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Americans in Brazil From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia American Brazilian

An American Brazilian (Portuguese: américo-brasileiro, norte-americano-brasileiro, estadunidense-brasileiro) is a Brazilian person who is fully, partially or predominantly of American descent, or a US-born immigrant in Brazil.

The Confederados is a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. They are the descendants of people who fled from the Confederate States of America to Brazil with their families after the American Civil War.

At the end of the American Civil War in the 1860s, a migration of Confederates to Brazil began, with the total number of immigrants estimated in the thousands. They settled primarily in Southern and Southeastern Brazil: in Americana, Campinas, São Paulo, Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, Juquiá, New Texas, former Xiririca now Eldorado, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Doce. A few other places also received immigrants: one colony settled in Santarém, Pará – in the north on the Amazon River – and the states of Bahia and Pernambuco also received a significant number of American immigrants.

That was one of the main reasons why emperor Dom Pedro II was the first foreign Chief of State and Head of Government to visit Washington, D.C. in 1876 and also attended the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Ethnically the Confederados group, the way how the Confederate colonies were named, were primally Irish, Scottish, English-Welsh, Scandinavian, Dutch and German, ethnic Germans among Romanian, Czech, Russian and Polish immigrant descendants).

More recently, other waves of American nationals became residents in the country. At the end of the American Civil War, the Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil was interested in having cotton crops due to the high prices and, through Freemasonry contacts, recruited experienced cotton farmers for his nation. Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidies and tax breaks. General Robert E. Lee advised Southerners not to flee to South America but many ignored his advice and set out to establish a new life away from the destruction of war.

Many Southerners who took the Emperor's offer had lost their land during the war, were unwilling to live under a conquering army, or simply did not expect an improvement in the South's economic position. In addition, Brazil would not outlaw slavery until 1888. Although a number of historians say that the existence of slavery was an appeal, Alcides Gussi, an independent researcher of State University of Campinas, found that only four families owned a total of 66 slaves from 1868 to 1875. The Confederates were the first organized Protestant group to settle in Brazil.[4]

The American immigration to Brazil was started within that year of 1865, in small ships and sailboats hurriedly reshaped, "motivated more by the pain and feelings of despair than by the vessels themselves." They were exhausted men, women and children, many were very injured, others were sick and depressed, but they were determined to give a new start to their lives in faraway Brazil.

Between 1865 and 1885, almost ten thousand white Americans coming mainly from Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Mississippi, Ohio, Virginia, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky and Tennessee ran ashore in the ports of Belém, Vitória, Rio de Janeiro and Santos. Once they arrived, they had to redouble their so weakened energies and confront other faraway and tough trips around the land until they could reach the region of Campinas, whose climate and lands are similar to those of the Southern United States.

It is unknown just how many immigrants went to Brazil as refugees from the war, but unpublished research in the records of the port of Rio de Janeiro by Betty Antunes de Oliveira counts some 20,000 Americans that entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Of those, an unknown number returned to the United States as conditions improved there. Many immigrants renounced their U.S. citizenship and adopted Brazilian citizenship.

The immigrants settled in various places in Brazil ranging from the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to the northern Amazon region (especially Santarém) and Paraná in the south. But most of the Confederados settled in the area around present-day Santa Bárbara d'Oeste and Americana – this, derived from the name Vila dos Americanos. This was the name given by natives in the region because of its American population.

The city of Campinas was a popular destination of the Americans The first original Confederado known to arrive was the senator William H. Norris of Alabama—the colony at Santa Bárbara d'Oeste is sometimes called the Norris Colony. Dom Pedro's program was judged a success for both the immigrants and the Brazilian government. The settlers brought with them modern agricultural techniques and new crops such as watermelon, and pecans that soon spread among the native Brazilian farmers. Some foods of the American South also crossed over and became part of general Brazilian culture such as chess pie, vinegar pie, and southern fried chicken.

