Herzog Magnus I von Sachsen-Lauenburg

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Magnus I von Sachsen-Lauenburg (Askanier), Herzog

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ratzeburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
Death: August 01, 1543 (73)
Wolfenbuttel, Braunschweig,,, Deutschland(HRR)
Place of Burial: Ratzeburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
Immediate Family:

Son of Herzog Johan V von Sachsen-Lauenberg and Duchess Dorothea of Brandenburg
Husband of Duchess Katharina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Father of Franz I von Sachsen-Lauenburg; Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg; Queen of Sweden Katarina Saxe-Lauenburg; Sofie von Sachsen-Lauenburg, Gräfin zu Oldenburg-Delmenhorst; Clara von Sachsen-Lauenburg, Princessin, Herzogin zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Gifhorn and 1 other
Brother of Anna von Sachsen-Lauenburg, Gräfin zu Spiegelberg und Pyrmont; Bischof Erich von Sachsen-Lauenburg; Duchess Sophia; Elisabeth, von Sachsen-Lauenburg, Herzogin zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg; Rudolf, von Sachsen-Lauenburgtzburg, Prinz and 7 others
Half brother of Bishop Bernhardus Sasse

Occupation: Duke Magnus I of Saxe-Lauenburg, (hertig), hertg, Herzog, Hertig av Sachsen-Lauenburg, Hertig av Sachen_Lauenburg, Duke from 1507 - 1543, Hertig, Hertig av Sachen- Lauenburg, hertig 1507-1543
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Herzog Magnus I von Sachsen-Lauenburg

Magnus I von Sachsen-Lauenburg Askanier, Herzog

  • Son of Johan V Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenberg, Herzog and Duchess Dorothea of Brandenburg
  • Magnus I of Saxe-Lauenburg (1 January 1470 – 1 August 1543) was a Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg from the House of Ascania.

Project MedLands SAXONY

MAGNUS von Sachsen-Lauenburg, son of JOHANN V Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg & his wife Dorothea von Brandenburg (-1 Aug 1543, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral). Botho’s Chronicon Brunsvicensium Picturatum names “Magnus” second among the seven sons of “Hertoghe Hans, Hertoghen Berndes sone to Sassen under so Louenborch” and his wife[715]. He succeeded his father in 1507 as MAGNUS I Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg. He converted to Lutheranism in 1531[716]. married (Wolfenbüttel [17/20] Nov 1509) KATHARINA von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of HEINRICH Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Katharina von Pommern (-Neuhaus 29 Jun 1563, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).

Magnus & his wife KATHARINA von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel had six children

  • 1. FRANZ von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1510-Buxtehude 19 Mar 1581, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral). He succeeded his father in 1543 as FRANZ I Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg. He abdicated in favour of his son in 1571 but resumed power in 1574. married (Dresden 8 Feb 1540) SIBYLLE von Sachsen, daughter of HEINRICH V "der Fromme" Herzog von Sachsen & his wife Katharina von Mecklenburg (Freiberg 2 May 1515-Buxtehude 18 Jul 1592, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral). Mistress (1): ---. Mistress (2): ELSE Rautenstein, daughter of HEINRICH Rautenstein, from Otterndorf & his wife. She married (before 13 Nov 1573) Hermann Albrecht, son of --- (1542-1544).

Franz I & his wife SIBYLLE von Sachsen had eight children:

