Hon. Roger Sherman, signer of the "Declaration of Independence"

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Roger Sherman

Birthdate: (72)
Birthplace: Newton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States
Death: July 23, 1793 (72)
New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States
Place of Burial: Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut
Immediate Family:

Son of William Sherman and Mehetabel Sherman
Husband of Elizabeth Hartwell and Rebecca Minot Prescott
Father of Capt. John Sherman; William Sherman; Isaac Sherman; Chloe Sherman; Oliver Sherman and 10 others
Brother of Mehetebel Battell; William Sherman; Mary Brottle; Elizabeth Buck (Sherman); Nathaniel (Rev.) Sherman and 2 others
Half brother of William Sherman

Occupation: Lawyer; politician; Justice of the Peace
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Hon. Roger Sherman, signer of the "Declaration of Independence"

Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a founding father. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic.

He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."

Sherman was also the patriarch of one of America's oldest, most powerful and prolific U.S. political families, the Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family as ranked by Political Graveyard.

Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman


Connecticut Representative

The only man to sign all four American documents of sovereignty was Roger Sherman. Among those documents were the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.

Roger Sherman was William Philo Hibbard's 4th Cousin

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Walter G. Ashworth, the Hon. Roger Sherman, Signer of the "Declaration of Independence" is your third cousin 7 times removed.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman

For the former football player and coach, and Illinois State Bar President, see Roger Sherman (American football).

Roger Sherman


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

United States Senator

from Connecticut

In office

June 13, 1791– July 23, 1793

Preceded by William S. Johnson

Succeeded by Stephen M. Mitchell

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

from Connecticut's At-large district

In office

March 4, 1789 – March 4, 1791

Preceded by None

Succeeded by Amasa Learned

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Born April 19, 1721(1721-04-19)

Newton, Massachusetts

Died July 23, 1793 (aged 72)

Nationality USA

Political party Pro-Administration

Spouse(s) Elizabeth Hartwell

Rebecca Minot Prescott

Alma mater Yale University

Profession Politician, Lawyer

Religion Congregationalist

Signature

Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American lawyer and politician. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic.

He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."

Sherman was also the patriarch of one of America's oldest, most powerful and prolific U.S. political families, the Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family as ranked by Political Graveyard.


Roger Sherman is the only one of America's Founding Fathers who signed all four of its founding documents: Articles of Association (1774), Declaration of Independence (1776), Articles of Confederation (1778), and the United States Constitution (1787).

It is because of Roger Sherman that the United States government has two legislative bodies. It was his idea to create both the House and the Senate in order to resolve conflict between the big and small states.

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Downloaded 2010 from Wikipedia

Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American lawyer and politician. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic.

He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.[1] Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."[2]

Sherman was also the patriarch of one of America's oldest, most powerful and prolific U.S. political families, the Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family as ranked by Political Graveyard.

Contents

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Legal, political career
   * 3 Constitutional Convention
   * 4 Family
   * 5 Places and things named in honor of Roger Sherman
   * 6 Notes
   * 7 References
   * 8 External links

Early life

Sherman was born in Newton, Massachusetts, but his family moved to Stoughton, Massachusetts (a town located seventeen miles, or 27 km, south of Boston) when he was two. The part of Stoughton where Sherman grew up was later incorporated in 1797 to Canton, Massachusetts. Sherman's education did not extend beyond his father's library and grammar school, and his early career was spent as a shirt designer. However, he was gifted with an aptitude for learning, and access to a good library owned by his father, as well as a Harvard educated parish minister, Rev. Samuel Dunbar, who took him under his wing.

In 1743, after his father's death, he moved (on foot) with his mother and siblings to New Milford, Connecticut, where in partnership with his brother, he opened the town's first store. He very quickly introduced himself in civil and religious affairs, rapidly becoming one of the town's leading citizens and eventually town clerk of New Milford. Due to his mathematical skill he became county surveyor of New Haven County in 1745, and began providing astronomical calculations for almanacs in 1788.

Painter Ralph Earl's depiction of Sherman was described by Bernard Bailyn as "one of the most striking portraits of the age."[3]

Legal, political career

Despite the fact that he had no formal legal training, Sherman was urged to read for the bar exam by a local lawyer and was admitted to the Bar of Litchfield, Connecticut in 1754, during which he wrote A Caveat Against Injustice[1] and was chosen to represent New Milford in the Connecticut General Assembly from 1755 to 1758 and from 1760 to 1761. In 1766 he was elected to the Upper House of the Connecticut General Assembly, where he served until 1785.

He was appointed justice of the peace in 1762, judge of the court of common pleas in 1765, and justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766 to 1789, when he left to become a member of the United States Congress. He was also appointed treasurer of Yale College, and awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree. He was a professor of religion for many years, and engaged in lengthy correspondences with some of the greatest theologians of the time.

In 1783 he and Richard Law were appointed to massively revise the confused and archaic Connecticut statutes, which they accomplished with great success. In 1784 he was elected Mayor of New Haven, which office he held until his death. He is especially notable for being the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Association, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Only one other person, Robert Morris, signed 3 of these documents (not the Articles of Association).

Declaration independence.jpg

In John Trumbull's famous painting, Sherman is literally front and center– of those standing up near the desk, he is the second person from the left. The painting depicts the Committee of Five presenting its work to the congress.

