edward.

As an internationally respected king and a recognised expert on legal matters of state Edward was a logical choice. With the benefit of hindsight, this may seem to be the worst of decisions until you consider that England and Scotland had enjoyed an extended period of relatively peaceful co-existence. Claims of English overlordship over Scotland were seen to be a thing of the distant past. The Guardians were in for a very rude shock.


In a series of political manoeuvrings, Edward insisted that he be recognised as feudal overlord of the Scots before a new Scots king be appointed. The Guardians refused but Edward, the legal expert, got his wish.

While there were two rival claimants (Robert Bruce and John Balliol) Edward's role was adjudicate. If there were more than two then, under medieval law, only a judge could be expected to pronounce a verdict. As a judge Edward had to have authority – and in royal matters authority meant overlordship.

Edward found other claimants for the vacant throne to put pressure on Bruce and Balliol. The plan worked and one by one they came forward to swear allegiance. From that point, with all principle claimants as his vassals, it did not matter who became king. Ultimately Balliol took the crown.

Edward's subsequent heavy-handed treatment of the Scots (demanding taxes and soldiers to help fight his wars) led to the first inklings of rebellion.

In 1295 the Scots signed a mutual aid treaty with France (later to be known as the Auld Alliance). This pact with Edward's enemy brought about swift retaliation from Edward.

Edward destroyed Berwick, slaughtering thousands of the town's inhabitants, before pushing deeper into scotland. The Scots met Edward in battle at Dunbar but was decisively beaten. repeating his accomplishments in Wales, Edward had now conquered Scotland.

In a similar tactic to the those he employed in Wales Edward stripped the country of its treasures and symbollic icons of nationhood as easily as he stripped Balliol of his status as king. Most notably the crown jewels and the Stone of Destiny was removed to be sent back to England. The message was clear – there was to be no other king in Scotland but Edward.

Edward's campaigning, however, had left him seriously short of funds. He could no-longer afford to build costly castles to control his new domain as he had in Wales.

Wars of Independence

Just as he had with the welsh, Edward had underestimated the Scots. Within a year rebellions to English control broke out – notably led by Andrew Murray in the north and William wallace in the south of the country.

Edward left the matter of crushing the rebellion to his representative, John de Warenne, rather than take control personally. At Stirling Bridge Warenne's force was routed by Wallace and Murray's army.

Edward marches north and took control of his army and defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk. Wallace was later captured and executed. Once again Edward assumed that Scotland was conquered.

An interesting point to note is that the expense incurred in subjugating the Welsh meant that the same pattern of conquest and castle-building was not open to Edward. The success of that campaign could not so easily be emulated.

Enter the Bruce

Waiting in the wings for Edward was Robert the Bruce. Bruce's ambition to be king was finally realised in 1306. News of the coronation of a new Scots king brought Edward's army northward.

A series of swift victories saw Edward victorious and the new King of Scots on the run. Once again Edward assumed the job was done.

News of Bruce's return with a handful of followers was given scant regard. Edward would rue this inattentiveness. Within a year Bruce had defeated larger English forces and regained control of swathes of Scotland. A minor rebellion had become a sizeable rising. Not even the capture and execution of key Bruce supporters (including members of Bruce's own family) could reverse the tide.


In Bruce Edward had met a formidable, ruthless and determined opponent – a man cut from the same cloth.

A Job Worth Doing...

Despite ill health and advancing years Edward, Hammer of the Scots, marched his army north to rid himself of Bruce once and for all.

In 1307, with Scotland in sight, Edward died at Burgh-on-Sands. The campaign for the conquest of Scotland passed on to his son, Edward II. The Scots were relieved to find that the brutal and effective military prowess displayed by the father were absent in the son.

In 1314 Bruce routed a larger English force at Bannockburn. Recognition of Scotland's sovereignty came years later in 1328.

On his death bed accounts credit Edward's dying wish to be that his bones be left unburied as long as Scotland was unconquered. Mercifully this request was ignored. As arguably, England's greatest king (and Scotland's greatest enemy) his temporary interment would have lasted an awful long time.

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Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet, King of England Place of Burial: Westminster Abbey, London, England Birth: circa 1240 Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England Death: July 7, 1307 (67) Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, England Immediate Family:

Son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence, Queen consort of England Husband of Margeurite of France and Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of England Father of Thomas Plantagenet of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Edmund Of Woodstock Kent, Eleanor Plantagenet, Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, Daughter (E01) Plantagenet and 20 others, Eleanor of England, Joan (E03) Plantagenet, John (E04) Plantagenet, Henry (E05) Plantagenet, Katherine (E02) Plantagenet, Julian (E07) Plantagenet, Joan of Acre, Countess of Gloucester & Hertford, Alphonso (E09) Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Prince of England, Margaret (E10) Plantagenet, Berengaria (E11) Plantagenet, Isabella (E12) Plantagenet, Mary of Woodstock, Nun of Amesbury, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Countess of Hereford, Son (E14) Plantagenet, b.1284-d1285, Edward II of England, John De Botetourte, John (U1) Plantagenet, John Malley, Queen Margaret England Plantagenet and King Edward II England Plantagenet Brother of Margaret (Plantagenet) of England, Queen consort of Scots, Beatrice (Plantagenet) of England, Countess of Richmond, Edmund Plantagenet, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Richard Plantagenet, Prince of England, Katherine Plantagenet, Princess of England and 3 others, William England, Henry Plantagenet dAngleterre and John Plantagenet

