Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire

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Temüjin Borjigin, Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Chinese: 成吉思汗 【(孛兒只斤)】 鐵木真(Khagan of the Mongol Empire), Mongolian: Тэмүүжин «Чингис Хаан» (Боржигин), Их Монгол Улсын хаан, Lithuanian: Chanas Čingis Temudžinas Bordžiginas, Khagan of the Mongol Empire, Norwegian: Temújin, Khagan of the Mongol Empire, Russian: Великий Хан Тэмуджин Чингиз-хан Есугеев сын Чингисхан (Кий-Борджиги), Khagan of the Mongol Empire, Chinese: 铁木真成吉思汗(Khagan of the Mongol Empire), Japanese: テムジンジンギスカン Khagan of the Mongol Empire
Also Known As: "元太祖", "青吉思汗", "特穆津"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: near Lake Baikal, Däli'ün-boldaq, Khentii, Mongolia
Death: August 18, 1227 (60-69)
Mongolia
Immediate Family:

Son of Bagatur Yäsügäi~ba'atur Borjigit, Khan; Yesugei Bagatur and Hoelun-Eke of Olkhunut
Husband of Daughter of Lun-Shidurghu, Princess of Tanguts; Wife Of Tokhtay-Bekhi; Wives And Concubines of Genghis Khan; Abikhe-Begi Khatun daughter of Djhakambu; Empress Börte Üjin Onggïrat and 2 others
Father of Borjigin dynasty; Tumalun; Dzhurchitay; Urdzhakan; Ile - Alti and 22 others
Brother of Djötchï~Qasar Borjigin dynasty; Qashï'un~ältchi Borjigin dynasty; Tämügä Borjigin dynasty; Tämügä Otchïgïn (Ferrement le Benjamin) and Tämülün Borjigin dynasty
Half brother of Bäktär Borjigin dynasty; Bälgütäi Borjigin dynasty; Bortai and Ghok'chu

Occupation: Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, 1206–1227
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan, born Temüjin, was the founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

