John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute

Is your surname Crichton-Stuart?

Research the Crichton-Stuart family

John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, United Kingdom
Death: Died
Immediate Family:

Son of John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute and Sophia Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute
Husband of Hon. Gwendolen Mary Anne Fitzalan-Howard
Father of John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of the County of Bute; Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart; Lady Margaret Crichton-Stuart and Lord Colum Edmund Crichton-Stuart

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Crichton-Stuart,_3rd_Marquess_of_Bute

John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute KT (12 September 1847 – 9 October 1900) was a landed aristocrat, industrial magnate, antiquarian, scholar, philanthropist and architectural patron.

The 3rd Marquess was born at the family seat of Mount Stuart, on the Isle of Bute in Scotland, to John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute and Sophia Rawdon-Hastings (daughter of Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings). The Crichton-Stuarts were illegitimate offspring of the Scottish royal House of Stuart, ennobled in the 17th century. The foundations of the family's fortunes were laid by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Prime Minister to George III, who married an heiress, Mary Wortley-Montagu, and attained great political prominence, although this was not accompanied by great political success. His son, John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute, out-stripped his father by marrying two heiresses, Charlotte Hickman, daughter of the 2nd Viscount Windsor, and Frances Coutts, of the Coutts banking dynasty.

By his first marriage, the Marquess fathered John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute, the founder of modern Cardiff and father of the 3rd Marquess. The 2nd Marquess was a far-sighted early industrialist and began, at great financial risk, the development of Cardiff as a port to export the mineral wealth of the South Wales Valleys. Accumulating great debts and mortgages on his, admittedly, vast estates, the Marquess rightly foresaw the potential of Cardiff, telling his concerned solicitor in 1844, "I am willing to think well of my income in the distance." The following fifty years saw his faith triumphantly vindicated but the ensuing riches were to be enjoyed, and spent, by his son, rather than himself.

The 2nd Marquess died in 1848 and John Patrick Crichton-Stuart acceded to the Marquessate at only sixth months old. He was educated at Harrow School and Christ Church, Oxford. Here he came under the influence of the advanced section of the Anglican Church, whose tenets his keen and logical intellect quickly saw to be inconsistent with non-communion with the Catholic Church. Bute's letters to one of his very few intimate friends during his Oxford career show with what conscientious care he worked out the religious question for himself.

On the 8th of December, 1868, he was received into the Church by Monsignor Capel at a convent in Southwark, and a little later was confirmed by Pius IX, in Rome. At a young age, it was apparent that Bute's interests lay in the scholastic, religious and antiquarian spheres and his father's accumulated wealth was to give him the means to indulge those interests on a stupendous scale. But it would be entirely wrong to view the 3rd Marquess as a dilettante; his interests were serious, scholarly and profound. His serious and committed outlook led to a sensational public scandal when he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1868. His conversion was the inspiration for Benjamin Disraeli's novel, Lothair.

Interests

The Marquess's vast range of interests; religion, medievalism, the occult, architecture, travelling, linguistics, philanthropy; filled his relatively short life. A prolific writer, bibliophile and traveller, as well as, somewhat reluctantly, a businessman, his energies were on a monumentally Victorian scale. But at a distance, just over one hundred years from his death, it is his architectural patronage that creates his lasting memorial.

In 1865, the Marquess met William Burges and the two embarked on an architectural partnership, the results of which long outlasted Burges' own death in 1881. Bute's desires and money, allied with Burges' fantastical imagination and skill led to the creation of two of the finest creations of the late Victorian era Gothic Revival, Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch. The two buildings represent both the potential of colossal industrial wealth and the desire to escape the scene of that wealth's creation. The theme recurs again and again in the huge outpouring of Bute's patronage, in chapels, castle, abbeys, universities and palaces.

Patronage

The Marquess's patronage was extensive, with a particular enthusiasm for buildings of religion and academia. Whilst Rector of the University of St Andrews, he provided the University with a new home for its Medical School and endowed the Bute Chair of Medicine. At the University of Glasgow, he gifted the funds required to complete the University's huge central hall, named the Bute Hall in his honour, and he is commemorated both at the University's Commemoration Day and on its Memorial Gates.

