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École normale supérieure

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  • Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat
    Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat is a French mathematician and physicist who made important contributions to the general theory of relativity. She was the first woman to be elected to the French Academy of Sciences.
  • Laurent Lafforgue, Fields Medal 2002
    Laurent Lafforgue (born 6 November 1966) is a French mathematician. He has made outstanding contributions to Langlands' program in the fields of number theory and analysis, and in particular proved the...
  • Wendelin Werner, Fields Medal 2006
    Wendelin Werner (born 23 September 1968) is a German-born French mathematician working on random processes such as self-avoiding random walks, Brownian motion, Schramm–Loewner evolution, and related th...
  • Cédric Villani, Fields Medal 2010
    Cédric Patrice Thierry Villani (born 5 October 1973) is a French mathematician and politician working primarily on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics. He was a...
  • Jean-Cristophe Yoccoz, Fields Medal 1994 (1957 - 2016)
    Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (May 29, 1957 – September 3, 2016) was a French mathematician. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1994, for his work on dynamical systems.Yoccoz attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, ...

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup’, ENS Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is a French grande école (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system), and a constituent college of PSL Research University. It was initially conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment. It has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for many of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoléon I, emperor of the French, ENS has two main sections (literary and scientific) and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, some ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants.

Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics (ENS has the highest ratio of Nobel laureates per alumni of any institution worldwide), 11 Fields Medalists (the most of any university in the world), more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal (France's highest scientific prize), several hundred members of the Institut de France, several Prime Ministers, and many ministers. The school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, and Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Nobel Prize in Literature 1927, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Adolphine Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Paul-Yves Nizan, and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Emile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, and Pierre Bourdieu, and "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.