  • a) DOROTHEA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (Lüneburg 11 Mar 1543-Herzberg 5 Apr 1586, bur Osterode Ägidienkirche). married (Osterode 10 Dec 1570) WOLFGANG Herzog von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, son of PHILIPP I Herzog von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen & his wife Katharina von Mansfeld (Herzberg 6 Apr 1531-Herzberg 14 Mar 1595, bur Osterode Ägidienkirche).
  • b) MAGNUS von Sachsen-Lauenburg ([1544/46]-Ratzeburg 14 May 1603, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral). Field Marshal in the Swedish army 1566. He succeeded his father in 1571 as MAGNUS II Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg, until 1574 when his father resumed power, and again on his father's death in 1581.
  • c) FRANZ von Sachsen-Lauenburg (Ratzeburg St Lorenz 10 Aug 1547-Lauenburg 2 Jul 1619, bur Lauenburg Stadtkirche). He succeeded his brother in 1587 as FRANZ II Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg.
  • d) SIDONIE KATHARINA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (-Jul 1594). married firstly (Teschen 25 Nov 1567) as his second wife, WENZEL III ADAM Duke of Teschen, son of WENZEL [II] von Teschen [Piast] & his wife Anna von Brandenburg-Ansbach (Dec 1524-4 Nov 1579). married secondly (Teschen 17 Feb 1586) EMMERICH [III] Forgach Obergespann [Graf] von Trentschin [Trencs%C3%A9n], son of --- (-1599).
  • e) HEINRICH von Sachsen-Lauenburg (11 Nov 1550-Bremervörde 23 Apr 1585). Archbishop of Bremen 1566. Bishop of Osnabrück 1574. Administrator of Paderborn 1577. He died after falling from his horse[717]. married (Hagen bei Bremen 25 Oct 1575) ANNA von Broich, daughter of Professor Dr --- Betzdorf, from Köln & his wife.
  • f) MORITZ zu Sachsen-Lauenburg (1551-Buxtehude 2 Nov 1612, bur Ratzeburg). married (28 Nov 1581, divorced 1582) KATHARINA von Spörck, daughter of GUSTAV von Spörck, from Dahlenburg & his wife. Mistress (1): his cousin, GIESELA von Sachsen, wife of ADAM von Tschammer, daughter of BERNHARD von Sachsen & his first wife.

Moritz had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): GIESELA von Sachsen

  • i) MORITZ Rautenstein (-after 1639). Governor of Varel, Oldenburg 1617/1639. married?. The name of Moritz’s wife is not known.

Moritz & his wife had [one possible child]:

  • (a) [HANS ERNST Rautenstein (-after 1654). Governor of Pewsum, Oldenburg 1649/1654.]
  • ii) JULIUS ERNST Rautenstein (Lauenburg [1590]-[1660]). Organist in Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Quedlinburg and Bremen. Head organist in Mitau in 1645, later in Stettin. Composer[718]. married ?. The name of Julius Ernst’s wife is not known.

Julius Ernst & his wife had four children:

  • (a) JULIUS Rautenstein (chr Quedlinburg 9 Jul 1627-). At the university of Königsberg, Prussia in 1642.
  • (b) MORITZ Rautenstein (chr Quedlinburg 3 Nov 1628-).
  • (c) DOROTHEA Rautenstein (chr Quedlinburg 20 Jul 1630-).
  • (d) HEINRICH Rautenstein (chr Quedlinburg 7 Dec 1632-).
  • g) URSULA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (Lauenburg [1552/53]-Schernebeck 12 Oct 1620, bur Dannenberg St Johannis). m (1569) HEINRICH I Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg in Dannenberg, son of ERNST "der Bekenner" joint Herzog von Braunschweig in Lüneburg & his wife Sophie von Mecklenburg (Celle 4 Jun 1533-Dannenberg 19 Jan 1598, bur Dannenberg St Johannes).
  • h) FRIEDRICH von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1554-Köln 30 Nov 1586, bur Köln). Canon at St Gereon, Köln 1567. Chorbischof at Köln 1574/1586. Deacon at Strasbourg Cathedral 1583/1584. Provost at Bremen Cathedral.

Duke Franz I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

  • i) FRANZ Rautenstein (-after 26 Dec 1618). Master lock-gate keeper[719]. married?.