The Marquess of Bute's Case

The Marquess was involved in a notable company law case, known as "the Marquess of Bute's Case", reported on appeal in 1892, called Re Cardiff Savings Bank [1892] 2 Ch 100. The Marquess had been appointed to the board of directors of the Cardiff Savings Bank as "President", at the age of six months, in effect inheriting the office from his father. He only attended one board meeting in the next 38 years. When the bank went insolvent following a fellow director's fraudulent dealing, Stirling J held that the Marquess was not liable as he knew nothing of what was going on. It was not suggested that he ought to have known what was going on, and had a duty of care to inform himself as to the affairs of the bank. The case set a famous legal precedent, now superseded, for the minimal view of the duties of company directors. It was naturally a considerable embarrassment for the Marquess, despite escaping legal blame.

Family life

John Patrick Crichton-Stuart married Gwendolen Fitzalan-Howard (daughter of Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop) in 1872 and had four children:

Margaret Crichton-Stuart (24 December 1875 – 6 June 1964)

John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute (20 June 1881 – 16 May 1947)

Lt.-Col. Lord Ninian Edward Crichton-Stuart (15 May 1883 – 2 October 1915)

Lord Colum Edmund Crichton-Stuart (3 April 1886 – 18 August 1957)

Death

Bute died in 1900 and was buried in a small chapel on the Isle of Bute, his ancestral home. His heart was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.


The Peerage 23869 John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute

  • Born on 12 September 1847 at Mount Stuart, Bute, Scotland.
  • Son of John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of the County of Bute and Lady Sophia Frederica Christina Rawdon-Hastings.
  • Married Hon. Gwendolen Mary Anne Fitzalan-Howard, daughter of Edward George Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop and Augusta Talbot, on 16 April 1872.
  • Died on 9 October 1900 at age 53 at Dumfries House, Cumnock, Ayrshire, Scotland, from paralysis.
  • Buried on 13 October 1900.
  • Will was proven (by probate) on 10 May 1901.
  • Held the office of
  • Hereditary Keeper of Rothsay Castle in 1848.
  • Mayor of Cardiff in 1891
  • Lord Rector of St. Andrews University between 1892 and 1898.
  • Lord-Lieutenant of Bute between 1892 and 1900.
  • > Provost of Rothsay between 1896 and 1899
  • Succeeded to the title of
  • 6th Lord Mountstuart, Cumra and Inchmarnock [S., 1703] on 18 March 1848.
  • 6th Viscount Kingarth [S., 1703] on 18 March 1848.
  • 6th Earl of Bute [S., 1703] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Baronet Stuart, of Bute [N.S., 1627] on 18 March 1848.
  • 3rd Marquess of Bute [G.B., 1796] on 18 March 1848.
  • 4th Baron Mount Stuart of Wortley, co. York [G.B., 1761] on 18 March 1848.
  • 15th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar [S., 1488] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Earl of Dumfries [S., 1633] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Viscount of Air [S., 1633] on 18 March 1848.
  • 3rd Viscount Mountjoy, of the Isle of Wight [G.B., 1796] on 18 March 1848.
  • 3rd Earl of Windsor [G.B., 1796] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Lord of Sanquhar [S., 1622] on 18 March 1848.
  • 3rd Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle [G.B., 1776] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar and Cumnock [S., 1633] on 18 March 1848.
  • 8th Viscount of Air [S., 1622] on 18 March 1848.1
  • Educated at Harrow School, Harrow on the Hill, London, England.
  • Matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, on 13 October 1865.
  • Invested as a Knight, Order of the Thistle (K.T.) in 1875.
  • Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law (LL.D.) by University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 1879.
  • Graduated from University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, in 1882 with a Doctor of Law (LL.D.).
  • Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law (LL.D.) by St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland, in 1893.
  • Will was dated 13 July 1894.