Constitutional Convention

During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, summoned into existence to amend the Articles of Confederation, Sherman offered what came to be called the Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise. In this plan, the people would be represented by proportional representation in one branch of the legislature, called the House of Representatives (the Lower House). The states would be represented in another house called the Senate (the Upper House). In the lower house, each state had a representative for every 30,000 people. On the other hand, in the upper house each state was guaranteed two senators, no matter their size.

Sherman is also memorable for his stance against paper money and his authoring of Article I Section 10 of the United States Constitution.

   Mr. Wilson & Mr. Sherman moved to insert after the words "coin money" the words "nor emit bills of credit, nor make any thing but gold & silver coin a tender in payment of debts" making these prohibitions absolute, instead of making the measures allowable (as in the XIII art:) with the consent of the Legislature of the U.S. ... Mr. Sherman thought this a favorable crisis for crushing paper money. If the consent of the Legislature could authorize emissions of it, the friends of paper money would make every exertion to get into the Legislature in order to license it."[4]

Family

Roger Sherman's descendants, in the third and fourth generations and later, via the associated Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman families have been influential political participants and office holders in United States history, especially in the 19th century, and is considered by Political Graveyard to be the 4th largest US political family. One distant relative of Sherman's is William Tecumseh Sherman.

Roger Sherman was a first cousin twice removed of Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin. Sherman's mother Mehitable Wellington and Whitney's great-grandmother Elizabeth Wellington were siblings. It has been suggested that both of them were descended from Edward I of England.

Watergate-era prosecutor Archibald Cox, famous for his firing during the Saturday Night Massacre was a direct descendant of Roger Sherman.

Roger Sherman's grandson and namesake, Roger Sherman Baldwin earned his place in history as US Senator, Governor of Connecticut and one of two lawyers descended from members of the original Committee of Five who successfully argued for the freedom of approximately 50 Mende men, women, and children involved in the Amistad Supreme Court case of 1841. Two other grandsons, George F. Hoar and William M. Evarts were also US Senators. Evarts also served US Attorney General and was succeed by his first cousin Ebenezer R. Hoar, the brother of Senator George F. Hoar.

He is buried in the Grove Street Cemetery in New Haven, and his grave is the center of the city's 4 July celebrations.

Places and things named in honor of Roger Sherman

   * Naturally, there is a Sherman Avenue in New Haven, which extends into neighboring Hamden.
   * The town of Sherman, Connecticut is named in honor of Roger Sherman.
   * Sherman Street in Canton, Massachusetts is named in honor of Roger Sherman.
   * Sherman Avenue in central Madison, Wisconsin is named in honor of Roger Sherman. Most of the main streets in downtown Madison are named after signers of the United States Constitution.
   * The official name of the policy debate team at Western Connecticut State University is the "Roger Sherman Debate Society".
   * Roger Sherman Elementary School of Fairfield, Connecticut is named in honor of Roger Sherman.
   * Roger Sherman Inn of New Canaan, Connecticut is named in honor of Roger Sherman.
   * The Roger Sherman House on Howe Street in New Haven is named in honor of Roger Sherman.
   * Aside from his grave, there is only one statue known to have been made of Roger Sherman. His statue is located at the National Constitution Center National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, he has a statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the U.S. Capitol, one of two allowed the state of Connecticut in the collection, and a statue of him also graces the Connecticut State Capitol in Hartford.
   * The Town and Village of Sherman, NY was named for Roger Sherman

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Roger Sherman Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  2. ^ Waln, Robert (1824). "Biography of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence". Port Folio 18: 450. http://books.google.com/?id=b_IaAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA450&dq=%22That+is+Mr.+Sherman+of+Connecticut,+a+man+who+has+never+said+a+foolish+thing+in+his+life.%22#PPA450,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  3. ^ http://www.neh.gov/news/archive/19980323.html
  4. ^ Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787.

[edit] References

   * Dictionary of American Biography
   * Boardman, Roger Sherman, Roger Sherman, Signer and Statesman, 1938. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.
   * Boutell, Lewis Henry, The Life of Roger Sherman, Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1896.
   * Hall, Mark David, "Roger Sherman: An Old Puritan in a New Nation." In Daniel L. Dreisbach, Mark David Hall, and Jeffry H. Morrison, ed. The Forgotten Founders on Religion and Public Life (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009)
   * Gerber, Scott D., "Roger Sherman and the Bill of Rights." Polity 28 (Summer 1996): 521-540.
   * Hoar, George Frisbie, The Connecticut Compromise. Roger Sherman, the Author of the Plan of Equal Representation of the States in the Senate, and Representation of the People in Proportion to Numbers in the House, Worcester, MA: Press of C. Hamilton, 1903.
   * Rommel, John G., Connecticut’s Yankee Patriot: Roger Sherman, Hartford: American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Connecticut, 1980.

[edit] External links

   * From Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence, 1856
   * Roger Sherman at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
   * Sherman Genealogy Including Families of Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, England By Thomas Townsend Sherman
   * Hoar-Baldwin-Foster-Sherman family of Massachusetts at Political Graveyard
   * History of Sherman's boyhood home of Stoughton, Massachusetts
   * "Roger Sherman". Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=950. 
   * Wikisource-logo.svg "Sherman, Roger". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
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Roger Sherman was an early American lawyer and politician. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic.