According to Gumilev , was born in 1162 difference in dates may be explained by the features of the Mongolian chronology. He was born on the banks of the Onon River in the tract Delyun - Buldan that researchers are localized in the 230 miles from Nerchinsk (Chita region) and 8 miles from the Chinese border. In 13 years Temuchin lost his father , who was poisoned tatary.V childhood was very impressionable , he was afraid of dogs. After his father's death his mother quarreled with widows Ambagay Khan , this quarrel led to what is left of their tribe , the family was starving , eating Saranka tubers and wild garlic , grown boys began to fish and shoot groundhogs and bustards from a bow. In 1173 exchanged arrows with Jamuqa member of a noble family of the tribe Jajirat - have become sister cities . In 1178 the family had 9 Solovykh geldings , bows and arrows. In the same year, together with his brother Hasar killed stepbrother Bekter , allegedly in revenge for the constant bullying , and perhaps because of infidelity. Oelun cursed his mother and half brother Belgutey remained his friend . After that, the enemy tribe Tayichi'ut in revenge for the death of Bekter , attacked him , he was forced to hide 9 days in the woods, then down into the valley and brought him to the patrols Targutai - Kiriluhu , replace the death strip around his neck. Later Temujin hit the guard block and ran away. Sorgan -Shir tribe of suldus saved him , at first hid , and then gave him a horse , food, bow and two arrows, Temujin life was grateful . The first wife Barte (board ) - Gyuldzhin honkirat of the tribe . Her father Dai - Sechen . The bride's mother gave her a sable fur coat , but Temujin immediately took it and gave Togrulu - Kerait Khan , who touched a gift, remembered his friendship with his father and promised to gather the scattered Ulus Temujin . For 2 years from 1179 to 1180 his supporters were 10 thousand soldiers, who lived in the wilderness . One day the whole family had to flee as the thought of Tayichi'ut , but attacked and captured merkity Barte . Temujin turned again to Togrulu , who has collected 20 thousand soldiers against Merkits wife released Merkit scattered . In the spring of 1182 , and Temujin Jamuqa fell out and left for an unknown reason , one day before began to flock to Temujin Mongolian warriors , first 6 kurens wishing to join a small but disciplined horde . Was adopted by the military regulations and received the title of Khan , Genghis , part of the Mongols sacrificed for the sake of freedom and the security of the guaranteed rights by adopting a law - Yasu . Brother Jamuqa Taychar , chingisovtsev even think to steal from the herd , but was caught and shot . After that, 30 thousand warriors led by Genghis Jamuqa went on for the sake of revenge. Jamuqa overturned system chingisovtsev those moved into the valley. He did not pursue them , but severely dealt with captured 70 people boiled in cauldrons , and a former colleague - Chahal Uva , cut off his head and went back home. After that, two of the most courageous tribe - Urrutia and Mangutov - Jamuqa left and went to Chinggis . After a brief victory over the Tatars Genghis got a little title from the Jurchen , who went after them though. In the absence of nomadic warriors on the Mongolian troops attacked chzhurkintsev Seche - biki and Tai Chi , on his return Genghis avenged them caught and executed . Apparently in response to this unseemly stories after the feast , when the brother of Chinggis Belgutey broken the back of the defeated wrestler Buri- Boko , Genghis Khan betrayed and he 11 years (from about 1186 to 1197 ) held in captivity chzhurchzhen . Not executed him , apparently , just because they previously received for the help of the title. Horde has gone through a difficult period , 13 thousand soldiers left in 2600 . All we had to start all over again. On the Great Kurultaj 1206 was published Yasa - new set of laws , there was a pan-Mongol state. In the years 1201-06 the Mongols gained several victories over their neighbors . In 1215 Mr. hordes of Genghis Khan's attack on North China , Beijing and seize the huge treasure of gold, silver , silk , porcelain. Genghis Khan palace was surrounded by luxury, the Chinese appear at court counselors , philosophers and masters . In 1221, after the defeat of Jalal al -Din under the rule of Genghis Khan got the whole of Central Asia, Afghanistan and even a part of India. From the Caucasus horde went to the north, defeated the Alans and Kipchaks and appeared in the Black Sea steppes, they invaded and ravaged the Crimea Sudak . In 1223 Russian - g Polovtsian army marched to meet the enemy , but at the Battle of the Kalka defeated. Five major wives. Borte - Fujino (board ) , the daughter of Dai - Noyon , ruler kungirat (children - Jochi , Chagatai , Ogedei , Tuluy , Fujinami - run , Chichigan , Alagay - run , Tumalun , Altalun , ) . Kalan - Hoot ( Hulan-Hanum. ) , the daughter of Tyre - Ningpo , the ruler of the tribe Ukhar - Merkit (children - Kulkan ) . Esukat ( Esugaj ) of Tatars - (children - Dzhaur ) . Gunja - Khatun , daughter of Altan - Khan , the emperor of China. Esulun , sister Esukat Genghis Khan died in 1227 during the campaign for the country Tangut Xi Xia . There are several versions of his death. On one of them , during the battue hunting wild horses, horse commander something frightened and shied , and Khan fell to the ground . After that, the old emperor fell ill . His generals wanted to stop and hike back home, but Khan insisted on continuing . And even before his death, he demanded that the fact of his death carefully concealed until the final victory over Tanguts . According to another version , the Khan died from an arrow wound ( wrote Marco Polo) and even lightning ( this version adhered to another traveler Plano Carpini ) . And on the common Mongolian legend , Genghis Khan died of wounds inflicted Tangut Hanshi beauty Kur - beldkshin Khatun , which held only by Genghis Khan wedding night. Its specially Tangut king had sent Shidurho - Hagan , distinguished by the cunning and craftiness . According to this legend , a beautiful bit of Khan in the neck , damaging the carotid artery , and he bled to death . All scholars agree that the death of Khan came in 1227, and was a natural . Genghis Khan died in a camp setting. According to legend , Genghis Khan was buried in a deep grave at the family cemetery Their - Horig at Mount Burhan Khaldun , at the headwaters of the river Urgun . He sat on a golden throne of Mohammed, had been brought to them from the captured Samarkand. To grave in later times was not found and defiled, after the burial of the great khan in the wilderness several times drove many thousands herd of horses , which destroyed all traces of the grave. According to another version , the tomb was in the river , which at the time the river was blocked and the water is directed in a different channel . After the burial of the dam was destroyed, and the water is returned to the mainstream of human rights, public , forever hiding place of burial.

