About Ostenaco Outacite "Mankiller" of Settico, Cherokee Emissary to England
Born c. 1703, Died c. 1780
Ostenaco (Ustanakwa, or "Big Head"), who preferred to go by the warrior's title he earned at any early age, "Mankiller" (Utsidihi), also known as Judd's Friend, who lived c. 1703 – 1780, was the Warrior (skiagusta) of the Cherokee town Tomotley, residing previously in Great Tellico and probably born in Great Hiwassee, finally migrating in the town of Ultiwa on Ooltewah Creek (in the modern Hamilton County, Tennessee) during the Chickamauga wars. He was known as a great orator and a leading figure in diplomacy with British colonial authorities.
During the French and Indian War, Ostenaco at first aided the Colony of Virginia against the French and the Shawnee, but later turned against his erstwhile allies along with the rest of the Cherokee. He was also involved in the Anglo-Cherokee War and the Chickamauga wars.
The party of Lieutenant Henry Timberlake (including Sergeant Thomas Sumter, an interpreter, and a servant) arrived in the Overhill town of Tomotley on 20 December, where they were greeted by one of the leading men in the town, Ostenaco, visiting from Keowee.
After spending several days in Tomotley as guests of Ostenaco, Timberlake and his interpreter proceeded to the Overhill mother town of Chota, where a number of chiefs had gathered in the town's large councilhouse. Ostenaco gave a speech and ceremoniously buried a hatchet in the ground, symbolizing a state of peace between the English and the Cherokee. Afterward, Timberlake took part in a ceremony in which he smoked several peace pipes with the gathered chiefs, a practice Timberlake personally found "very disagreeable," but participated without openly complaining.
Timberlake and Ostenaco continued southward to Citico, where Timberlake was greeted by a ceremonial dance involving some 400 Cherokee. Timberlake recalled that the dancers were "painted all over in a hideous manner" and that they "danced in a very uncommon figure." The town's chief, Cheulah, presented Timberlake with a string of beads and held another pipe-smoking ceremony. The non-stop pipe smoking made Timberlake so sick that he "could not stir for several hours." The following day, Timberlake and Ostenaco traveled to Chilhowee, the second southernmost of the Overhill towns on Timberlake's map, where the town's chief, Yachtino, held a peace procession similar to that at Citico.
His assignment largely completed, Timberlake returned to Tomotley with Ostenaco on 2 January 1762. Timberlake spent the next few weeks studying Cherokee habits and making notes for his map of the Overhill country. At the end of January, rumors began trickling in from Cherokee scouts of renewed hostilities with rival tribes to the north. Although the rumors turned out to be based on a misunderstanding, Timberlake nevertheless grew anxious and begged Ostenaco to guide him back to Virginia. Ostenaco reluctantly agreed, and the party set out on 10 March 1762. Just before departure, Timberlake witnessed the ceremonial return of a war party led by Chief Willinawaw. The party sang "the war-song" and planted a scalp-filled pole next to the councilhouse door.
The Timberlake party had decided to make the return trip overland, having purchased horses from the Cherokee. Ostenaco, accompanied by several hundred Cherokee warriors, guided the Timberlake group northward across what is now known as the Great Indian Warpath, which follows the western base of the Appalachian Mountains. On 11 March, the party arrived at the abandoned village of Elajoy along Little River in what is now Maryville, and crossed the French Broad River the following day. A week later, they reached Fort Robinson, which the Stephen garrison had abandoned but had left behind a large supply of flour. The expedition left Long Island on 22 March, continuing northward to an abandoned army camp where Timberlake was despaired to find that a trunk containing his belongings had been looted. The party finally arrived in Williamsburg in early April.
Visit to London
Drawing of Chief Ostenaco during his visit to London, 1762, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. While in Williamsburg, Timberlake and Ostenaco attended a dinner party at William & Mary College at which Ostenaco professed his desire to meet the king of England. Although he feared the trip would break him financially, Timberlake agreed. A young Thomas Jefferson, then a student at the college, later wrote of Ostenaco:
"I knew much of the great Outassete (Ostenaco), the warrior and orator of the Cherokee. He was always the guest of my father on his journeys to and from Williamsburg. I was in his camp when he made his great farewell oration to his people the evening before he departed for England. The moon was in full splendour, and to her he seemed to address himself in his prayers for his own safety on the voyage and that of his people during his absence. His sounding voice, distinct articulation, animated action, and the solemn silence of his people at their several fires, filled me with awe and veneration, although I did not understand a single word he uttered."
In May 1762, Timberlake, Sumter, and three distinguished Cherokee leaders, including Ostenaco, departed for London.
Arriving in early June, the Cherokee were an immediate attraction, drawing crowds all over the city. The poet Oliver Goldsmith waited for three hours to meet the Cherokee, and offered a gift to Ostenaco. They sat for Sir Joshua Reynolds to take their portraits, and they met personally with King George III. The Cherokee returned to North America with Sergeant Sumter on about 25 August 1762.
