Esarhaddon, king of Assyria

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Birthplace: Harran, Assyria
Death: -669 (45-47)
Harran, Assyria
Immediate Family:

Son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria and Naqi'a-Zakutu
Husband of Ashur-hamat, Queen of Assyria
Father of Shamash-shum-ukin, King of Babylon; Assur-etil-same-ersiti-uballitsu; Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria; Sin-iddina-apla, Crown Prince of Babylon; Sheruaeterat and 1 other
Brother of Ashur-nadin-shumi; Shaditu; Ashurilbalatisu; Sharezer and Adarmalik Adrammelech

Occupation: koning van Babylonië, koning van Assyrië
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Esarhaddon, king of Assyria

ID: I62253

Name: Esarhaddon of Assyria

Given Name: Esarhaddon

Surname: of Assyria

Sex: M

_UID: 5E2E8F8D9667DE42BE7097BFAA0B188DA3CB

Change Date: 26 Nov 2005

Death: Y


Mother: Zakutu

Marriage 1 Spouse Unknown


Assur-etil of Assyria

Forrás / Source:

•ID: I62253 •Name: Esarhaddon of Assyria •Given Name: Esarhaddon •Surname: of Assyria •Sex: M •_UID: 5E2E8F8D9667DE42BE7097BFAA0B188DA3CB •Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 •Death: Y

Father: SENNACHERIB @ OF ASSYRIA Mother: Zakutu

Marriage 1 Spouse Unknown Children 1. Assur-etil of Assyria

EsarhaddonFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Esarhaddon King of Assyria

Victory Stele of Esarhaddon over Taharqa Reign 681 – 669 BC Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina Greek Ασαραδδων (Asaraddon) Died 669 BC Predecessor Sennacherib Successor Ashurbanipal Father Sennacherib Mother Naqi'a

Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-ahhe-iddina "Ashur has given a brother to me"; Aramaic: ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܐܵܗܐܹ ܐܝܼܕܝܼܢܵܐ; Hebrew: אֵסַר חַדֹּן‎;[1] Ancient Greek: Ασαραδδων;[2] Latin: Asor Haddan[2]), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC. He was the youngest son of Sennacherib and the West Semitic queen Naqi'a (Zakitu), Sennacherib's second wife.

Contents [hide] 1 Rise to power 2 Military campaigns 3 Death 4 Popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

[edit] Rise to power Victory stele.When, despite being the youngest son, he was named successor by his father, his elder brothers tried to discredit him. Oracles had named Esarhaddon as the person to free the exiles and rebuild Babylon, the destruction of which by Sennacherib was felt to be sacrilegious. Esarhaddon remained crown prince, but was forced into exile at an unknown place beyond Hanilgalbat (Mitanni), that is, beyond the Euphrates, most likely somewhere in what is now southeastern Turkey.

Sennacherib was murdered in 681 BC, some[who?] claim at the instigation of Esarhaddon, though this seems hardly likely, as he was not in a situation to exploit unrest arising from the death of his father. The biblical account is that his brothers killed their father after the failed attempt to capture Jerusalem and fled to the land of Ararat (2 Kings 19:37). He returned to the capital of Nineveh in forced marches and defeated his rival brothers in six weeks of civil war. He was formally declared king in spring of 681 BC. His brothers fled the land, and their followers and families were put to death. In the same year he began the rebuilding of Babylon, including the well-known Esagila and the Ekur at Nippur (structures sometimes identified with Tower of Babel).[3] The statues of the Babylonian gods were restored and returned to the city. In order not to appear too biased in favor of Babylonia, he ordered the reconstruction of the Assyrian sanctuary of Esharra in Ashur as well. Foreigners were forbidden to enter this temple. Both buildings were dedicated almost at the same date, in year two of his reign.

[edit] Military campaignsThe first military campaigns of Esarhaddon were directed against nomadic tribes of southern Mesopotamia, the Dakkuri and Gambulu, who had been harassing the peasants. In 679 BC the Cimmerians, who had already killed his grandfather Sargon II, reappeared in Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna, and defeated the rebellious inhabitants of Hilakku as well. The Cimmerians withdrew to the west, where, with Scythian and Urartuan help, they were to destroy the kingdom of Phrygia in 676 BC .