During the funeral, attended by 2,000 people. All of them immediately after the ceremony, hacked to pieces by 800 troops of horse guards Khan. But these 800 soldiers have lived more than a day : they will soon put to death to save the burial place in secret. Were then sent to a special patrols , who killed all those who would find in the surrounding lands. According to custom, exactly one year later , it was necessary to celebrate a funeral . In order to accurately find the burial place of the Mongols did the following : On the grave of sacrificed just a little taken from the mother camel . A year later she found a camel in the vast steppes of the place where he was murdered by her cub . Fishweirs this camel , the Mongols made ​​a commemoration ceremony laid , and then left the tomb forever. Thus , the secret burial place of Genghis Khan remains unsolved to this day.


About Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire (Persian)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan#Jochi

خان بزرگ به مدت سه سال (۶۱۹-۶۱۶ ه ق) رهبری جنگ را شخصاً بر عهده داشت. او به همراهی پسرش تولی در رأس قوای اصلی نخست بخارا را تسخیر کرد. در سال ۶۱۷ به سمرقند حمله کرد در سال ۶۱۹ چنگیز پس از تسخیر طالقان، بامیان، طخارستان و پس از جنگ سند به مغولستان برگشت.[%DB%B1]

About Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire (suomi)

Genghis Khan (pronounced /ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/ or /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/; Mongolian: Чингис Хаан or ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Chinggis Khaan, or Činggis Qaγan), born Borjigin Temüjin (Temüdin is "Smith" to English language), ( - Tsingis Haan to Finnish- language "relatives" are also in Finland for Tsingis Khan ); was the founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

For a discussion of Mongol genealogy, see "The Mongol Dynasties and their intermarriage policies (Onggirat)" at soc.genealogy.medieval, accessed Mar. 8, 2013.