Children of John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute and Hon. Gwendolen Mary Anne Fitzalan-Howard

  • Lord Margaret Crichton-Stuart b. 24 Dec 1875, d. 6 Jun 1964
  • John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of the County of Bute b. 20 Jun 1881, d. 25 Apr 1947
  • Lt.-Col. Lord Ninian Edward Crichton-Stuart b. 15 May 1883, d. 2 Oct 1915
  • Lord Colum Edmund Crichton-Stuart b. 3 Apr 1886, d. 18 Aug 1957



Patronage[edit]

His bookplate The Marquess's patronage was extensive, with a particular enthusiasm for buildings of religion and academia. Whilst Rector of the University of St Andrews, he provided the University with a new home for its Medical School and endowed the Bute Chair of Medicine. A supporter of education for women, he also paid for St Andrews University's first female lecturer, who taught anatomy to women medical students when Professor James Bell Pettigrew refused to do so.[4] At the University of Glasgow, he gifted the funds required to complete the University's huge central hall, named the Bute Hall in his honour, and he is commemorated both at the University's Commemoration Day and on its Memorial Gates. He was made the Honorary President ('Ceannard Urramach a' Chomainn') of the Highland Society of the University of Edinburgh.

Between 1868 and 1886 he financed the rebuilding of St Margaret's Parish Church, Roath, Cardiff, creating a new mausoleum for the Bute family with sarcophagi in red marble.[5]

In 1866 he donated a site in Cardiff Docks for the Hamadryad Hospital Ship for sick seafarers and, on his death in 1900, bequeathed £20,000 towards the cost of a new bricks-and-mortar hospital, which became the Royal Hamadryad.[6]

The Marquess of Bute's Case[edit] The Marquess was involved in a notable company law case, known as "the Marquess of Bute's Case", reported on appeal in 1892, called Re Cardiff Savings Bank [1892] 2 Ch 100. The Marquess had been appointed to the board of directors of the Cardiff Savings Bank as "President", at the age of six months, in effect inheriting the office from his father. He only attended one board meeting in the next 38 years. When the bank became insolvent following a fellow director's fraudulent dealing, Stirling J held that the Marquess was not liable as he knew nothing of what was going on. It was not suggested that he ought to have known what was going on, or that he had a duty of care to inform himself as to the affairs of the bank. The case set a famous legal precedent, now superseded, for the minimal view of the duties of company directors. It was naturally a considerable embarrassment for the Marquess, although he escaped legal blame.

Family life[edit] John, Marquess of Bute married Gwendolen Fitzalan-Howard (daughter of Edward, Lord Howard of Glossop) in 1872 and had four children:

John, 4th Marquess of Bute (20 June 1881 – 16 May 1947) Lord Ninian Edward Crichton-Stuart (15 May 1883 – 2 October 1915) Lord Colum Edmund Crichton-Stuart (3 April 1886 – 18 August 1957) Lady Margaret Crichton-Stuart (24 December 1875 – 6 June 1964) Works[edit] John, Marquess of Bute (1911). Brendan's Fabulous Voyage. via Project Gutenberg The Roman Catholic Church; John, Marquess of Bute (transl) (1908) [1st pub in 1879]. The Roman breviary(1908) (New Rev ed.). Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. via The Internet Archive Death[edit] Bute died in 1900 after a protracted illness, his first stroke having occurred in 1896,[3] and was buried in a small chapel on the Isle of Bute, his ancestral home. His heart was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.

In his will he left £100,000 to each of his children, with the exception of his eldest son, who inherited the Bute estates including Cardiff Castle and the family property on the Isle of Bute and Dumfries.

view all

John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of the County of Bute's Timeline

1847
September 12, 1847
Argyll and Bute, United Kingdom
1875
December 24, 1875
Age 28
1881
June 20, 1881
Age 33
1883
May 15, 1883
Age 35
Bute, Scotland
1886
April 3, 1886
Age 38
1900
October 9, 1900
Age 53