The Sidonian king Abdi-Milkutti, who had risen up against the Assyrian king, was defeated in 677 BC and beheaded. The town of Sidon was destroyed and rebuilt as Kar-Ashur-aha-iddina, the "Harbor of Esarhaddon". The population was deported to Assyria. A share of the plunder went to the loyal king of rival Tyre, Baal I, himself an Assyrian puppet. The partly conserved text of a treaty with Tyre mentions the kings of Judah, Edom, Moab, Gaza, Ashkelon, Ekron, Byblos, Arvad, Samsi-muruna, Ammon, Ashdod, ten kings from the coast of the sea, and ten kings from the middle of the sea (usually identified with Cyprus), as Assyrian allies.

In 676 BC Esarhaddon took the towns of Sissu and Kundu in the Taurus Mountains. The Mannaeans, the Scythians under their king Ishpakaia, and the "Gutians" of the Zagros proved to be a nuisance as well, as is attested by numerous oracle-texts. The Mannaeans, former vassals of the Assyrians, were no longer restricted to the area around Lake Urmia, but had spread into Zamua, where they interrupted the horse trade between Parsuash and Assyria and refused to pay further tribute. After the fall of Phrygia, a daughter of Esarhaddon was wedded to the Scythian prince Partatua of Sakasene in order to improve relations with the nomads. The Medes under Khshathrita (Phraortes) had been the target of a campaign as well, the date of which is unclear (possibly before 676 BC). Later, Assyrian hosts reached the border of the "salt-desert" near the mountain Bikni, that is, near Teheran. A number of fortresses secured the Zagros: Bit-Parnakki, Bit-kari and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin).

A certain Mugallu had taken possession of parts of the Syro-Hittite state of Melid, and associated himself with the king of Tabal. The city of Melid was besieged in 675 BC, but without success. That same year, Humban-Haltash II of Elam began a campaign against Sippar, but was defeated by the Babylonians, and died soon afterwards. His brother and successor Urtaki restored peace with Assyria.

A preliminary campaign against Egypt begun by Esarhaddon the next year seems to have failed. Meanwhile, Esarhaddon was waging war in the land of Bazu, situated opposite of the island of "Dilmun"[citation needed] (Bahrain), probably Qatar, "where snakes and scorpions cover the ground like ants" - a dry land of salt deserts. In 673 BC, Esarhaddon waged war against Urartu under king Rusas II, which had strengthened again after the ravages of Sargon II and the Cimmerians.

In 672 BC, crown prince Sin-iddina-apla died. He had been the oldest son and designated as king of Assyria, while the second son Shamash-shum-ukin was to become the ruler of Babylon. Now, the younger Ashurbanipal became crown prince, but he was very unpopular with the court and the priesthood. Contracts were made with leading Assyrians, members of the royal family and foreign rulers, to assure their loyalty to the crown prince.

In 671 BC Esarhaddon went to war against Pharaoh Taharqa of Egypt. Part of his army stayed behind to deal with rebellions in Tyre, and perhaps Ashkelon. The remainder went south to Rapihu, then crossed the Sinai, a desert inhabited by dreadful and dangerous animals, and entered Egypt. In the summer he took Memphis, and Taharqa fled to Upper Egypt. Esarhaddon now called himself "king of Egypt, Patros and Kush", and returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta; he erected a victory stele at this time, showing the son of Taharqa in bondage, Prince Ushankhuru. Almost as soon as the king left, Egypt rebelled against Assyrian rule.

[edit] DeathEsarhaddon had to contend with court intrigues at Nineveh that led to the execution of several nobles, and sent his general, Sha-Nabu-shu, to restore order in the Nile Valley. In 669 BC, he went to Egypt in person, but suddenly died in autumn of the same year, in Harran. He was succeeded by Ashurbanipal as king of Assyria and Shamash-shum-ukin as king of Babylonia.

[edit] Popular cultureEsarhaddon is a character in Nicholas Guild's The Assyrian, a historical novel about the adventures of a fictional prince, Tiglath-Ashur, set during the reign of king Sennacherib in ancient Assyria. He is the best friend and brother of the protagonist, Tiglath-Ashur, and eventually ascends the throne of the Assyrian empire. S.R. Hadden, a character in Carl Sagan's novel Contact, is named for Esarhaddon. [edit] See also Ancient Near East portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Esarhaddon

Kings of Assyria [edit] References1.^ "Ezra 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". Retrieved 2012-08-17. 2.^ a b "NEW ADVENT BIBLE: Ezra 4". Retrieved 2012-08-17. 3.^ Barbara N. Porter (1993). Images, power, and politics: figurative aspects of Esarhaddon's Babylonian policy. American Philosophical Society. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-0-87169-208-5. Retrieved 8 June 2011. [edit] BibliographyAmitai Baruchi-Unna, "Crossing the Boundaries: Literary Allusions to the Epic of Gilgamesh in the Account of Esarhaddon's Egyptian Campaign," in Mordechai Cogan and Dan'el Kahn (eds), Treasures on Camels' Humps: Historical and Literary Studies from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Ephal (Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008), Erle Leichty, "Esarhaddon's Eastern Campaign," in Mordechai Cogan and Dan'el Kahn (eds), Treasures on Camels' Humps: Historical and Literary Studies from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph'al (Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008), [edit] External linksA summary of Assyrian kings The murderer of Sennacherib - by Simo Parpola Vassal treaties and Esharhaddon's "Letter to the God" Esharhaddon’s Syrio-Palestinian Campaign Esarhaddon Chronicle Preceded by Sennacherib King of Assyria 681 – 669 BC Succeeded by Ashurbanipal King of Babylon 681 – 669 BC Succeeded by Shamash-shum-ukin [show]v ·t ·eAssyrian kings

Early Bronze Age "Kings who lived in tents" ca. 2500 – 2000 BC Tudiya ·Adamu ·Yangi ·Suhlamu ·Harharu ·Mandaru ·Imsu ·Harsu ·Didanu ·Hana ·Zuabu ·Nuabu ·Abazu ·Belu ·Azarah ·Ushpia ·Apiashal

"Kings who were forefathers" ca. 2000 BC Apiashal ·Hale ·Samani ·Hayani ·Ilu-Mer ·Yakmesi ·Yakmeni ·Yazkur-el ·Ila-kabkaba ·Aminu

"Kings whose eponyms are destroyed" ca. 2000 – 1900 BC Sulili ·Kikkia ·Akiya ·Puzur-Ashur I ·Shallim-ahhe ·Ilushuma

Middle Bronze Age Old Assyrian period ca. 1906 – 1380 BC Erishum I ·Ikunum ·Sargon I ·Puzur-Ashur II ·Naram-Suen ·Erishum II ·Shamshi-Adad I ·Ishme-Dagan I ·Mut-Ashkur ·Rimush ·Asinum ·(Seven usurpers: Ashur-dugul ·Ashur-apla-idi ·Nasir-Sin ·Sin-namir ·Ipqi-Ishtar ·Adad-salulu ·Adasi) ·Bel-bani ·Libaya ·Sharma-Adad I ·Iptar-Sin ·Bazaya ·Lullaya ·Shu-Ninua ·Sharma-Adad II ·Erishum III ·Shamshi-Adad II ·Ishme-Dagan II ·Shamshi-Adad III ·Ashur-nirari I ·Puzur-Ashur III ·Enlil-nasir I ·Nur-ili ·Ashur-shaduni ·Ashur-rabi I ·Ashur-nadin-ahhe I ·Enlil-nasir II ·Ashur-nirari II ·Ashur-bel-nisheshu ·Ashur-rim-nisheshu ·Ashur-nadin-ahhe II

Late Bronze Age Middle Assyrian period ca. 1353 – 1180 BC Eriba-Adad I ·Ashur-uballit I ·Enlil-nirari ·Arik-den-ili ·Adad-nirari I ·Shalmaneser I ·Tukulti-Ninurta I ·Ashur-nadin-apli ·Ashur-nirari III ·Enlil-kudurri-usur ·Ninurta-apal-Ekur

Iron Age Middle Assyrian period ca. 1179 – 912 BC Ashur-Dan I ·Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur ·Mutakkil-nusku ·Ashur-resh-ishi I ·Tiglath-Pileser I ·Asharid-apal-Ekur ·Ashur-bel-kala ·Eriba-Adad II ·Shamshi-Adad IV ·Ashur-nasir-pal I ·Shalmaneser II ·Ashur-nirari IV ·Ashur-rabi II ·Ashur-resh-ishi II ·Tiglath-Pileser II ·Ashur-Dan II

Neo-Assyrian Empire ca. 912 – 609 BC Adad-nirari II ·Tukulti-Ninurta II ·Ashur-nasir-pal II ·Shalmaneser III ·Shamshi-Adad V ·Shammu-ramat (regent) ·Adad-nirari III ·Shalmaneser IV ·Ashur-Dan III ·Ashur-nirari V ·Tiglath-Pileser III ·Shalmaneser V ·Sargon II ·Sennacherib ·Esarhaddon ·Ashurbanipal ·Ashur-etil-ilani ·Sin-shumu-lishir ·Sin-shar-ishkun ·Ashur-uballit II

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