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According to Gumilev , was born in 1162 difference in dates may be explained by the features of the Mongolian chronology. He was born on the banks of the Onon River in the tract Delyun - Buldan that researchers are localized in the 230 miles from Nerchinsk (Chita region) and 8 miles from the Chinese border. In 13 years Temuchin lost his father , who was poisoned tatary.V childhood was very impressionable , he was afraid of dogs. After his father's death his mother quarreled with widows Ambagay Khan , this quarrel led to what is left of their tribe , the family was starving , eating Saranka tubers and wild garlic , grown boys began to fish and shoot groundhogs and bustards from a bow. In 1173 exchanged arrows with Jamuqa member of a noble family of the tribe Jajirat - have become sister cities . In 1178 the family had 9 Solovykh geldings , bows and arrows. In the same year, together with his brother Hasar killed stepbrother Bekter , allegedly in revenge for the constant bullying , and perhaps because of infidelity. Oelun cursed his mother and half brother Belgutey remained his friend . After that, the enemy tribe Tayichi'ut in revenge for the death of Bekter , attacked him , he was forced to hide 9 days in the woods, then down into the valley and brought him to the patrols Targutai - Kiriluhu , replace the death strip around his neck. Later Temujin hit the guard block and ran away. Sorgan -Shir tribe of suldus saved him , at first hid , and then gave him a horse , food, bow and two arrows, Temujin life was grateful . The first wife Barte (board ) - Gyuldzhin honkirat of the tribe . Her father Dai - Sechen . The bride's mother gave her a sable fur coat , but Temujin immediately took it and gave Togrulu - Kerait Khan , who touched a gift, remembered his friendship with his father and promised to gather the scattered Ulus Temujin . For 2 years from 1179 to 1180 his supporters were 10 thousand soldiers, who lived in the wilderness . One day the whole family had to flee as the thought of Tayichi'ut , but attacked and captured merkity Barte . Temujin turned again to Togrulu , who has collected 20 thousand soldiers against Merkits wife released Merkit scattered . In the spring of 1182 , and Temujin Jamuqa fell out and left for an unknown reason , one day before began to flock to Temujin Mongolian warriors , first 6 kurens wishing to join a small but disciplined horde . Was adopted by the military regulations and received the title of Khan , Genghis , part of the Mongols sacrificed for the sake of freedom and the security of the guaranteed rights by adopting a law - Yasu . Brother Jamuqa Taychar , chingisovtsev even think to steal from the herd , but was caught and shot . After that, 30 thousand warriors led by Genghis Jamuqa went on for the sake of revenge. Jamuqa overturned system chingisovtsev those moved into the valley. He did not pursue them , but severely dealt with captured 70 people boiled in cauldrons , and a former colleague - Chahal Uva , cut off his head and went back home. After that, two of the most courageous tribe - Urrutia and Mangutov - Jamuqa left and went to Chinggis . After a brief victory over the Tatars Genghis got a little title from the Jurchen , who went after them though. In the absence of nomadic warriors on the Mongolian troops attacked chzhurkintsev Seche - biki and Tai Chi , on his return Genghis avenged them caught and executed . Apparently in response to this unseemly stories after the feast , when the brother of Chinggis Belgutey broken the back of the defeated wrestler Buri- Boko , Genghis Khan betrayed and he 11 years (from about 1186 to 1197 ) held in captivity chzhurchzhen . Not executed him , apparently , just because they previously received for the help of the title. Horde has gone through a difficult period , 13 thousand soldiers left in 2600 . All we had to start all over again. On the Great Kurultaj 1206 was published Yasa - new set of laws , there was a pan-Mongol state. In the years 1201-06 the Mongols gained several victories over their neighbors . In 1215 Mr. hordes of Genghis Khan's attack on North China , Beijing and seize the huge treasure of gold, silver , silk , porcelain. Genghis Khan palace was surrounded by luxury, the Chinese appear at court counselors , philosophers and masters . In 1221, after the defeat of Jalal al -Din under the rule of Genghis Khan got the whole of Central Asia, Afghanistan and even a part of India. From the Caucasus horde went to the north, defeated the Alans and Kipchaks and appeared in the Black Sea steppes, they invaded and ravaged the Crimea Sudak . In 1223 Russian - g Polovtsian army marched to meet the enemy , but at the Battle of the Kalka defeated. Five major wives. Borte - Fujino (board ) , the daughter of Dai - Noyon , ruler kungirat (children - Jochi , Chagatai , Ogedei , Tuluy , Fujinami - run , Chichigan , Alagay - run , Tumalun , Altalun , ) . Kalan - Hoot ( Hulan-Hanum. ) , the daughter of Tyre - Ningpo , the ruler of the tribe Ukhar - Merkit (children - Kulkan ) . Esukat ( Esugaj ) of Tatars - (children - Dzhaur ) . Gunja - Khatun , daughter of Altan - Khan , the emperor of China. Esulun , sister Esukat Genghis Khan died in 1227 during the campaign for the country Tangut Xi Xia . There are several versions of his death. On one of them , during the battue hunting wild horses, horse commander something frightened and shied , and Khan fell to the ground . After that, the old emperor fell ill . His generals wanted to stop and hike back home, but Khan insisted on continuing . And even before his death, he demanded that the fact of his death carefully concealed until the final victory over Tanguts . According to another version , the Khan died from an arrow wound ( wrote Marco Polo) and even lightning ( this version adhered to another traveler Plano Carpini ) . And on the common Mongolian legend , Genghis Khan died of wounds inflicted Tangut Hanshi beauty Kur - beldkshin Khatun , which held only by Genghis Khan wedding night. Its specially Tangut king had sent Shidurho - Hagan , distinguished by the cunning and craftiness . According to this legend , a beautiful bit of Khan in the neck , damaging the carotid artery , and he bled to death . All scholars agree that the death of Khan came in 1227, and was a natural . Genghis Khan died in a camp setting. According to legend , Genghis Khan was buried in a deep grave at the family cemetery Their - Horig at Mount Burhan Khaldun , at the headwaters of the river Urgun . He sat on a golden throne of Mohammed, had been brought to them from the captured Samarkand. To grave in later times was not found and defiled, after the burial of the great khan in the wilderness several times drove many thousands herd of horses , which destroyed all traces of the grave. According to another version , the tomb was in the river , which at the time the river was blocked and the water is directed in a different channel . After the burial of the dam was destroyed, and the water is returned to the mainstream of human rights, public , forever hiding place of burial.

