Theodosia Alston

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Theodosia Alston (Burr)

Also Known As: "Theodosia Bartow Alston"
Birthdate: (29)
Birthplace: Albany, Albany County, New York, United States
Death: December 31, 1812 (29)
Perhaps on Schooner "Patriot" Nags Head (Probably drowned during a storm, with the loss of the ship on which she was traveling)
Place of Burial: Hatteras, NC, USA
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Aaron Burr, Jr., 3rd Vice President of the USA and Theodosia Burr
Wife of Joseph Alston, Governor
Mother of Aaron Burr Alston
Sister of Sarah "Sally" Burr and Four TB Burr
Half sister of Louisa Charlotte Webb and John Pierre Burr

Managed by: Vance Barrett Mathis
Last Updated:

About Theodosia Alston

From Theodosia Burr Alston: Portrait of a Prodigy by Richard N. Côté.

Theodosia Burr Alston was a brilliant, independent, highly-educated and freethinking woman in an age which valued none of those traits in females. She was born June 21, 1783 in Albany, New York, the daughter of prominent attorney Aaron Burr (1756-1836) and his wife, the former Mrs. Theodosia Prevost (d. 1794), a widow. Young Theodosia spent most of her unmarried life in New York City with her charismatic, influential father, who had distinguished himself as an officer in the Revolutionary War. There he served under Col. Benedict Arnold and became a member of General George Washington's inner circle. After her mother died when Theodosia was eleven, she became her father's closest confidante and the mistress of Richmond Hill, his New York country estate. A child prodigy whose education was designed by her adoring and demanding father, Theodosia spoke Latin, French, German, and read Greek by the age of twelve.

On the evening of February 2, 1801, at the age of seventeen, Theodosia married Joseph Alston (1779-1816), a wealthy and cultured South Carolina rice planter. .... The birth of her only child had resulted in debilitating medical problems untreatable in her time, leaving Theodosia to live out the rest of her her married life infertile and battling recurring bouts of physical agony. ... Ignoring her debilitated condition and the threat of naval attack, Theodosia, her physician, and one or more servants boarded the Patriot, a pilot boat and former privateer, in Georgetown, S.C. on Thursday, December 31, 1812 and set set sail for New York. Neither she nor her ship were ever seen again.

Both her husband and father were inconsolable in their grief. Joseph Alston outlived his wife by less than four years. Aaron Burr died in 1836 in nearly penniless obscurity.

Murdered...? Wasn't her ship simply lost at sea...?

Theodosia's History

The sad lady leaving the Waccamaw Neck that morning was the only daughter of Aaron Burr who had once been the Vice President of the United States. She was also the young and charming wife of Joseph Alston, the newly elected Governor of South Carolina. Her life had once held such promise, but now she felt only melancholia.

Theodosia was always the delight of her politically powerful father’s life. After her mother died Aaron Burr had raised Theodosia to become the captivating hostess of his New York household. She had studied music, languages, philosophy, and politics, becoming as well educated in these areas as any young man of her day. Additionally, she was beautiful, intelligent, and charming. Wealthy and powerful young suitors flocked to the dinners and entertainments at Aaron Burr’s New York estate.

Joseph Alston (His branch of the family dropped one "l" from the Allston name.)

Theodosia surprised everyone when she selected Joseph Alston of South Carolina to become her husband. He came from such a different world. Theodosia’s father was happy with the match, however. He was thrilled at young Alston’s growing political influence in the important southern state, and was confident in the rice planter’s ability to provide a gracious and loving home for his daughter.

Young Joseph Alston had enormous wealth as well as an excellent education and high political aspirations. Joseph’s wealth and social position had been assured at the age of five when his grandfather left him The Oaks Plantation on the Waccamaw Neck in the South Carolina Lowcountry, one of the plantations Mr. Huntington later bought to create Brookgreen Gardens. Joseph’s father had educated him carefully with tutors at home, and then sent him to Princeton. Joseph was admitted to the bar by the time he was twenty years old although he never practiced law.

Theodosia in South Carolina

Joseph and Theodosia married in Albany in February 1801 and stopped in Washington on their way South to see Aaron Burr inaugurated as Thomas Jefferson’s Vice President. Then Joseph brought Theodosia back to the Waccamaw Neck to become Mistress of The Oaks.

Theodosia never prospered in the South. Her health was never good, and she found the South Carolina climate depressing. The heat and humidity often left her frail and sickly. While she participated in lavish social events at The Oaks and in Charleston, she missed the sparkling company of those New York dinners, and she missed the doting father she idealized.

Theodosia grew increasingly worried about Aaron Burr as he became embroiled in political turmoil. The disastrous duel with Alexander Hamilton, later accusations of treason over his land schemes, and then his self imposed exile in Europe all left Theodosia deeply saddened.

Birth of a Son

The one bright spot in Theodosia’s life was the birth of her son in 1802. Joseph and Theodosia named the baby Aaron Burr Alston, and he lit up their lives. Little Aaron grew up lively and intelligent, with both Theodosia and Joseph devoting themselves to his education and his happiness. Theodosia wrote long, detailed letters about every aspect of her son’s life to her father in Europe.


Then tragedy struck the Alston household. Joseph’s father had built a lovely summer home called The Castle on Dubordieu Beach, one of the sandy barrier islands just south of The Oaks. Each summer the Alston household moved there to escape the deadly "malaria" fevers around the swampy rice fields, and to socialize with other family members. Joseph, Theodosia, and Aaron made their usual move to The Castle early in the summer of 1812, but ten year old Aaron was already sick. He died there at The Castle on Dubordieu Beach before the end of June. The grieving family returned him to The Oaks for burial in the family plot.

Theodosia and Joseph were devastated, as was Aaron Burr when he received the news just as he returned to New York from Europe. The light was gone from Theodosia’s life, and she could not seem to recover. Finally all agreed that a visit to her father might lift Theodosia’s spirits.

The Journey

Overland travel all the way to New York was deemed too demanding for Theodosia in her weakened state. A sea voyage seemed more reasonable. Unfortunately the ongoing War of 1812 made the always-risky sea route doubly dangerous. British warships were frightening enough but British-sponsored privateers also threatened. These were privately owned vessels given authority by the government to attack enemy ships including passenger vessels. Fortunately Governor Alston was able to use his influence and connections to get letters of safe passage for Theodosia addressed to both American and British ship captains.

After Theodosia and the rest of her party had boarded the plantation boat at Brookgreen that December day in 1812, oarsmen rowed it along the small stream and out into the Waccamaw River. There they raised the sail. The wind and current carried their boat on the falling tide down toward Georgetown where Theodosia and her party would board a coastal schooner for New York. Joseph Alston was waiting for Theodosia in Georgetown. Many hours still remained before her ship, the Patriot, would sail. It was a small vessel that had previously been fitted out with heavy guns as a privateer itself, but was now making a passenger voyage to New York.

Theodosia preferred to wait on dry land rather than in the cramped ship’s quarters so Joseph escorted her into a warehouse next to the wharf where a room was comfortably furnished and a warm fire was burning. There they spent their last hours together, talking of happier days from the past and happier days they hoped would come again in the future.

Finally the tide was right and the Patriot made ready to sail. Joseph and Theodosia embraced one final time as he wished her Godspeed and a safe journey. Theodosia boarded the ship with her maid, her baggage, and Dr. Timothy Green, a family friend her father had sent from New York to accompany Theodosia on the voyage. The schooner set sail and soon crossed the bar at the mouth of Winyah Bay for the six day voyage to New York.

Disappearance, Mystery

The Patriot never reached New York. Its fate remains a mystery to this day. At the time many believed that it was caught in a winter storm off Cape Hatteras, the “Graveyard of the Atlantic." Others feared that its stowed guns from privateering days had broken loose in heavy seas and damaged the hull, causing it to take on water and sink. Still others, later including Robert Frost (as he described in his poem, "Kitty Hawk") believed that wreckers on the North Carolina Outer Banks had lured the ship to its doom for the spoils they could salvage.

As Governor Alston and Aaron Burr grieved, stories and legends grew. Some said Theodosia was carried off to become the wife of a pirate captain. Others claimed that she survived a shipwreck and lived out her days on the Outer Banks, a reclusive figure crazed by grief and horror.

Many years later in Chicago, an old seaman on his deathbed told of having served on a pirate ship that captured a passenger schooner off the Carolina coast. They forced all the passengers and crew to walk the plank. He had always remembered the beautiful young woman who calmly stepped off into the raging seas, with her arms and her eyes raised to the heavens.

About the same time an elderly widow dying on the Outer Banks gave a lovely portrait of a young woman to her physician in exchange for his services. The portrait bore a striking resemblance to Theodosia. It had been her husband’s portion of the loot from a ship he had plundered in his privateering days. He had always claimed that his crew had come upon the mysterious ship with its sails fully set, showing no sign of damage or disarray, but empty of all human life.

The mystery of Theodosia’s disappearance has never been solved. Whatever her fate, many believe that Theodosia’s uneasy spirit still returns to roam the Low country where she spent her happiest and her saddest days. Some have seen her pacing back and forth in her long cloak near the warehouse in Georgetown where she waited to board the Patriot. Others have seen her walking slowly along the strand at Dubordieu Beach, her head bent in sorrow, or floating over the waves on foggy nights at Huntington Beach, once called Theaville in her honor. Some have even seen her walking the paths and descending the rice island steps here at Brookgreen, just as Flora did.

Joseph did not long outlive his wife and son. He died in 1816 and was also buried in The Oaks family cemetery. A monument to Theodosia was raised there as well. That cemetery lay long neglected, almost forgotten, for over a hundred years. When the Huntington’s created Brookgreen Gardens, they had it cleaned and new brickwork added. They planted azaleas throughout the small cemetery to create a lovely place of remembrance for Joseph and Theodosia Burr Alston and their son Aaron here in the Carolina Low country where they once lived happily all together.

The couple's son, Aaron Burr Alston, was born in 1802.

Following the baby's birth, Theodosia's health became fragile. She made trips to Saratoga, New York and Ballston Spa in an effort to restore her health.

In the spring of 1807, Aaron Burr was arrested for treason. During his trial in Richmond, Virginia, Theodosia was with him, providing comfort and support. He was acquitted of the charges against him but left for Europe, where he remained for a period of four years. While he was in exile, Theodosia acted as his agent in America, raising money, which she sent to her father, and transmitting messages. Theodosia wrote letters to Secretary of State Albert Gallatin and to Dolley Madison in an effort to secure a smooth return for Aaron. He returned to New York in July 1812 but his daughter could not quickly join him. Her son had succumbed to a fever and died on June 30 and the anguish involved nearly killed Theodosia. She had to wait until December before she could make the journey. With her husband unable to accompany her, her father sent Timothy Green, an old friend, to accompany her on the trip north. Green possessed some medical knowledge.

Her husband and her were the first recorded couple to honeymoon at Niagara Falls.

Her death was by walking the plank, at the hands of pirates aboard the schooner Patriot.

Another portrait:

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Theodosia Alston's Timeline

June 21, 1783
Albany, Albany County, New York, United States
May 29, 1802
Age 18
New York, NY, USA
December 31, 1812
Age 29
Perhaps on Schooner "Patriot" Nags Head
December 31, 1812
Age 29
Hatteras, NC, USA