During the American Revolution
During the Second Cherokee War, part of the American Revolution, Ostenaco was the chief war leader of the Cherokee Lower Towns in western South Carolina/northeast Georgia, and in 1776 led their attack against the Province of Georgia. After the destruction of the Lower Towns in the retaliation which followed, Ostenaco led his people west. The majority resettled in what is now North Georgia, with Ustanali as their chief town, but some followed him into the Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794) with Dragging Canoe, and settled with him in the Chickamauga (now Chattanooga, Tennessee) region at the town of Ultiwa (Ooltewah).
He died at the home of his grandson, Richard Timberlake (son of Henry Timberlake and Ostenaco's daughter), at Ultiwa in 1780.
- ^ Stuart, John (21 July 1767), Letter to Thomas Gage
- ^ Henry Timberlake, Samuel Williams (ed.), Memoirs, 1756–1765 (Marietta, Georgia: Continental Book Co., 1948), 57–58.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 59–61.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 63.
- ^ a b Timberlake, Memoirs, 65.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 109–113.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 118–129.
- ^ Francis W. Hirst, Life and Letters of Thomas Jefferson, 16
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 130–133.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 136.
- ^ St James Chronicle, 3 July 1762.
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 143–144
- ^ Timberlake, Memoirs, 145–147.
Evans, E. Raymond (1976), "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Ostenaco", Journal of Cherokee Studies (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian) 1 (1): 41–54 Timberlake, Henry; Williams, Samuel, eds. (1948), Memoirs, 1756–1765, Marietta, Georgia: Continental Book Co.
MANKILLER - He was from Settico The Cherokee word for mankiller was Outacite- Also called Utsidihi and Lame Arm. Oconostota's younger brother and the son of the Smallpox Conjuror of Settico.
http://www.ncpublications.com/colonial/newspapers/subjects/Indians.htm The Colonial Records Project, NC Archives
January 11, 1764 Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh)
Charlestown, South Carolina, Nov. 9. Their Excellencies the Governors of North Carolina and of this province, his Honour the Lieutenant-governor of Virginia, and the gentlemen who set out with them from thence on Tuesday the 25th ult. for the congress at Augusta, arrived at Fort Moore on Wednesday last: they were very genteelly entertained at Sheldon, by Stephen Bull, Esq; at Mr. Galphin’s, where they lay the 1st instant: they were met by John Stuart, Esq; Superintendant of the southern district, attended by Attakullakulla, Ottassite, Salloue, and the other Cherokee headmen. The Governor of Georgia arrived at Augusta the 25th past. The presents were all got up safe.
London Magazine: Or, Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer..., Volume 34, June 1765, p. 321 https://books.google.com/books?id=9FkDAAAAMAAJ
Extract of a Letter from Charles-Town, South Carolina, dated March 30 . "The following is the most particular account we have been able to procure of the expedition of Ottassite or Judd's friend (the Cherokee headman who was about three years ago in England) undertaken at the desire of the hon. John Stuart, Esq} superintendent of the Southern district of America. Ottassite went out in October last in order to intercept the supplies, which, it was said, the French were sending up the Mississippi to the enemy Indians at Detroit, &c. When he got to the Fort Assumption, which the French had evacuated, he received information, that several loaded boats had gone up the river about twelve days before. In consequence of which information he took that rout for some days; but finding it impracticable to come up with them, his party being weak, and doubting a little the truth of his intelligence, he returned, and after some days march down the river, 'perceived two boats, which he followed, keeping out of sight till they should come to an anchor, which one of them did two pushed to the opposite shore, and the people escaped. He carried his prisoners into the fort, which he took possession of in his majesty's name, made a fire, and out of a keg of brandy which the Frenchmen had, drank the health of Great King George and Queen Charlotte, and obliged his prisoners to do the same, and join him in a song in praise of their majesties.
The honourable house of assembly of this province, in consequence of messages from his honour the lieutenant governor, hath voted 900 L. as a reward to Ottassite or Judd's Friend and his party, for their good services abovementioned, and 7000 L. towards building a new fort (instead of Fort More) on the Savannah river, near the mouth of Broad river, about 15 miles above Hillsborough township, which will have the command of a very convenient fort, and will be of great use to the three new settlements of Irish, French, and German protestants. Leave is given to bring in a bill for erecting and endowing a college for the education of youth in this province,"
See also Transatlantic Encounters: American Indians in Britain, 1500-1776 https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0521865948 Alden T. Vaughan
American Indians in British Art, 1700-1840 https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0806188847 Stephanie Pratt - 2013
The Memoirs of Lt. Henry Timberlake: The Story of a Soldier, ... https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0807831263 Henry Timberlake, Duane H. King - 1765
Names of Eastern Cherokee Individuals in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century
From Robert F. Jarrett’s 1916 "Occoneechee, the Maid of the Mystic Lake"
given in documents as the name or title of a prominent Cherokee chief about 1720. It appears also as Otacite, Ottassite, Outassatah, Wootassite and Wrosetasatow(!), but the form cannot be identified, although it seems to contain the personal name suffix diha’, "killer." Timberlake says: "There are some other honorary titles among them, conferred in reward of great actions; the first of which is Outacity or "Man-killer," and the second Colona or "The Raven."