The original Confederados continued many elements of American culture and established the first Baptist churches in Brazil. They also established public schools and provided education to their female children, which was unusual in Brazil at the time.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americans_in_Brazil

Dos imigrantes americanos para a cidade de Americana e região há no Geni um subprojeto denominado Fraternidade Descendência Americana

A imigração estadunidense para o Brasil

Oficialmente considera-se este movimento como iniciado em 1865, quando confederados fugiram do Sul dos Estados Unidos por conta da guerra civil que ocorria naquele país e formaram um subgrupo cultural na sociedade brasileira da época. Estima-se que esse primeiro fluxo migratório tenha chegado em uma faixa entre 30 e 50 mil pessoas, que se instalaram principalmente nas cidades de Americana e Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, no interior do estado de São Paulo. No século XXI, no entanto, ainda há imigração de estadunidenses para o Brasil. Brasilo-estadunidense ou brasilo-norte-americano é um brasileiro descendente de estadunidenses, ou uma pessoa nascida nos Estados Unidos imigrante no Brasil.

No final da Guerra Civil Americana, o Imperador Dom Pedro II estava interessado em desenvolver a cultura de algodão no Império do Brasil devido aos preços elevados do produto e, através de contatos na Maçonaria, recrutou experientes produtores estadunidenses de algodão e ofereceu subsídios e incentivos fiscais aos potenciais imigrantes. O general Robert E. Lee, no entanto, aconselhou os habitantes dos recém-criados Estados Confederados da América a não fugirem para a América do Sul, mas muitos ignoraram o conselho e partiram para estabelecer uma nova vida longe da destruição causada pela guerra civil.

Entre 1865 e 1885, quase dez mil americanos brancos provenientes principalmente do Sul dos Estados Unidos aportaram em Recife, Vitória, Rio de Janeiro e Santos. Os imigrantes se estabeleceram em vários lugares no Brasil, que vão desde as áreas urbanas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, no nordeste (especialmente Caruaru, em Pernambuco) e até a região amazônica, como também no sul brasileiro (principalmente no Paraná). No entanto, a maioria dos imigrantes estadunidenses assentaram-se na área ao redor das cidades paulistas de Santa Bárbara d'Oeste e Americana (derivado do nome de Vila dos Americanos), na região de Campinas. O primeiro imigrante confederado original conhecido a chegar no Brasil foi o senador William Hutchinson Norris, do Alabama, que chegou em Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, às vezes chamada de "Colônia Norris". Os colonos trouxeram com eles técnicas agrícolas modernas e novas culturas, como melancia e pecans, e que logo se espalharam entre os agricultores nativos brasileiros. Alguns alimentos da cultura dos Estados Unidos também foram trazidos e se tornaram parte da cultura brasileira em geral, tais como a torta xadrez, o frango frito, e o pão-de-minuto conhecido como "bisquit". Os confederados originais trouxeram muitos elementos da cultura norte-americana e estabeleceram as primeiras igrejas batistas no Brasil. Eles também estabeleceram as escolas públicas, desde a educação aos seus filhos do sexo feminino, o que era incomum no país daquela época.

Estadunidenses imigram para o Brasil há mais de um século em busca de terras férteis e baratas para cultivar, hoje em dia principalmente no Centro-Oeste brasileiro, por conta de oportunidades no setor agrícola da região. Em 2000, o número oficial de estadunidenses que viviam no Brasil era de 22,3 mil pessoas, além de mais de 50 mil descendentes. Os imigrantes mais recentes veem ao país para oferecer mão de obra especializada para multinacionais, universidades e instituições de pesquisa. No entanto, apenas 2,7% do total de imigrantes que vêm legalmente para o Brasil são estadunidenses, segundo dados de 2000 da polícia federal.

WP

Dos imigrantes americanos para a cidade de Americana e região há no Geni um subprojeto denominado Fraternidade Descendência Americana