During the funeral, attended by 2,000 people. All of them immediately after the ceremony, hacked to pieces by 800 troops of horse guards Khan. But these 800 soldiers have lived more than a day : they will soon put to death to save the burial place in secret. Were then sent to a special patrols , who killed all those who would find in the surrounding lands. According to custom, exactly one year later , it was necessary to celebrate a funeral . In order to accurately find the burial place of the Mongols did the following : On the grave of sacrificed just a little taken from the mother camel . A year later she found a camel in the vast steppes of the place where he was murdered by her cub . Fishweirs this camel , the Mongols made ​​a commemoration ceremony laid , and then left the tomb forever. Thus , the secret burial place of Genghis Khan remains unsolved to this day.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan#Jochi

http://bit.ly/1YR6bHB (family tree)

[...It is not certain when the future Chinggis Khan was born. According to most Chinese and Mongolian records, he was born in 1162 (a Year of the Horse) on the DelügünBoldog watershed on the upper reaches of the River Onon.4 Rash¯ıd al-D¯ın and other Persian sources place his birth in 1155 or 1167 (a Year of the Pig). The date of his death in 1227 is, however, certain. He is said to have been born at the moment when his father returned from a successful campaign against the Tatar. Following an ancient custom, Yesügey gave his son the name of the captured chief of the Tatar, i.e. Temüjin, which may have meant ‘blacksmith’. Although the extensive information on the early life of Chinggis Khan in The Secret History is almost certainly romanticized, it is likely that he had to overcome numerous difficulties and hardships in the steppe, left to the mercy of fate after losing his father in early childhood. ] ref : History of Civilizations of Central Asia - volume 4 - p.252



(Mong. Chinggis), probably born in 1167 in northeastern Mongolia, d. 1227, founder of the Mongol empire, the most extensive land empire known to history. Čengīz’s achievement, though hardly positive from the point of view of Persia, was by no means wholly a military and a destructive one. In the 1250s, a relatively coherent Mongol kingdom, the Il-khanate, was set up under Čengīz’s grandson Hülegü.

Apie Čingischanas (Lietuvių)

Čingischanas (iš pradžių vadintas Temudžinu, Temüjin Borjigin; g. apie 1155 m. – 1227 m. rugpjūčio 18 d.) – mongolų chanas, suvienijęs mongolų gentis ir užkariavęs dideles Vidurinės Azijos ir šiaurės Kinijos teritorijas.

Valdymas

Čingischanas suvienijo mongolų gentis ir užkariavo Kiniją, Vidurio Aziją, Persiją, Mongoliją.

Jo anūkas Chubilajus (Chu Bi Laj) įkūrė Kinijos Juanų dinastiją. Tamerlanas laikė save Čingischano palikuoniu, tačiau nepagrįstai.

Čingischanas bei jo paveldėtojai Mongolijos imperiją išplėtė nuo Kinijos iki Vengrijos, imperijos teritorija buvo keturis kartus didesnė nei Aleksandro Makedoniečio užkariautos teritorijos.

О Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire (русский)

Чингисхан — основатель и первый великий хан (каган) Монгольской империи — самой крупной континентальной империи в истории человечества.


Тэмуджин Чингизхан Есугеев сын р. между 1155 - 1162 в Великой степи. Источники расходятся в указании даты его рождения: персидский историк Рашид-ад-дин указывает 1155 г., официальная история династии Юань, эпохи монгольского правления в Китае — 1162 г

Ордынский царь

Умер 25 августа 1227 Царство Ордынское

брак: ♀ Борте-учжин [%D0%9A%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82] р. 1161 ум. 1230

Когда [%D0%BE%D0%BD] рассказал о своих обстоятельствах, то тот народ Бида, посовещавшись между собой, поставил его нояном. Первым монгольским нояном был Буртэ Чино. После того как от Буртэ Чино прошло двенадцать поколений, родился Добо Мэргэн. Потом Добо Мэргэн переменил жизнь. (Т. е. умер.). Когда Аланг Гоа хатун жила без мужа, то ночью в юрту ее свет проникал и через дымоход. Желтый небольшой человек спускался, соединялся, и вследствие этого родился небесный сын Бодончар. Потомки Бодончара стали родом Борджигин. Через девять поколений от Бодончара, после того как от переселения Шигэмуни бурхана в нирвану прошло три тысячи двести девяносто шесть лет, в год огня-коня родился хубилган Чингис-хаган и покорил пять цветных и четыре чужих народа.