Re: Ostenaco mwalkingstick Posted: 3 Jun 2005 3:52AM GMT
...The noted historian, Duane King, who has written extensively on the southeastern Indians, is working on a documenatary on the life of Ostenaco and the other two Cherokee (Pouting Pigeon was one) who went to England in the 1760's. He is teaming up with local Cherokee artist, Talmadge, who has painted several likenesses of Ostenaco, in producing this documentary. SO, look for this effort later this year or early next year, hopefully it will provide some answers to all of our questions. Meanwhile, you might want to exa mine Duane King's literature as well as a book entitled, "Old Frontiers", which is a valued history on this era. It's a somewhat rare book, but I would think most libraries would have access to an inter=library loan per this book.
Posted: 17 Jun 2016 1:33AM GMT
Ostenaco is referred to as Judd's Friend in South Carolina colonial records from the first half of the 1740's. (According to the biography published in the Journal of Cherokee Studies, some records call him 'Judge's Friend.' ) The Ancestry database 'Emigrants to Pennsylvania 1641-1819' records Rowland Judd's indenture in Philadelphia in 1745. He next appears in Pittsylvania County, Virginia in 1765, and not in North Carolina until 1772. It is not possible that he was a friend of Ostenaco, who was born about 1705, when Ostenaco was a young man. Rowland Judd did not arrive in America until after Ostenaco was middle-aged and a well-known leader among the Cherokee, and lived hundreds of miles away from the Cherokee Nation until Ostenaco was 60 years old.
A Guide to Cherokee Documents in Foreign Archives
William L. Anderson, James Allen Lewis - 1983
p. 369 (Great Britain) Fol. 123 1 May 1762, Williamsburg. Lt. Gov. Fauquier to Bd of Trade. Skiagusta Oconesta (Oconostota), the chief Overhill Warrior (not Connetarke who is old) came to confirm the recent peace. Skiagusta seems more dependable than his rival (Little Carpenter) and has requested permission to go to England. Fauquier put Skiagusta, two followers and an interpreter on Capt. Blake's Epreuve.
p. 123 Fol. 270. (Great Britain) 2 Aug 1768 [Savannah] talk from John Stuart to Oconostota, Attakullakulla, Ostenaco, Willinawa, and other headmen and warriors of Upper and Lower Cherokee Nations (copy]. Stuart discusses evacuation of Fort Prince George.
p. 491 (Great Britain) Fol. 146 6 June 1757 Augusta Courthouse. Copies of original letters shown by Outassity Ostenaco, Chief Warrior of Tpmatly, to [Edmund Atkin]. One page. Encosures to fol. 155b.
Fol. 146. 28 Oct 1756 Augusta Courthouse. Capt John McNeil to Outassity Ostenaco (copy). Capt. McNeil is pleased that Ostenaco is taking the Cherokees to Virginia. McNeil will guard the women and Children while the Cherokee are gone.
Fol 146b. 30 Oct 1756. Major Andrew Lewis to Outassity Ostenaco (copy). Guns, ammunition, clothing... [remainder of letter is not visible on Googlebooks and must be purchased].
p. 127 (Great Britain) Fol. 171 19 Jan 1769. Talk by John Stuart with Head Beloved Man of Chote, Attakullakulla, Oconostota and Principal Chiefs. Ostenaco believes that the Cherokee would not object to the running of the boundary line as long as it secures possession of land between the Holston and Kanawha Rivers.
p. 151 Fol. 179. 30 Aug 1775. St. Augustine. John Stuart to Great Warrior, Attakullakulla, Ostenaco, Ecuij, Prince of Chote, and all Cherokee chiefs (copy). Savannah residents seized gunpowder intended for the Cherokees. Cherokees were admonished for murdering whites in their nation. The differences between England and America should not concern the Cherokees.
Henry Timberlake had one child, a son, Richard Timberlake, by one of Ostenaco's daughters, Sakinney. In his old age, Timberlake's friend Ostenaco lived in retirement with his grandson, Richard.
Jump up ^ Hoig, Stan (1998). The Cherokees and Their Chiefs: In the Wake of Empire. University of Arkansas Press. p. 45. ISBN 9781557285287. 34.Jump up ^ Baigent, Elizabeth (2004). "Timberlake, Henry". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27457. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) 35.Jump up ^ Conley, Robert J. (2007). A Cherokee Encyclopedia. University of New Mexico Press. p. 172. ISBN 9780826339515.