Predecessor Henry III of Winchester: Private Successor Edward II of Carnarvon: Private

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JUST A NOTE : all the accending Tree information was gathered from the Smith-Goodale-Caldwell family tree on Ancestry.com I have attempted to copy accurately, however I may have made mistakes in transfering, so I would suggest going th that site and checking for yourself. I am only copyint the info here, and have done none of the research. Any errors in research belong to the owners of the S-G-C tree.

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  • Edward participated in frequent wars in Scotland (especially against Sir William Wallace during the Wars of Scottish Independence including the Battle of Stirling Bridge [1297] and the Battle of Falkirk [1298]).
  • Edward fought wars against the Welsh; against his barons in the Second Barons War; participated in the Ninth Crusade in the Holy Land; and expelled the Jews from England in 1290.

Edward I Memorial

Birth: Jun. 16, 1239 Westminster City of Westminster Greater London, England Death: Jul. 7, 1307 Burgh-by-Sands City of Carlisle Cumbria, England

English Monarch. The eldest son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, he was known as Longshanks and "Hammer of the Scots". He ascended the throne upon the death of Henry in 1272, but was not formally crowned until August 19, 1274. He married Eleanor of Castile at Burgos, Spain on October 18, 1254. To her he was a loving and devoted, if not entirely faithful, husband and they had 16 children. After Eleanor's death in 1290, he married Margaret of France on September 8, 1299. They had three children. Much of Edward's reign was spent at war. He completed the conquest of Wales, defeating and uniting the Welsh marches, and defended his duchy of Gascony in France. But the latter half of his reign would be consumed by trouble in Scotland. The death of the young Margaret, Maid of Norway left the throne of Scotland vacant, and Edward siezed upon the opportunity to establish his control. He appointed John Balliol to the throne, but retained direct rule over the Scots and Balliol. In 1297 William Wallace rebelled and recovered much of the country, but Edward crushed the rebellion, captured Wallace and had him executed. He then summoned a complete Parliament, including elected Scottish representatives, and it was decided that a Council would rule Scotland under Edward's supervision. But Robert the Bruce unexpectedly rebelled and murdered his fellow Councillors. Despite failing health, Edward once again went north. He died en route to Scotland at Burgh-On-Sands, Cumbria at the age of 68. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Edward II. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)


Family links:

Parents:
  King Henry (1207 - 1272)
  Eleanor of Provence (1222 - 1291)

Spouses:
 Eleanor of Castile (1240 - 1290)*
  Marguerite de France (1279 - 1318)*

Children:
 Katherine Plantagenet (____ - 1264)*
 Joan Plantagenet (1265 - 1265)*
 Joan Princess of England (1265 - 1265)*
 John Plantagenet (1266 - 1271)*
 Henry Plantagenet (1267 - 1274)*
 Eleanor Plantagenet (1269 - 1298)*
 Joan of Acre (1272 - 1307)*
 Alfonso Plantagenet (1273 - 1284)*
 Margaret of England (1275 - ____)*
 Berengaria Plantagenet (1276 - 1278)*
 Mary Plantagenet (1278 - 1332)*
 Isabella Plantagenet (1279 - 1279)*
 Elizabeth Plantagenet (1282 - 1316)*
  Edward II (1284 - 1327)*
 Beatrice Plantagenet Princess of England (1286 - 1286)*
 Thomas Plantagenet of Brotherton (1300 - 1338)*
 Edmund Plantagenet of Woodstock (1301 - 1330)*
 Eleanor Plantagenet (1306 - 1311)*

Siblings:
  Edward I (1239 - 1307)
 Margaret Plantagenet (1240 - 1275)*
 Béatrice d'Angleterre (1242 - 1275)*
 Edmund Plantagenet (1245 - 1296)*
 Richard of England (1247 - 1250)*
 John of England (1250 - 1252)*
 Katherine of England (1253 - 1257)*
 Henry of England (1260 - 1260)*
  • Calculated relationship

Burial: Westminster Abbey Westminster City of Westminster Greater London, England GPS (lat/lon): 51.50008, -0.12923


Maintained by: Find A Grave Record added: Jan 01, 2001 Find A Grave Memorial# 1955 ____________________________________________________

http://thepeerage.com/p10191.htm#i101903

Edward I 'Longshanks', King of England1 M, #101903, b. 17 June 1239, d. 7 July 1307 Last Edited=31 Aug 2011 Consanguinity Index=0.18%

