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Muslim Philosophers, Mathematicians & Scientists

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  • Maryam Mirzakhani (1977 - 2017)
    Maryam Mirzakhani was an Iranian mathematician and a professor of mathematics at Stanford University. Her research topics include Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic...
  • Ibn Khaldun (Abu Zaid Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun al-Hadrami) (1332 - 1406)
    Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn Al-Hadrami, May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808...
  • Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi
    Sheikh Professor Abdul Hadi Palazzi شيخ عبد الهادي بالاتسي‎ legally named Massimo Palazzi is -:* The secretary general of the Italian Muslim Assembly, * The Khalifah for Europe of the Qadiri Sufi Order...
  • Prophet Muhammad of Islam (PBUH) (570 - 632)
    Muhammad was the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God, the final law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets as taught by the Qur'an (33:40–40). ...
  • Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā; Abū Alī Sīnā) (c.980 - 1037)
    Avicenna, Ibn Sīnā (ابن سینا) Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā, known as Abū Alī Sīnā (Persian: ابوعلی سینا، پورسینا) or, more commonly, Ibn Sīnā[8] or Pour Sina, but most commonly known in...

Tracing the Influence and History of the Ancient Scholarly World of Muslim Philosophers, Mathematicians & Scientists to the present. Please feel free to join, add more profiles and information.

The Islamic Golden Age

Early Islamic Philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE). The period is known as the Islamic Golden Age, and the achievements of this period had a crucial influence in the development of modern philosophy and science.

This period starts with al-Kindi in the 9th century and ends with Averroes (Ibn Rushd) at the end of 12th century. The death of Averroes effectively marks the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in Western Islamic countries, namely in Islamic Spain and North Africa, though it persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Persia and India where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy.

Some of the significant achievements of early Muslim philosophers included -:

  • The development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing"; the development of a method of open inquiry to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which could be generally applied to many types of questions (although which to apply it to is an ethical question);
  • The willingness to both accept and challenge authority within the same process;
  • Recognition that science and philosophy are both subordinate to morality, and that moral choices are prior to any investigation or concern with either;
  • The separation of theology (kalam) and law (shariah) during the early Abbasid period, a precursor to secularism;
  • The distinction between religion and philosophy, marking the beginning of secular thought; the beginning of a peer review process; early ideas on evolution;
  • The beginnings of the scientific method, an important contribution to the philosophy of science;
  • The introduction of temporal modal logic and inductive logic; the beginning of social philosophy, including the formulation of theories on social cohesion and social conflict;
  • The beginning of the philosophy of history; the development of the philosophical novel and the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa; and distinguishing between essence and existence.

Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas, to name a few, knew of at least some of the Mutazilite work, particularly Avicennism and Averroism, and the Renaissance and the use of empirical methods were inspired at least in part by Arabic translations of Greek, Jewish, Persian and Egyptian works translated into Latin during the Renaissance of the 12th century, and taken during the Reconquista in 1492.

No idea and no literary or philosophical movement ever germinated on Persian or Arabian soil without leaving its impress on the Jews, the Persian Al-Ghazali (1005–1111) found an imitator in the person of Judah ha-Levi (1140). This poet also took upon himself to free his religion from what he saw as the shackles of speculative philosophy, and to this end wrote the "Kuzari", in which he sought to discredit all schools of philosophy alike.

Early Islamic philosophy can be divided into clear sets of influences, branches, schools, and fields, as described below.

  • • Avicennism
  • • Averroism
  • • Modern Islamic philosophy
  • • Sufi philosophy
  • • Transcendent theosophy
  • • List of Muslim philosophers
  • • Illuminationist philosophy
  • • Islamic ethics
  • • Islamic metaphysics
  • • Sufi metaphysics
  • • Sufism


  • • Timeline of Islamic science and engineering
  • • Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
  • • Astronomy in medieval Islam
  • • Islamic astrology
  • • Inventions in medieval Islam
  • • Inventions in the modern Islamic world
  • • Islamic sociology
  • • Sociology in medieval Islam
  • • Mathematics in medieval Islam
  • • Medicine in medieval Islam
  • • Ophthalmology in medieval Islam
  • • Physics in medieval Islam
  • • Psychology in medieval Islam


  • • Islamic art
  • • Islamic calligraphy
  • • Islamic pottery
  • • Muslim music

Islamic literature

  • • Arabic literature
  • • Arabic epic literature
  • • Islamic poetry
  • • Arabic poetry
  • • Persian literature
  1. Muslim Scientists
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  3. Muslim Mathematicians
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  6. Islamic Astrology
  7. Early Islamic Philosophy
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  13. List of Iranian Scientists
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  23. Islamic Studies by Author (non-Muslim_or_academic)
  24. 500 Most Influential Muslims
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