He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."

Sherman was also the patriarch of one of America's oldest, most powerful and prolific U.S. political families, the Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family as ranked by Political Graveyard.

Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman

Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American lawyer and politician. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic.

He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.[1] Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."[2]

Sherman was also the patriarch of one of America's oldest, most powerful and prolific U.S. political families, the Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family as ranked by Political Graveyard.

...


Signed the Declaration of Independence

More Info:

http://www.ushistory.org/DECLARATION/signers/sherman.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman

_________________ rom ushistory.org/declaration/signers/sherman.htm Roger Sherman 1721-1793 Representing Connecticut at the Continental Congress Born: April 19, 1721 in Newton, Mass. Education: Informal, Cobbler, Surveyor, Lawyer. Honorary M.A. from Yale. Work: Admitted to Bar in New Milford Connecticut, 1754; Justice of the Peace, elected to General Assembly, representing New Milford Connecticut, 1755-58, 1760-61; Commisary for the Connecticut Troops, 1759; Elected to various Upper and Lower House offices representing New Haven, 1760s, 1770s; Judge of the Superior Court of Connecticut, 1766-1789; Elected to Continental Congress, 1774-81, 1783-84; Distinguished member of the Constitutional Convention, 1785; Elected US Senator for Connecticut, 1791-93.

Roger Sherman was born at Newton, near Boston, on April 19, 1721. When he was two his father took the family to what was then a frontier town, Stoughton. His education was very limited. He had access to his fathers library, a good one by the standards of the day, and when Roger was about thirteen years old the town built a "grammar school" which he attended for a time. Stoughton was also fortunate to have a parish Minister by the name of Rev. Samuel Danbar, who was trained at Harvard. Danbar helped young Roger acquire some facility with mathematics, sciences, literature, and philosophy.

His first experience with an official office came in 1743 when he was appointed surveyor of New Haven County. A few years later he was commissioned by neighbor to consult a lawyer at the county seat regarding a petition before the court. The lawyer asked if he could examine Sherman's notes and reading them, urged Sherman to set up for the practice of law. At age twenty one he engaged in both civic and religious affairs in New Milford Connecticut, where he and his brother also opened the towns first store. He served as the town clerk there and was also chosen to lobby on behalf of the town at the provincial assembly. Since New Milford did not have a newspaper and reading material was hard to come by, Sherman wrote and published a very popular Almanac each year from 1750 to 1761.

Sherman was accepted to the Bar of Litchfield in 1754, and to represent New Milford in the General Assembly the following year. He was appointed justice of the peace, and four years later justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut. By the age of 40, he had become a very successful landowner and businessman while integrating himself into the social and political fabric of New England. He was appointed commissary to the Connecticut Troops at the start of the Revolutionary war; this was experience that he put to great use when he was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774. Sherman was a very active and much respected Delegate to the congress. He served and numerous committees, including the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. He served all through the war for Independence. As active as he was in Congress, he simultaneously fulfilled his other offices. In 1776 these efforts began to take their toll on his health. Thus, he appealed to then governor Trumbull to relieve him of some of his state duties while he remained on in Congress through 1781. He left the office in 1781, then returned in 1783 and 84, where he served on the committee forming the Articles of Confederation. His interests in the strength of the federation carried him to the Constitutional Convention in 1785 where he was one of the most vocal and persistent members. Madison's notes on the convention credit him with one hundred and thirty-eight speeches to the convention. His tiny state of Connecticut was in a precarious position, and Sherman, then sixty-one apparently spared no effort in defending the rights of the smaller states.

Many of the most notable figures of the revolution, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, admitted a deep admiration for Roger Sherman and his work. From their notes Sherman appears as a picture of New England pragmatism: stern, taciturn, spare with his words and very direct in his speech, but never hesitating to stand-and stand again-for his principles. In July of 1793, Roger Sherman died of typhoid at the age of 72. At the time he served as US Senator from Connecticut under the new constitution that he had helped to build; in the new nation, that he had spent most of his life defending and defining.

wikipedia, Nov 2006: Roger Sherman (April 19 (O.S.), April 30 (N.S.), 1721 – July 23, 1793), was the only person to have signed all four basic documents of American sovereignty: the Continental Association of 1774, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. He also wrote "A CAVEAT AGAINST INJUSTICE or An Inquiry into the Evils of a Fluctuating Medium of Exchange." Thomas Jefferson is quoted as having said about him, "That is Mr. Sherman of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."

Early life

He was born in Newton, Massachusetts and when he was three years old his family moved to Stoughton, Massachusetts, a town located seventeen miles south of Boston. Sherman had only informal schooling past grammar school and began his career as a shoedesigner but was blessed with the combination of an active thirst for learning, and access to a good library owned by his father as well as a Harvard educated parish minister, Rev. Samuel Dunbar, who took him under his wing. In 1743, after his death, he moved (on foot) with his mother and siblings to New Milford, Connecticut, where in partnership with his brother he opened the town's first store. He very quickly immersed himself in civil and religious affairs, rapidly becoming one of the town's leading citizens and eventually town clerk of New Milford. Due to his mathematical skill he became county surveyor of New Haven County in 1745, and began providing astronomical calculations for almanacs in 1748, publishing a popular Almanac himself from 1750 to 1761.