В то время, когда братья вчетвером жили, пришел Бугурджи и сдружился [%D1%81 Чингисом]. Подобным образом понемногу собрал товарищей, также покорил сорок тумэнов монгольского народа и двадцати восьми лет от роду в Худо-Арал на Кэрулэне стал хаганом. Двадцати девяти лет от роду на Джурчитского |Ванчон-хагана напав, покорил [%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%BE]. Тридцати одного года от роду, находясь в походе три года, покорил Солонгоского Буха Цаган-хагана. Тридцати трех лет от роду, в то время, когда после первого китайского Тан Гоцзан-хагана прошло девятнадцать поколений ханов, прогнав Алтан-хагана, покорил восемь тумэнов и китайских тринадцать провинций и прославился под именем Даймин Суту Богда Чингис-хана. (Т. е. Великого, августейшего, святого Чингис-хана.) Тридцати четырех лет от роду, убив Солтан-хагана желтых сартагульцев, взял пять сартагульских провинций. Тридцати пяти лет от роду, убив токмокского Мангула-хагана, покорил Токмок.

Тридцати семи лет от роду в год воды-коня Онг-хагана кереитского покорил.

Тридцати девяти лет от роду покорил найманского Таян-хагана. Сорока одного года от роду покорил горлоского Нарин-хагана. Сорока трех лет от роду, в то время, когда карлукский Арслан-хаган пришел с походом, отправившись навстречу, его самого убил, а народ покорил. Когда сорока пяти лет от роду отправился на тибетского Хулукэ Дорджи-хагана, то тибетский хаган, услышав [%D0%BE%D0%B1 этом], многих послов во главе с нояном Илагу отправил поднести дань. Когда встретили послов в Цайдаме, то Чингис-хаган, изъявив согласие, роздал великие награды и Илагу-наяна поставил опять послом. Сакьякского времени ламе-лоцаба, по имени Ананда, Хэрбэй грамоту и дары поднес; “Я хотел бы пригласить тебя, но не пригласил, потому что не окончены мои мирские дела. [129] Я отсюда на тебя буду опираться, ты оттуда меня храни”, — сказал. 29 Ниже трех областей Нгари 30 покорил три провинции черного Тибета.

Вслед за тем, когда отправился в Индию, то когда проходил через перевал Чадагрик, прибежал дикий однорогий зверь, называемый “сэру” и, трижды преклонив колени перед владыкой, поклонился. Владыка повеление молвил: “Место Вачирту в Индии, говорят, это место рождения бурхана Шигэмуни, — здесь не знающий речи дикий зверь поклонился. Если пойти [%D1%82%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0], что будет? Вероятно, небесный отец мой отговаривает”, — сказал и повернул обратно.

Сорока семи лет от роду дал сражение на реке, называемой Байгал, десятитумэнному войску сартагчинского Амбагай-хагана, победил его и покорил.

Вернувшись с этого великого похода, тем, которые отдали свою силу, начиная с девяти орлюков, роздал важные титулы, почетные должности, великие награды, поставив их по порядку сотниками, тысячниками, темниками. Всем большие милости [%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BB]. Когда ничем не оделил только одного единственного Богурджи, то ночью Буртэ Сэцэн Суту-дайху сказала: http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Mongol/Sara_Tudzi/frametext...

Избран ханом в 1183 году. Имел титул каган - правитель правителей. Цель своей жизни видел в том, чтобы установить справедливость и объединить всех людей в едином государстве под началом единого правителя. Умер в возрасте 72 лет.Терпимо относился к разным вероучениям.

Среди этих жен наиболее важными были: Борте, с которой он был сговорен в детстве отцом; меркитская принцесса Кулан; дочь императора Китая из династии Цзинь (женился в 1214) и дочь правителя тангутского государства. http://www.elim.kz/forum/index.php

Блаженной памяти мой предок Чингиз-хан На ухарском коне, как вихрь перед громами, В блестящем панцире влетал во вражий стан И мощно рассекал татарскою рукой Все, что противилось могущему герою (поэт Денис Давыдов, князь, генерал, герой Отечественной войны 1812 г.)

