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Profiles

  • Vasily Dzhugashvili (1921 - 1962)
    Vasily Iosifovich Dzhugashvili, known also as Vasily Stalin, was the son of Joseph Stalin and his second wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva. As a schoolboy, Vasily distinguished himself only for his prank...
  • Greve Sten Gustavsson (tre rosor) (b. - 1590)
    Sten Gustavsson Gift 1588 fastlagssöndagen i Kalmar med Brita Johansdotter (Bielke), dotter av Johan Axelsson Bielke och Margareta Posse .
  • Dr. Charles Gloyd (1840 - 1869)
    Caroline Moore married a young Civil War doctor, Charles Gloyd, on November 21, 1867. The couple separated shortly before the birth of their daughter, Charlien. Gloyd died as a result of alcohol the ne...
  • Robert Guy Newton (1905 - 1956)
    Mr. Robert Newton, who died at Beverly Hills, California, on Sunday at the age of 50, as briefly reported in our later editions yesterday, was an actor of force and power, to which for some reason he w...
  • Saulo Haarla (1930 - 1971)
    Saulo Ismaro Haarla oli suomalainen näyttelijä ja teatterinjohtaja. Hänen vanhempansa olivat näyttelijä Tyyne Haarla ja kirjailija Lauri Haarla . Haarla valmistui Teatterikoulusta 1953 ja näytteli se...

Please add people who died either from the effects of excessive alcohol consumption or alcohol poisoning.

  • The majority of people die from causes brought on by alcoholism. In some cases, they die of multiple causes, with alcoholism being a major factor.
  • Conditions associated with alcoholism:
    • Auto accidents, some suicides, cirrhosis of the liver, alcoholic hepatitis, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal.
    • Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer.
    • Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.

Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.

Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men.

Both environmental factors and genetics are associated with alcoholism with about half the risk attributed to each. A person with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more likely to be alcoholic themselves. Environmental factors include social, cultural, and behavioral influences.

Medically, alcoholism is considered both a physical and mental illness.

Historically the name "dipsomania" was coined by German physician C. W. Hufeland in 1819 before it was superseded by "alcoholism". That term now has a more specific meaning. The term "alcoholism" was first used in 1849 by the Swedish physician Magnus Huss to describe the systematic adverse effects of alcohol.

The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide (4.1% of the population over 15 years of age). In the United States about 17 million (7%) of adults and 0.7 million (2.8%) of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected. It is more common among males and young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age. It is the least common in Africa at 1.1% and has the highest rates in Eastern Europe at 11%. Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013 up from 112,000 deaths in 1990. A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol. It often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years. In the United States it resulted in economic costs of $224 billion USD in 2006. Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism including: tippler, drunkard, dipsomaniac, and souse. In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome".

Prognosis

Alcoholism often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years The most common cause of death in alcoholics is from cardiovascular complications. There is a high rate of suicide in chronic alcoholics, which increases the longer a person drinks. Approximately 3–15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide, and research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence. This is believed to be due to alcohol causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry, as well as social isolation. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 25 percent of suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse. Among those with alcohol dependence after one year, some met the criteria for low-risk drinking, even though only 25.5 percent of the group received any treatment, with the breakdown as follows: 25 percent were found to be still dependent, 27.3 percent were in partial remission (some symptoms persist), 11.8 percent asymptomatic drinkers (consumption increases chances of relapse) and 35.9 percent were fully recovered — made up of 17.7 percent low-risk drinkers plus 18.2 percent abstainers. In contrast, however, the results of a long-term (60-year) follow-up of two groups of alcoholic men indicated that "return to controlled drinking rarely persisted for much more than a decade without relapse or evolution into abstinence." There was also "return-to-controlled drinking, as reported in short-term studies, is often a mirage."

Long-term effects

Drinking more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents. About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year. Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States. No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine. Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption. A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized tendency to accidental injury, resulting a propensity to bone fractures.

Women develop long-term complications of alcohol dependence more rapidly than do men. Additionally, women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men. Examples of long-term complications include brain, heart, and liver damage and an increased risk of breast cancer. Additionally, heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women. This results in reproductive dysfunction such as anovulation, decreased ovarian mass, problems or irregularity of the menstrual cycle, and early menopause. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can occur in individuals who chronically abuse alcohol and have a recent history of binge drinking. The amount of alcohol that can be biologically processed and its effects differ between sexes. Equal dosages of alcohol consumed by men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), since women generally have a higher percentage of body fat and therefore a lower volume of distribution for alcohol than men, and because the stomachs of men tend to metabolize alcohol more quickly.