In opinion of Scherman's descendants he was a Freemason. They gave his Masonic apron to the Yale university, which is now part of the historical collection. His membership is based only on tradition and is not supported by any proof.[1]

Legal, political career

This statue of Roger Sherman is at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, PA.

Although he had no formal legal training, he was urged to read for the bar by a local lawyer and was accepted to the Bar of Litchfield, Connecticut in 1754, and chosen to represent New Milford in the Connecticut General Assembly from 1755 to 1758 and from 1760 to 1761. In 1766 he was elected to the Upper House of the Connecticut General Assembly, where he served until 1785. He was appointed justice of the peace in 1762, judge of the court of common pleas in 1765, and justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766 to 1789, when he left to become a member of the United States Congress. He was also appointed treasurer of Yale College, and awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree. He was a professor of religion for many years, and engaged in lengthy correspondences with some of the greatest theologians of the time. In 1783 he and Richard Law were appointed to massively revise the confused and archaic Connecticut statutes, which they accomplished with great success. In 1784 he was elected Mayor of New Haven, which office he held until his death.

Continental Congress

At the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775 Sherman was appointed to the Connecticut Governor's Council of Safety and also commissary to the Connecticut Troops. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774 and served very actively throughout the War, earning high esteem in the eyes of his fellow delegates and serving on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence.

United States Congress

Sherman was elected as a Representative to the First United States Congress, and then served as a Senator from 1791 until his death of typhoid in 1793 in New Haven, Connecticut at the age of seventy-two. He is interred in Grove Street Cemetery in New Haven, near the Yale campus.

Family

He married Elizabeth Hartwell of Stoughton in 1749 and had seven children; after her death he married a second time in 1760, to Rebecca Minot Prescott of Danvers, Massachusetts, and had another eight children. He was grandfather of Roger Sherman Baldwin, George Frisbie Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, and Sherman Day; Andrew Sherman Avenue in central Madison, Wisconsin is named in honor of Roger Sherman. Most of the main streets in Downtown Madison are named after signers of the United States Constitution. Naturally, there is also a Sherman Avenue in New Haven.

See also Dictionary of American Biography Boardman, Roger Sherman, Roger Sherman, Signer and Statesman, 1938. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Boutell, Lewis Henry, The Life of Roger Sherman, Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1896. Boyd, Julian P., “Roger Sherman: Portrait of a Cordwainer Statesman.” New England Quarterly 5 (1932): 221-36. Collier, Christopher; Roger Sherman’s Connecticut: Yankee Politics and the American Revolution, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1971. Gerbr, Scott D., "Roger Sherman and the Bill of Rights." Polity 28 (Summer 1996): 521-540. Hoar, George Frisbie, The Connecticut Compromise. Roger Sherman, the Author of the Plan of Equal Representation of the States in the Senate, and Representation of the People in Proportion to Numbers in the House, Worcester, MA: Press of C. Hamilton, 1903. Rommel, John G., Connecticut’s Yankee Patriot: Roger Sherman, Hartford: American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Connecticut, 1980.

http://capecodhistory.us/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I23858&tree=Nauset

___________________________________________________________________________ A Biography of Roger Sherman (1721-1793)

In 1723, when Sherman was 2 years of age, his family relocated from his Newton, MA, birthplace to Dorchester (present Stoughton). As a boy, he was spurred by a desire to learn and read widely in his spare time to supplement his minimal education at a common school. But he spent most of his waking hours helping his father with farming chores and learning the cobbler's trade from him. In 1743, 2 years after his father's death, Sherman joined an elder brother who had settled in New Milford, CT.

Purchasing a store, becoming a county surveyor, and winning a variety of town offices, Sherman prospered and assumed leadership in the community. In 1749 he married Elizabeth Hartwell, by whom he had seven children. Without benefit of a formal legal education, he was admitted to the bar in 1754 and embarked upon a distinguished judicial and political career. In the period 1755-61, except for a brief interval, he served as a representative in the colonial legislature and held the offices of justice of the peace and county judge. Somehow he also eked out time to publish an essay on monetary theory and a series of almanacs incorporating his own astronomical observations and verse.

In 1761, Sherman abandoned his law practice, and moved to New Haven, CT. There, he managed two stores, one that catered to Yale students, and another in nearby Wallingford. He also became a friend and benefactor of Yale College, and served for many years as its treasurer. In 1763, or 3 years after the death of his first wife, he wed Rebecca Prescott, who bore eight children.

Meanwhile, Sherman's political career had blossomed. He rose from justice of the peace and county judge to an associate judge of the Connecticut Superior Court and to representative in both houses of the colonial assembly. Although opposed to extremism, he promptly joined the fight against Britain. He supported non-importation measures and headed the New Haven committee of correspondence.

Sherman was a longtime and influential member of the Continental Congress (1774-81 and 1783-84). He won membership on the committees that drafted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, as well as those concerned with Indian affairs, national finances, and military matters. To solve economic problems, at both national and state levels, he advocated high taxes rather than excessive borrowing or the issuance of paper currency.

While in Congress, Sherman remained active in state and local politics, continuing to hold the office of judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, as well as membership on the council of safety (1777-79). In 1783 he helped codify Connecticut's statutory laws. The next year, he was elected mayor of New Haven (1784-86).

Although on the edge of insolvency, mainly because of wartime losses, Sherman could not resist the lure of national service. In 1787 he represented his state at the Constitutional Convention, and attended practically every session. Not only did he sit on the Committee on Postponed Matters, but he also probably helped draft the New Jersey Plan and was a prime mover behind the Connecticut, or Great Compromise, which broke the deadlock between the large and small states over representation. He was, in addition, instrumental in Connecticut's ratification of the Constitution.

Sherman concluded his career by serving in the U.S. House of Representatives (1789-91) and Senate (1791-93), where he espoused the Federalist cause. He died at New Haven in 1793 at the age of 72 and is buried in the Grove Street Cemetery. esource: http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/biographies/roger-sherman/ ______________________________________________________________________________


Signer of the Declaration of Independence from Connecticut. He is also the only man to sign all four founding documents of the United States: the Articles of Association (1774), the Declaration of Independence (1776), the Articles of Confederation (1777), and the Constitution of the United States (1787). Born in Newton, Massachusetts, near Boston, to a poor farming family. To help earn additional money, his father also made shoes, and young Roger was taught the shoe making trade. In 1743, when he was 19 years old, Roger’s father died, and the Shermans moved to New Milford, Connecticut, where his older brother lived. For a time, Roger continued to farm and to make shoes. He also studied to become a surveyor, and at age 24, he was appointed surveyor of New Haven County, Connecticut. Roger would later run a country store, become a lawyer, and serve as a legislator and judge. Once he was established in Connecticut, he married Elizabeth Hartwell, his sweetheart from Massachusetts; they would have seven children before Elizabeth died at the age of 34. Roger then married Rebecca Prescott, with whom he had eight more children. He served as judge of the Connecticut Superior Court from 1766 to 1789. In 1774, he was sent to the First Continental Congress. At first, many delegates laughed at his rough, home made clothing and lack of a wig (all gentlemen wore wigs in those days), but it was his words that won him the respect of his fellow delegates. He was among the first patriot leaders to deny the supremacy of the British Parliament over the colonies. He became influential in the Continental Congresses, where John Adams said of him, “Sherman is as firm in the cause of American Independence as Mount Atlas.” He served on the committee to write the Declaration, and although his words did not go into the document, his views did. Sherman’s greatest service to his country came several years later, at the drafting of the US Constitution. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, he presented the Connecticut Compromise, a proposal that resolved the major differences between the large states and the small states on representation in the national legislature – that each state would have a representative based upon its population, and an equal number of senators. It was this compromise that helped to get all of the states to agree on a constitution, and for this reason, Connecticut is called “the Constitution State.” Sherman served in the US Congress as Representative from Connecticut from 1789 to 1791, and as a Senator from 1791 until his death in 1793, at the age of 72. A quiet, self-assuming and honest man, he is considered one of the pillars of the Revolution and of the founding of United States democracy. (bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson)


Family links:

Parents:
 William Sherman (1692 - 1741)
 Mehetabel Wellington Sherman (1688 - 1776)

Spouses:
 Elizabeth Hartwell Sherman (1726 - 1760)*
 Rebekah Prescott Sherman (1742 - 1813)*

Children:
 John Sherman (1750 - 1802)*
 Chloe Sherman (1753 - 1757)*
 Oliver Sherman (1756 - 1757)*
 Chloe Sherman Skinner (1758 - 1839)*
 Rebecca Sherman Baldwin (1764 - 1795)*
 Elizabeth Sherman Baldwin (1765 - 1850)*
 Roger Sherman (1768 - 1856)*
 Mehetabel Sherman (1772 - 1772)*
 Mehitable Prescott Sherman Evarts (1774 - 1851)*
 Martha Sherman Day (1779 - 1806)*
 Sarah Sherman Hoar (1783 - 1866)*

Siblings:
 William Sherman (1717 - 1756)*
 Mehitable Sherman Battle (1718 - 1807)*
 Roger Sherman (1721 - 1793)
 Elizabeth Sherman Buck (1723 - 1793)*
 Nathaniel Sherman (1726 - 1797)*
 Josiah Sherman (1729 - 1789)*
 Rebecca Sherman Hartwell (1730 - 1821)*

Signer of the Declaration of Independence from Connecticut. He is also the only man to sign all four founding documents of the United States: the Articles of Association (1774), the Declaration of Independence (1776), the Articles of Confederation (1777), and the Constitution of the United States (1787). Born in Newton, Massachusetts, near Boston, to a poor farming family. To help earn additional money, his father also made shoes, and young Roger was taught the shoe making trade. In 1743, when he was 19 years old, Roger’s father died, and the Shermans moved to New Milford, Connecticut, where his older brother lived. For a time, Roger continued to farm and to make shoes. He also studied to become a surveyor, and at age 24, he was appointed surveyor of New Haven County, Connecticut. Roger would later run a country store, become a lawyer, and serve as a legislator and judge. Once he was established in Connecticut, he married Elizabeth Hartwell, his sweetheart from Massachusetts; they would have seven children before Elizabeth died at the age of 34. Roger then married Rebecca Prescott, with whom he had eight more children. He served as judge of the Connecticut Superior Court from 1766 to 1789. In 1774, he was sent to the First Continental Congress. At first, many delegates laughed at his rough, home made clothing and lack of a wig (all gentlemen wore wigs in those days), but it was his words that won him the respect of his fellow delegates. He was among the first patriot leaders to deny the supremacy of the British Parliament over the colonies. He became influential in the Continental Congresses, where John Adams said of him, “Sherman is as firm in the cause of American Independence as Mount Atlas.” He served on the committee to write the Declaration, and although his words did not go into the document, his views did. Sherman’s greatest service to his country came several years later, at the drafting of the US Constitution. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, he presented the Connecticut Compromise, a proposal that resolved the major differences between the large states and the small states on representation in the national legislature – that each state would have a representative based upon its population, and an equal number of senators. It was this compromise that helped to get all of the states to agree on a constitution, and for this reason, Connecticut is called “the Constitution State.” Sherman served in the US Congress as Representative from Connecticut from 1789 to 1791, and as a Senator from 1791 until his death in 1793, at the age of 72. A quiet, self-assuming and honest man, he is considered one of the pillars of the Revolution and of the founding of United States democracy.

Bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson


Roger Sherman was an early American lawyer and statesman, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He is the only person to have signed all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

Born in Newton, Massachusetts, Sherman established a legal career in Litchfield County, Connecticut despite a lack of formal education. After a period in the Connecticut House of Representatives, he served as a Justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766 to 1789. He represented Connecticut at the Continental Congress and signed the Continental Association, which provided for a boycott against Britain following the imposition of the Intolerable Acts. He was also a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. He later signed both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. In 1784, he was elected as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.

Sherman served as a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which produced the United States Constitution. After Benjamin Franklin, he was the second oldest delegate present at the convention. Along with James Wilson, he proposed the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted three-fifths of the slave population for the purposes of representation in the United States House of Representatives and the Electoral College. He favored granting the federal government power to raise revenue and regulate commerce, but initially opposed efforts to supplant the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. He ultimately came to support the establishment of a new constitution, and proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which won the approval of both the larger states and the smaller states.

After the ratification of the Constitution, Sherman represented Connecticut in the United States House of Representatives from 1789 to 1791. He served in the United States Senate from 1791 to his death in 1793.

Sherman was born into a farm family located in Newton, Massachusetts, near Boston. His father was William and mother Mehetabel Sherman. Mehetabel's father was Benjamin Wellington and her mother was Elizabeth Sweetman, whose christening date was March 4, 1687 (or 1688), and she died on April 12, 1776. William and Mehetabel had seven children, William Jr., Mehetabel, Roger (1721), Elizabeth (married James Buck), Nathaniel (became a Reverend), Josiah (also became a Reverend), and Rebecca (married Joseph Hartwell Jr.). After Elizabeth was born (1723), the Shermans left Newton and settled in the south precinct of Dorchester, that three years later became the township of Stoughton and located 17 miles (27 km) south of Boston, when Roger was two. William married Rebecca Cutler on July 15, 1714. Josiah was Chaplain of the 7th Connecticut from January 1 to December 6, 1777.

The part of Stoughton where Sherman grew up became part of Canton in 1797. Sherman's education did not extend beyond his father's library and grammar school, and his early career was spent as a shoe-maker. However, he had an aptitude for learning, and access to a good library owned by his father, as well as a Harvard-educated parish minister, the Rev. Samuel Dunbar, who took him under his wing.

In 1743, due to his father's death, Sherman moved (on foot) with his mother and siblings to New Milford, Connecticut, where in partnership with his brother William (wife Ruth),[5] he opened the town's first store. He very quickly introduced himself in civil and religious affairs, rapidly becoming one of the town's leading citizens and eventually town clerk of New Milford. Due to his mathematical skill he became county surveyor of New Haven County in 1745, and began providing astronomical calculations for almanacs in 1759.

Roger Sherman was married two times and had a total of fifteen children with thirteen reaching adulthood.

A daughter, Rebeca Sherman, was married to Simeon Baldwin, whose career included service in the United States Congress (1803–1806), as an Associate Judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, 1806–1817, and who became Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, in 1826. Following the death of Rebecca Sherman, Baldwin married another of Roger Sherman's daughters, Elizabeth Sherman Burr. His daughter, Mehitabel Sherman Barnes married Jeremiah Evarts, who served as treasurer and secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. His daughter Martha Sherman married Jeremiah Day, who was President of Yale University from 1817 to 1846. Another daughter, Sarah Sherman, married Samuel Hoar, who was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature and the U.S. Congress.

The Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull depicts the Committee of Five (Sherman is the second person on the left) presenting its work to Congress. Sherman is especially notable in United States history for being the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States, the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Association, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Robert Morris, who did not sign the Articles of Association, signed the other three. John Dickinson also signed three, the Continental Association, the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. He was involved with the Declaration of Independence but abstained, hoping for a reconciliation with Britain.

Despite the fact that Sherman had no formal legal training, he was urged to read for the bar exam by a local lawyer and was admitted to the Bar of Litchfield, Connecticut in 1754, during which he wrote A Caveat Against Injustice and was chosen to represent New Milford in the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1755 to 1758 and from 1760 to 1761.

Sherman was appointed justice of the peace in 1762 and judge of the court of common pleas in 1765. During 1766, Sherman was first elected to the Governor's Council of the Connecticut General Assembly, where he served until 1785.

Sherman served as Justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766 to 1789, when he left to become a member of the United States Congress.

Sherman was also appointed treasurer of Yale College, and awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree. He was a professor of religion for many years, and engaged in lengthy correspondences with some of the theologians of the time.

During February 1776, Sherman, George Wythe, and John Adams were members of a committee responsible for establishing guidelines for U.S. embassy officials in Canada with the committee instructions that included, "You are to declare that we hold sacred the rights of conscience, and may promise to the whole people, solemnly in our name, the free and undisturbed exercise of their religion. And...that all civil rights and the rights to hold office were to be extended to persons of any Christian denomination."

In 1784 he was elected Mayor of New Haven, which office he held until his death.

In 1790 both Sherman and Richard Law were appointed to revise the confused and archaic Connecticut statutes, which they accomplished.

Throughout his life, Sherman was a major benefactor of Yale College, acting as the university's treasurer for many years and promoting construction of a college chapel.

Roger Sherman was one of the most influential members of the Constitutional Convention. He is not well known for his actions at the Convention because he was a "terse, ineloquent speaker" who never kept a personal record of his experience, unlike other prominent figures at the convention such as James Madison, and at 66 years of age, Sherman was the second eldest member at the convention following Benjamin Franklin (who was 81 years old at the time). Yet as one of the most active members of the Convention, Sherman made motions or seconds in reference to the Virginia Plan 160 times. His opponent Madison made motions or seconds 177 times.

Roger Sherman came into the Convention without the intention of creating a new constitution. Sherman, an original signer of the Articles of Confederation, saw the convention as a means to modify the already existing government. Part of his stance was concerned with the public appeal. He defended amending the articles declaring that it was in the best interest of the people and the most probable way the people would accept changes to a constitution. Sherman saw no reason for a bicameral legislature, as proposed by the Virginia Plan. "The problem with the old government was not that it had acted foolishly or threatened anybody's liberties, but that it had simply been unable to enforce its decrees". Sherman further advanced the idea that the national government simply needed a way to raise revenue and regulate commerce. Sherman was a big defender of a unicameral legislature. He defended the unicameral legislature of the Articles of Confederation by stating that the large states had not "suffered at the hands of small states on account of the rule of equal voting". Ultimately, when Sherman saw his initial goals of the convention as unattainable he organized compromises and deals in order to enact some of his desirable legislation.

Sherman was from a particularly isolationist state – Connecticut operated almost without much need from other states, using its own ports to trade with the West Indies instead of utilizing ports in Boston – and feared that "...the mass of people lacked sufficient wisdom to govern themselves and thus wished no branch of the federal government to be elected directly by the people". Sherman, Elbridge Gerry (himself later recognized as the namesake of American political gerrymandering) and others were of the shared opinion that the elected composition of the national government should be reserved for the vote of state officials and not for election by the will of the people. Sherman was wary of allowing ordinary citizen participation in national government and stated that the people "should have as little to do as may be about the Government. They want information and are constantly liable to be misled".

The two proposed options for the formation of the legislative branch emerged in the deliberations. One was to form a bicameral legislature in which both chambers had representation proportional to the population of the states, which was supported by the Virginia plan. The second was to modify the unicameral legislature that had equal representation from all of the states, which was supported by the New Jersey plan. Roger Sherman was a devout supporter of a unicameral legislature, but when he saw that goal as unattainable he motioned to compromise. In terms of modes of election "Sherman moved to allow each state legislature to elect its own senators". Additionally, in the house Sherman originally proposed that the suffrage of the House of Representatives should be figured according to the "numbers of free inhabitants" in each state.

During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, summoned into existence to amend the Articles of Confederation, Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth offered what came to be called the Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise.

In this plan, designed to be acceptable to both large and small states, the people would be represented proportionally in one branch of the legislature, called the House of Representatives (the lower legislative house). The states would be represented in another house called the Senate (the upper house). In the lower house, each state had a representative for every one delegate. In the upper house each state was guaranteed two senators, regardless of its size.

Sherman is also memorable for his stance against paper money with his authoring of Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution and his later opposition to James Madison over the "Bill of Rights" amendments to the U.S. Constitution in his belief that these amendments would diminish the role and power of the states over the people.

Mr. Wilson & Mr. Sherman moved to insert after the words "coin money" the words "nor emit bills of credit, nor make any thing but gold & silver coin a tender in payment of debts" making these prohibitions absolute, instead of making the measures allowable (as in the XIII art) with the consent of the Legislature of the U.S. ... Mr. Sherman thought this a favorable crisis for crushing paper money. If the consent of the Legislature could authorize emissions of it, the friends of paper money would make every exertion to get into the Legislature in order to license it."

In terms of the executive Sherman had very little interest in giving the executive much authority. Sherman suggested that no constitutional provision needed be made for the executive because it was "nothing more than an institution for carrying the will of the Legislature into effect".

Originally opposed to slavery due to his personal beliefs and puritan views, Sherman used the issue of slavery as a tool for negotiation and alliance. Sherman was of the opinion that slavery was already gradually being abolished and the trend was moving southward. Sherman saw that the issue of slavery could be one that threatened the success of the constitutional convention. Therefore, Sherman decided to help pass legislation to benefit slave states in order to obtain unlikely allies from South Carolina. The two forces joined together because they both, due to the economies of their home states, benefitted from there being no export tax.

Sherman opposed appointment of fellow signer Gouverneur Morris as minister to France because he considered that high-living Patriot to be of an "irreligious nature".

Sherman was instrumental in securing the addition of "or to the people" in the wording of the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and caused the cent to be used in the financial system. In a letter to Oliver Wolcott (May 21, 1777) he wrote, "I think it dangerous to admit citizens not connected to the army to be tried by a Court Martial".

Sherman died in his sleep on July 23, 1793, after a two-month illness diagnosed as typhoid fever. The Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), August 17, 1793, p. 508, reported an alternate diagnosis, "He was taken ill about the middle of May last, and from that time declined till his death. His physician supposed his disorder to be seated in his liver."

He was buried in New Haven Green. In 1821, when that cemetery was relocated, his remains were moved to the Grove Street Cemetery.

His nephew Roger Minott Sherman served as a Connecticut State Representative, 1798; Connecticut State Senator (CT), 1814–1818; and as Judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court, 1840–1844.

His daughter Rebecca Sherman was married to Simeon Baldwin, US Representative from Connecticut, 1803–1806, and an Associate Judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, 1806–1817, and who later became Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, in 1826. Following the death of Rebecca Sherman, Baldwin married Rebecca's sister Elizabeth Sherman Burr. Daughter Martha was married to Jeremiah Day who was the President of Yale University from 1817 to 1846. Daughter Mehitabel Sherman was to married Jeremiah Evarts who was secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. His daughter Sarah Sherman was married to Samuel Hoar, who was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature and U.S. Representative from Massachusetts 1835–1837.

Three grandsons Roger Sherman Baldwin, George F. Hoar, and William M. Evarts all served in the U.S. Senate. Baldwin also served as Governor of Connecticut. Evarts also served as United States Secretary of State and United States Attorney General, he was succeeded in that office by a fourth Sherman grandson who served as Massachusetts Supreme Court Chief Justice and United States Attorney General Ebenezer R. Hoar, who was also the brother George F. Hoar. A fifth grandson Sherman Day served in the California State Senate, 1855–1856; was United States Surveyor General, California, 1868–1871; and was an original trustees of the University of California.

Great-granddaughter Elizabeth Thacher Kent was an environmentalist and women's suffrage activist. Kent was married to William Kent, U.S. Representative from California 1913 to 1917, who authored the bill establishing the National Park Service and donated the land for Mount Tamalpias State Park and Muir Woods. Great-great-great grandson Theodore Sherman Palmer was also an environmentalist, serving as the vice-president of the American Society of Mammalogists from 1928 to 1934, and a co-founder of the National Audubon Society.

Great-granddaughter Elizabeth Follansbee was the first woman appointed to a medical school faculty in California, and practiced in Los Angeles from 1883 until soon before her death in 1917.

Great-grandson Simeon Eben Baldwin was a justice of Connecticut state supreme court, 1897–1907; chief justice of Connecticut Supreme Court, 1907–1910; Governor of Connecticut, 1911–1915; candidate for Democratic nomination for President, 1912; and candidate for U.S. Senator from Connecticut, 1914; Henry Sherman Boutell was a U.S. Representatives from Illinois, 1903–1911; Roger Sherman Greene was an associate justice on the Supreme Court of Washington Territory, 1870–1879; Sherman Hoar was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, 1891–1893; Rockwood Hoar was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, 1905–1906; Edward Baldwin Whitney, was a justice on the First District New York State Supreme Court, 1909–1911; and Sherman Day Thacher was the founder and first headmaster of the elite private boarding school The Thacher School in Ojai, California.

Great-great-grandsons Roger Kent was Chairman of the California Democratic State Central Committee; and Sherman Kent was one of the founders of the Central Intelligence Agency, pioneering many methods of intelligence analysis. See Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis; and another Roger Sherman Hoar was a Massachusetts state senator and assistant Attorney General.

Husband of his great-great-granddaughter Mabel Wellington White, Henry L. Stimson was Secretary of War under President Taft, Secretary of State under President Hoover, and Secretary of War under both Presidents Roosevelt and Truman. Stimson was the major decision-maker on the atomic bomb and both Presidents followed his advice about using it as the weapon that led to the ultimate end of World War II. Mabel's sister Elizabeth Selden Rogers was chairman of the Advisory Council of the National Woman's Party and its Legislative Chairman for New York, and was one of the most forceful speakers in the "Prison Special" bus tour across the country; during which suffragists spoke of their experience in jail. Rogers was arrested, as part of the Silent Sentinels protest, on July 14, 1917, for picketing in front of the United States White House, and was sentenced to sixty days in Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia; but she was quickly pardoned by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson after just three days.

Great-great-great grandson Archibald Cox served as a U.S. Solicitor General and special prosecutor during President Richard Nixon's Watergate scandal, he was the great grandson of William M. Evarts.

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Hon. Roger Sherman, signer of the "Declaration of Independence"'s Timeline

1721
April 19, 1721
Newton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States
1750
July 8, 1750
Age 29
New Milford, Litchfield County, Connecticut, United States
1751
November 12, 1751
Age 30
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut
1753
June 17, 1753
Age 32
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut
1754
December 26, 1754
Age 33
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut
1756
July 25, 1756
Age 35
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut
1758
1758
Age 36
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut
1760
September 28, 1760
Age 39
New Milford, Litchfield Co., Connecticut