King Edward I of England by Renold Elstrick 2

    Edward I 'Longshanks', King of England was born on 17 June 1239 at Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London, EnglandG.3 He was the son of Henry III, King of England and Eleanor of Provence. He was baptised on 21 June 1239 by Eudes, the Pope's legate.4 He married, firstly, Eleanor de Castilla, Comtesse de Ponthieu, daughter of Fernando III, Rey de Castilla y León and Jeanne d'Aumale, Comtesse de Ponthieu, on 18 October 1254 at Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile, SpainG.5 He married, secondly, Marguerite de France, daughter of Philippe III, Roi de France and Marie de Brabant, on 10 September 1299 at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, EnglandG.1 He died on 7 July 1307 at age 68 at Burgh-on-the-Sands, Cumberland, EnglandG, from dysentry, while marching against the Scots.6 He was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, EnglandG.6
    He gained the title of Duke of Gascony in 1254.5 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] on 14 February 1253/54.4 He fought in the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, where he was taken priosner by the rebellious barons.4 On 24 December 1264 he was forced the deliver the Earldom of Chester into the hands of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, but received it back on 4 August 1265 on the death of Simon.4 He succeeded as the King Edward I of England on 20 November 1272.5 He was crowned King of England on 19 August 1274 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, EnglandG, and styled 'Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae et Dux Aquitaniae.7'
    Edward towered over his contemporaries - he was the then rare height of six feet two inches. He was on a Crusade at the time of his accession and returned to England in 1274. Reigning for 35 years he was a strong and wise King. He married Eleanor of Castille and, after her death Margaret, daughter of Phillip III of France. Edward had 16 children by Eleanor and three by Margaret, the most of any Monarch. He carried out much needed reform and clarification of the law. Starting in 1277 he set out to resolve the Welsh problem which had proved so troublesome in Henry III's reign. The area around Snowdon and Anglesy harboured Llewelyn and other warlike princes. Llewelyn was killed in battle and the Welsh resistance collapsed. The Statute of Wales in 1284 arranged for administration under a mixed English and Welsh law. Castles were built to secure the Principality, including Caernarvon where Edward's son (Edward) was born and who was created Prince of Wales in 1301. During his campaign in Wales, it was found that the long bow used by the Southern Welsh, was an amazingly effective weapon which would revolutionise forthcoming conflicts. Edward next marched on Scotland and won a crushing victory at Falkirk but Robert Bruce arose and made himself King of Scotland. Although known as The Hammer of the Scots, Edward had not succeeded in subjugating that noble land. Edward may be best remembered by the Model Parliament called in 1295. He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.8
    

Children of Edward I 'Longshanks', King of England and Eleanor de Castilla, Comtesse de Ponthieu Eleanor of England+ b. 17 Jun 1264, d. 12 Oct 1298 Joan of England b. c Jun 1265, d. b 7 Sep 1265 John of England b. 10 Jul 1266, d. 3 Aug 1271 Alice of England b. c 1267, d. 1279 Henry of England b. 13 Jul 1267, d. 14 Oct 1274 Juliana of England b. 1271, d. 28 May 1271 Joan of Acre+ b. c Apr 1272, d. 23 Apr 1307 Alfonso of England, 1st Earl of Chester b. 24 Nov 1273, d. 19 Aug 1284 Margaret of England+ b. 11 Sep 1275, d. 1318 Berengaria of England b. 1276, d. bt 1276 - 1279 Mary of England b. 11 Mar 1278, d. b 8 Jul 1332 Alice of England b. 12 Mar 1279, d. c 1291 Isabella of England1 b. 12 Mar 1279, d. 1279 Lady Elizabeth Plantagenet+ b. 7 Aug 1282, d. 5 May 1316 Edward II, King of England+ b. 25 Apr 1284, d. 21 Sep 1327 Beatrice of England b. c 1286 Blanche of England b. c 1290, d. 1290 Children of Edward I 'Longshanks', King of England and Marguerite de France Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk+ b. 1 Jun 1300, d. c Aug 1338 Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent+ b. 5 Aug 1301, d. 19 Mar 1330 Eleanor of England b. 4 May 1306, d. 1311 Citations [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online http://www.daml.org/2001/01/gedcom/royal92.ged. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family." [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 79. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 170. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 81. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 89. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 20 . Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

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Edward I "Longshanks", King of England's Timeline

1239
June 17, 1239
Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England

Born in the newer capital of Westminster. Christened June 22, 1239 in Westminster, Middlesex, England.

June 21, 1239
Westminster, London, England
June 21, 1239
Westminster, Middlesex, England
June 22, 1239
Westminster, Middlesex, England
June 22, 1239
Westminster, Middlesex, England
June 22, 1239
Westminster,Middlesex,England
June 22, 1239
Westminster,Middlesex,England
June 22, 1239
Westminster, Middlesex, England
June 22, 1239
Westminster,Middlesex,England
June 22, 1239
Westminster, London, Middlesex, England