Duke Franz I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2):

  • j) KATHARINA von Sachsen-Lauenburg1565/87. married (1579) JOHANN Grotjan, son of ---. Bürger and tavern keeper at Buxtehude 1579/1604[720].
    * 2. DOROTHEA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (9 Jul 1511-Sonderburg 7 Oct 1571, bur Roskilde Cathedral). married (Lauenburg 29 Oct 1525) CHRISTIAN of Denmark, son of FREDERIK I King of Denmark, King of Norway & his first wife Anna von Brandenburg (Gottorf 12 Aug 1503-Kolding 1 Jan 1559, bur Roskilde Cathedral). He succeeded in 1533 as Herzog von Schleswig und Holstein, and in 1534 as CHRISTIAN III King of Denmark and Norway.
  • 3. KATHARINA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (24 Sep 1513-Stockholm 23 Sep 1535). married (Stockholm 24 Sep 1531) as his first wife, GUSTAF I King of Sweden, son of ERIK Johansson & his wife Cecilia Magnusdotter (Lindholmen 12 May 1496-Stockholm 29 Sep 1560).
  • 4. SOPHIE von Sachsen-Lauenburg (-Oevelgönne 13 May 1571). married (Oldenburg 1 Jan 1537) ANTON I Graf von Oldenburg und Delmenhorst, son of JOHANN VI Graf von Oldenburg und Delmenhorst & his wife Anna von Anhalt (1505-Oldenburg 22 Jan 1573, bur Oldenburg St Lambert).
  • 5. KLARA von Sachsen-Lauenburg (13 Dec 1518-Barth auf Rügen 27 Mar 1576, bur Barth Marienkirche). married (Neuhaus im Darssingk 29 Sep 1547) FRANZ Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Gifhorn, son of HEINRICH "der Mittlere" Herzog von Braunschweig in Lüneburg & his first wife Margareta von Sachsen (Ulzen 23 Nov 1508-Gifhorn 22/23 Nov 1549, bur Gifhorn).
  • 6. URSULA (-Minden 31 Dec 1577, bur Minden). married (Schwerin 24 May 1551) as his third wife, HEINRICH V "der Friedfertige" Herzog von Mecklenburg, son of MAGNUS II Herzog von Mecklenburg & his wife Sophie von Pommern-Stettin (3 May 1479-Schwerin 6 Feb 1552, bur Schwerin Cathedral).

Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, by Wikipedia

Magnus was born in Ratzeburg, the second son of John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and Dorothea of Brandenburg, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg.

In 1481 John V redeemed Saxe-Lauenburg's exclave Land of Hadeln, which had been pawned to Hamburg as security for a credit of 3,000 Rhenish guilders since 1407.[1] John V then made his son and heir apparent, Magnus, vicegerent of Hadeln, and finally regent as of 1498.[2]

Vicegerent and regent of the Land of Hadeln Edit

In 1484 Magnus, who aimed at increasing his local revenues, had reached out to conquer the rich neighbouring Land of Wursten, a de facto autonomous region of free Frisian peasants in a North Sea marsh at the Weser estuary, but he failed[3][4] Magnus tried to justify his violent act with the pretence that Wursten used to be Saxon before the imperial deposition of Duke Henry the Lion and the carve-up of his Duchy of Saxony in 1180, which only brought Magnus' Ascanian dynasty to take the belittled dukedom.[5] The Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, claiming Wursten for itself, was alarmed.

After becoming Regent Magnus planned a new conquest of Wursten.[3] On 24 November 1498 Magnus allied with his father and Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg to conquer Wursten.[4] Henry IV obliged to send 3,000 lansquenets, who should gain their payment by ravaging and plundering the free peasants of Wursten, once successfully subjected.[2] Bremen's Prince-Archbishop Johann Rode had prepared for this, he and Hamburg's three burgomasters (upcoming, presiding, and outgoing), Johannes Huge, Hermen Langenbeck and Henning Buring had concluded a defensive alliance on 16 November.[4] Hamburg feared for its exclave Ritzebüttel, its military outpost at the Outer Elbe to defend the free access to Hamburg via Elbe, thus the city became the driving force in preparing everything for Magnus' eventual attack.[4]

Rode appealed at the burghers of Bremen, Hamburg and Stade, which considered the areas downstream the rivers Elbe and Weser their own front yard existential for their free maritime trade connections, so the three cities supported Rode, who further won the Ditmarsians, free peasants under Bremen's loose overlordship.[2] On 1 May Rode gathered representatives of the Land of Wursten, of the cities of Hamburg and Bremen and they concluded a defensive alliance in favour of Wursten in case of another invasion by John XIV of Oldenburg, who had conquered westerly neighbouring Butjadingen in April with the help of the Black Guard.[4]

Wursten was thus threatened by Oldenburg from the west and by Magnus from the east. In order to avoid war on two fronts Rode tried to ease the relation with Magnus, but in vain.[4] On 1 August Rode, Bremen's cathedral chapter, more prelates from the prince-archbishopric, as well as the cities of Bremen, Buxtehude, Hamburg, and Stade concluded a war alliance to supply 1,300 warriors and equipment to defend Wursten and / or invade Hadeln, while all members of Bremian ministerialis and nobility abstained.[4] Many a member of ministerialis and nobility rather sided with Magnus.[6] Finally on 9 September 1499 Rode waged feud against John V and Magnus.[6] The allied forces easily conquered the Land of Hadeln, defeating Magnus and even driving him out of Hadeln.[3][5]

By 20 November 1499 Magnus hired the so-called Great or Black Guard of ruthless and violent Dutch and East Frisian mercenaries, commanded by Thomas Slentz, prior operating in Oldenburg.[3][6] Their invasion into the prince-archbishopric was repelled at Bremen, however, upstream they succeeded to cross the Weser in the neighbouring Prince-Bishopric of Verden near Verden city by the end of November, ravaging the prince-bishopric, especially looting and robbing the monasteries, heading northeastwards towards Lüneburg-Celle.[7][8] Having crossed the latter's border the Guard turned westwards into the Bremian prince-archbishopric, by-passing the fortified Buxtehude and Stade, leaving behind a wake of devastation on the countryside and in the monasteries (Altkloster [nds], Neukloster, both localities of today's Buxtehude, Himmelpforten Convent).[9]

Since prince-archiepiscopal forces secured Vörde the Guard circumvented them southerly, not sparing Zeven Nunnery [de].[9] Finally on Christmas Eve arriving downstream the Weser in Lehe the Black Guard tried to invade Wursten, however, the free peasants there repelled their attack near Weddewarden on 26 December.[9][10] So the Guard turned northeastwards, looting Neuenwalde Nunnery underways, into Hadeln, recapturing it for Magnus in early 1500. For the Hadelers, however, this invasion meant no less man slaughter, looting and incendiary than for the rural population in the prince-archbishopric.[11]

By early December Rode turned for help to Duke Henry IV the Elder, who was actually allied with Magnus.[12] In return Rode had to offer appointing Henry's 12-year-old son Christopher as his coadjutor, a position usually (as coadiutor cum iure succedendi), and in this case indeed, entailing the succession to the respective see.[12] This exactly accomplished Henry's own expansionist ambitions, so he changed sides, dropped the alliance with Magnus and John V in order to militarily support the prince-archbishopric.[9]

Henry IV the Elder and his troops were now hunting the Black Guard. Magnus, unable to pay the mercenaries so that they turned even the more oppressive for Hadeln's population, was like the Sorcerer's Apprentice, who could not get rid of "the spirits that he called". By mid-January 1500 King John of Denmark finally hired the Guard and guaranteed for its safe conduct to his Holstein.[10] King John employed the Black Guard in order to subject Ditmarsh. It were the Ditmarsians then, who destroyed the Black Guard utterly in the Battle of Hemmingstedt on 17 February 1500 and thus King John's dream of subjecting them.