Источники

* Чингиз-Хан
Сабитов Ж. М. Генеалогия Торе. — 3-е изд. — Алма-Ата: 2008. — С. 266. — 326 с. ISBN 9965-9416-2-9
=========================================

Первыми, кому не понравился новый союз монголов и кереитов, были меркиты, обитавшие по реке Селенге. В 1178 г. они напали на нунтук (орду) Темучжина, выставив в качестве предлога давнюю обиду —Есугай силой отобрал мать Темучжина Оэлун у знатного меркита Чиледу. Темучжин едва спасся от меркитов бегством, и, когда погоня отстала, искренне признался: "Великий ужас я испытал!" Меркиты забрали Борте, жену Темучжина, и отдали ее младшему брату Чиледу —Чильчиру. Темучжин кинулся на помощь к своим союзникам —кереитскому Тоорил-хагану и побратиму Чжамухе. Неясно, сколько конников было у самого Темучжина, но Тоорил-хаган и Чжамуха выставили по двадцать тысяч всадников. Меркиты были разбиты. Темучжин освободил жену. В суматохе ночного боя он громко звал ее: "Борте, Борте!" Борте услышала зов мужа, "схватилась за поводья Темучжинова коня. Узнали они друг друга и обнялись". Радость встречи, как ни странно, была омрачена рождением первенца Темучжина и Борте —Чжочи. Неясно, какой точно срок находилась Борте в меркитском плену. Но это, очевидно, был такой срок, что Чжочи можно было счесть как сыном Темучжина, так и сыном меркита Чильчира. Кажется, тайные мысли о том, что Чжочи, возможно, не его сын, всю жизнь преследовали Темучжина. После победы над меркитами Темучжин, Чжамуха и поддерживающие их монголы решили жить вместе. Длилось это совместное житье-бытье полтора года, после чего побратимы решили разойтись. Эти полтора года абсолютно темный и необычайно важный период в биографии Темучжина. Темучжин без боя выиграл сражение за "свой улус". Когда побратимы разъехались, за Темучжином ушло больше монголов, чем он ранее привел с собой, а знатные монголы из рода Борджигин предложили избрать его ханом. Представители ханского рода богатые и знатные монголы — нойоны, дружинники-нукеры избрали Темучжина своим ханом, заключив с ним по обычаю уговор. ..."

о кончине: ".. В 1220 г. пали города Отрар, Бухара, Самарканд, Ургенч. Хорезмшах не смог организовать сопротивления и бежал к южным берегам Каспия, где и скончался. В 1221 г. продолжалось завоевание владений хорезмшаха на территории современного Афганистана. Корпус под командованием Субетая и Чжебе, преследовавший хорезмшаха, в 1221—1222 гг. прошел Кавказ, опустошив Армению и Грузию, и вышел в южнорусские степи. 31 мая 1223 г. монголы на реке Калке разбили объединенные силы части половецких и некоторых русских князей и ушли через Казахстан обратно в Монголию. Сам Чингис-хан, преследуя сына хорезмшаха Джелал-ад-дина, нанес последнему поражение на берегах р. Инд в Северо-Восточной Индии. Осенью 1222 г. Чингис-хан принял решение о возвращении на Родину. Не только потому, что ему было уже 67 лет (а по монгольскому подсчету — 68, так как монголы считают за год жизни пребывание в чреве матери). Он получил известие о том, что не пошедшие с ним в поход на запад тангуты и другие его враги договариваются с теми в Монголии, кто не желал его усиления и господства с давних пор. Весь опыт его жизни говорил о том, что своих внутримонгольских врагов следует опасаться больше, чем врагов внешних. И он отправился в обратный путь, публично объявив, что желает посчитаться с тангутами, которые обманули его. В 1226 г. весной армии Чингис-хана под его личным командованием перешли границу государства Ся в районе устья реки Эдзин-Гол. Более года потратил Чингис-хан на завоевание тангутского государства. Остается неясным — за некоторое время до падения столицы тангутского государства, современного г. Иньчуань (Нинся-хуэйский автономный район, КНР), или через какой-то небольшой срок после этого события — 29 августа 1227 г. Чингис-хан скончался (причина смерти неизвестна — не то от какой-то дурной болезни, не то вследствие падения с лошади) в возрасте 72-73 лет. "

Кычанов Е.И. "Чингис-хан" 1995 https://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/History/mongol/kuch_ching.php