Long-term misuse of alcohol can cause a wide range of mental health problems. Severe cognitive problems are common; approximately 10 percent of all dementia cases are related to alcohol consumption, making it the second leading cause of dementia. Excessive alcohol use causes damage to brain function, and psychological health can be increasingly affected over time. Psychiatric disorders are common in alcoholics, with as many as 25 percent suffering severe psychiatric disturbances. The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms are anxiety and depression disorders. Psychiatric symptoms usually initially worsen during alcohol withdrawal, but typically improve or disappear with continued abstinence.

Alcohol-Related Deaths:

  • An estimated 88,000 people (approximately 62,000 men and 26,000 women) die from alcohol-related causes annually, making alcohol the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States according to the CDC in 2014.
  • In 2014, alcohol-impaired driving fatalities accounted for 9,967 deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities).

Global Burden:

  • In 2012, 3.3 million deaths, or 5.9 percent of all global deaths (7.6 percent for men and 4.0 percent for women), were attributable to alcohol consumption.13
  • In 2014, the World Health Organization reported that alcohol contributed to more than 200 diseases and injury-related health conditions, most notably DSM–IV alcohol dependence (see sidebar), liver cirrhosis, cancers, and injuries.14 In 2012, 5.1 percent of the burden of disease and injury worldwide (139 million disability-adjusted life-years) was attributable to alcohol consumption.
  • Globally, alcohol misuse is the fifth leading risk factor for premature death and disability; among people between the ages of 15 and 49, it is the first.15 In the age group 20–39 years, approximately 25 percent of the total deaths are alcohol attributable.
  • The World Health Organization estimates that up to 4 percent of all deaths worldwide are alcohol-related. This accounts for 2.5 million deaths, with over 300,000 between the ages of 15 and 29. Alcohol is a factor in up to 60 different diseases and injuries which include cirrhosis, poisonings, violence, cancer and heart disease. It is reportedly the world’s third-largest risk factor for disease burden. It is also associated with a number of social and developmental issues such as neglect and abuse.
  • For more international statistics see also: Foundation for a Drug-free World - The Truth about Alcohol

Alcohol and the Human Body:

  • In 2013, of the 72,559 liver disease deaths among individuals ages 12 and older, 45.8 percent involved alcohol. Among males, 48.5 percent of the 46,568 liver disease deaths involved alcohol. Among females, 41.8 percent of the 25,991 liver disease deaths involved alcohol.
  • Among all cirrhosis deaths in 2013, 47.9 percent were alcohol related. The proportion of alcohol-related cirrhosis was highest (76.5 percent) among deaths of persons ages 25–34, followed by deaths of persons aged 35–44, at 70.0 percent.
  • In 2009, alcohol-related liver disease was the primary cause of almost 1 in 3 liver transplants in the United States.
  • Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, liver, and breast.

Mortality:

  • Number of alcoholic liver disease deaths: 19,388
  • Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 30,722
  • Alcohol use is the fourth leading cause of preventable death in the United States (after smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity).
  • According to the CDC, excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) each year in the United States from 2006 – 2010. The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion, or $2.05 a drink.
  • In 2012, 3.3 million deaths, or 5.9 percent of all global deaths (7.6 percent for men and 4.0 percent for women), were attributable to alcohol consumption. Worldwide, alcohol is responsible for a percentage of a number of conditions, as follows:
    • Cirrhosis - 32%
    • Motor vehicle accidents - 20%
    • Mouth and oropharyngeal cancers - 19%
    • Esophageal cancer - 29%
    • Liver cancer - 25%
    • Breast cancer - 7%
    • Homicide - 24%
    • Suicide - 11%
    • Hemorrhagic stroke - 10%
  • An analysis in the United Kingdom in 2010 found that overall, alcohol was found to be the most harmful drug to the person consuming and to others. However, this study does not mean that substances other than alcohol have no harmful consequences; heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine were found to be the most harmful drugs to individuals themselves. In addition, this study did not address the issue of polydrug abuse, which is a common phenomenon in individuals abusing substances. The combination of alcohol and other substances can lead to serious adverse effects, and such combinations were not explored in this study.

Notables Who Died from Alcoholism:

  1. Wikipedia - List of deaths through Alcohol
  2. Ranker - Celebrities Who Died of Alcoholism (23 listed)
  3. Stars - 33 Stars Who Drank Themselves to Death
  4. AllDay - Famous People In History Who Drank Themselves To Death (16 listed)
  • George Best ( - 2005) Football player
  • Julia Bruns ( - 1927) Actress, model
  • David Byron ( -1985) Musician
  • Torsten Carleman ( - 1949) Mathematician
  • W. C. Fields ( - 1946) Actor

For Additional Reading See:

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