Magnus conflict with Bremen was solved through the mediation of Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg and Henry IV with the latter's son Coadjutor Christopher (Prince-Archbishop of Bremen as of 1511). So Rode and Magnus had concluded peace on 20 January 1500.[9] Hadeln was restored to Magnus, while the Wursteners rendered homage to Rode on 18 August, who in return had confirmed their autonomy, thus in fact little had changed as compared with the status quo ante.[13]

Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg proper Edit

During the declining years of his father he governed the country and succeeded his father as the regnant Duke in 1507. The first years of his governing has been filled by various conflicts with the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen and its suffragan Prince-Bishopric of Ratzeburg. Through his marriage with Catherine in 1509 Magnus further intensified his ties with her father Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, his deserted former war ally.

Magnus was the first Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who adopted a compliant position as to the dispute on the electoral privilege between Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg. He refrained from showing on his coat-of-arms on a sable and argent background the electoral swords (German: Kurschwerter) in gules. The electoral swords indicated the office as Imperial Arch-Marshal (Erzmarschall, Archimarescallus), pertaining to the privilege as prince-elector, besides the much more important right to elect the new emperor after the decease of the former.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, enfeoffed Magnus with the Duchy of Saxony, Angria and Westphalia (so its official name, but colloquially Saxe-Lauenburg) and the pertaining regalia at the imperial diet in Augsburg on 12 November 1530. The imperial writ of feoffment emphasises, that Magnus had requested to be also enfeoffed with the Saxon electoral privilege, however, further explaining that this could not happen at that time "due to moving reasons". For Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, had already enfeoffed the House of Wettin with the Electorate of Saxony on 1 August 1425.

In 1531 Magnus introduced the Reformation in his duchy and became Lutheran, as did most of his subjects. Magnus died and was buried in Ratzeburg.

Family and Children

He was married on 17–20 November 1509 with Catherine (1488 – 29 July 1563) in Wolfenbüttel, daughter of Duke Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg,

They had six children:

  • Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510 – 19 March 1581)
  • Dorothea (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571), married on 29 October 1525 to King Christian III of Denmark
  • Catherine (24 September 1513 – 23 September 1535), married on 24 September 1531 to King Gustav I of Sweden
  • Clara (13 December 1518 – 27 March 1576), married on 29 September 1547 to Francis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Gifhorn
  • Sophia (1521 – 13 May 1571), married on 1 January 1537 to Anthony I, Count of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst Ursula (ca. 1523 – 31 December 1577, Minden), married on 14 May 1551 to Henry V, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Sources

  • Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, "Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995): pp. 321–388, here p. 331. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  • a b c Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, "Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995): pp. 321–388, here p. 332. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  • a b c d Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 184.
  • a b c d e f g Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here p. 266. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  • a b Heinz-Joachim Schulze, "Johann III. Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 10, pp. 480seq., here p. 480.
  • a b c Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here p. 267. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  • Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, "Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg und Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.), Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I 'Vor- und Frühgeschichte' (1995), vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995), vol. III 'Neuzeit (2008)', (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7–9), ISBN (vol. I) ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5, (vol. II) ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2, (vol. III) ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9, vol. II: pp. 321–388.
  • Otto von Heinemann (1884), "Magnus I. Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 20, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 72
  • Karl Ernst Hermann Krause (1881), "Johann III. (Erzbischof von Bremen)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 183–185
  • Karl Schleif, Regierung und Verwaltung des Erzstifts Bremen, Hamburg: no publ., 1972, (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vol. 1), zugl.: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1968.
  • Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.), Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I 'Vor- und Frühgeschichte' (1995), vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995), vol. III 'Neuzeit (2008)', (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7–9), ISBN (vol. I) ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5, (vol. II) ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2, (vol. III) ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9, vol. II: pp. 263–278.
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Herzog Magnus I von Sachsen-Lauenburg's Timeline

1470
January 1, 1470
Ratzeburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
1510
January 1, 1510
Ratzeburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
1511
July 9, 1511
Lauenburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
1513
September 24, 1513
Ratzeburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
1515
January 1, 1515
Lauenburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
1516
December 13, 1516
Lauenburg, Sachsen-Lauenburg, Deutschland(HRR)
1523
1523
1543
August 1, 1543
Age 73
Wolfenbuttel, Braunschweig,,, Deutschland(HRR)
????