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Caliphates and Other Islamic Governments

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  • Caliph 'Abd ar-Rahmân III al-Nasir bin ibn Muhammad, emir of Córdoba (889 - 961)
    III (Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allāh; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الثالث‎; 11 January 889/91[14] – 15 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus. Cal...
  • Abderramán I (Abd al-Rahman) al-Dajil ibn Muawiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, emir de Córdoba (731 - 788)
    Abd al-Rahmân I al-Dâkhil ibn Mu'âwiya, Amir al-Qurtubi b. 731, d. 788Father Mu awiya ibn Hishâm al-Dimashqi1,2 b. 715, d. 736Mother Raha the Berber1 b. circa 716'Abd al-Rahmân I al-Dâkhil ibn Mu'âwiya...
  • al-ʿAbbās bin Imaam 'Abd al-Muṭṭalib (c.566 - c.653)
    ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, with the kunya Abū al-Faḍl (d. Rajab or Ramaḍān 32/February or April 653), was the Prophet's paternal uncle and the progenitor of the ʿAbbāsids. He was a son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭ...
  • Umm bint Uthman (731 - d.)
    Father: Uthman ibn Abu-Musa Emir of CORDOBA b: ABT 675 in Egypt Mother: Lampade (Lampagie) Princess OF AQUITAINE b: ABT 700 in AquitaineMarriage 1 Sigisbert V Count of RAZES b: ABT 710 in Razès (Razes)...
  • Uthman bin Musa al-Bekir (c.675 - 731)
    Uthman De Cordoba (Ibn Abu-Musa) b. 675 d. 731Lineage: Bani Umayyah Full name (at birth): Uthman De Cordoba Other last names: Ibn Abu-Musa Other given names: Munuza (Frankish), Uthman ibn Naissa Parent...

The term caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa, Turkish: Halife ) refers to the first system of government established in Islam, and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah (nation). In theory, it is a constitutional republic, meaning that the head of state (the Caliph) and other officials are representatives of the people who must govern according to Islamic law; which limits the government's power over citizens. It was initially led by Muhammad's disciples as a continuation of the political system the prophet established, known as the 'rashidun caliphates'. It represented the political unity, not the theological unity of Muslims as theology or mazhab was a personal matter. It was the world's first major welfare state. A "caliphate" is also a state which implements such a governmental system. Sunni Islam dictates that the head of state, the caliph, should be selected by Shura – elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph should be an imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt. After the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first dynasty was the Umayyad. This was followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid, and finally the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate was "the core political concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries."