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Jamaican Planters/Plantations Portal

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  • Joseph Wilhelm von Molendorf, SV/PROG (c.1782 - bef.1860)
    PARENTS unknown ! Speculative just speculative . It is not possible that he death date can be recorded as 28/1/1816. His last child with a valid source was born in 1846, therefore his death should be ...
  • Robert Charles Dallas (c.1754 - 1824)
  • Thomas Webb (1845 - 1928)
    Thomas Webb , son of William Webb (1814 - 1877) and Sylvia Grey (1807 - 1888), was born 23 May 1845 at Christiana, Clarendon Parish, Jamaica. On 13 June 1866 Thomas married Emily Charlotte Ayers (c.184...
  • Rose Fuller (1708 - 1777)
    Rose Fuller (12 April 1708 – 7 May 1777) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1756 to 1777.Fuller was the son of John Fuller, of Brightling, Sussex, and his wife Elizabeth Ros...
  • © Copyright Julian P Guffogg and licensed for reuse under Licence.
    John 'Mad Jack' Fuller (1757 - 1834)
    I preferred to be called "Honest John" I was Squire of the hamlet of Brightling in Sussex (now East Sussex) I am well known as the builder of follies, and as a philanthropist, patron of the arts and sc...

A Sub-project of The Jamaica Out of Many - One People Master Project

A project about Jamaican slave owners, slaveholders, and their plantations. See for pictures.

Naming conventions

  • First name: Ned
  • Middle name: (blank)
  • Last name: (blank)
  • Birth surname: (blank)
  • Display name: Ned, slave of Agnes Witt
  • Also known as: List of other slave owners EX; Ned the slave of John Blue, Ned the slave of Fred Ugly
  • About: Any other information that may be helpfull to other researchers
  • Sources: All sources should be uploaded to the profile so other researchers can see it
  • Ethnicity: "Black" or "Mulatto" etc (as per source)
  • Occupation: Job title if known EX.. Worked in Main House, Farmer, Cotton Picker

A Note on Documenting Slaves’ Names. When extracting and indexing historical or genealogical data on American slaves, researchers will find that most kinds of records usually give slaves a first name only. Since slaves were documented as property in most surviving records, a slave's legal identity was the combination of his/her first name and the full name of his/her owner. For research purposes, the slave owners’ complete names act as the best substitute for surnames of slaves (even if a record gives both a first and last name to a slave, the slave owner’s name will still be essential to tracing that slave in other sources); this combination of slave's first name and owner's full name can be as effective as the name of any free person in tracing slaves from record to record. For a lengthier discussion, see David E. Paterson, “A Perspective on Indexing Slaves’ Names,” The American Archivist, 64 (Spring/Summer 2001), 132-142.

Plantation Projects

Surveyers and Plantation Maps

Ship Info

British mercantilist ideology largely explains the rise of the plantation system in the United States. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries under mercantilism, rulers of nations believed that the accumulation of wealth through a favorable balance of trade was the best way to ensure power. As a result, Britain began to colonize territories across the Atlantic to take advantage of their rich natural resources and encourage exports
In 1661, the Stuart monarchy appointed a civil governor to Jamaica, setting in place political patterns that lasted until the twentieth century. Lord Windsor, the second governor, issued a royal proclamation in 1662, giving Jamaica's nonslave population the rights of English citizens, including the right to make their own laws.
In 1670, the Treaty of Madrid handed Jamaica formally from Spain to England. This meant that the island's focus could shift from defense to sugar planting. The sugar monoculture and slave-worked plantations characterized Jamaica throughout the 1700s.
During this period, a number of enterprising Scottish and English families settled in Jamaica, drawn by the promise of upward social mobility and prosperity. This project aims to explore the families who settled in Jamaica, with the eventual goal of tracing their inter-connections and family histories. (See especially the Forrest Family of Jamaica ).
The trade in slaves is the business of kings, rich men, and prime merchants.
Manumission is the act of a slave owner freeing his or her slaves. In the United States before the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution the formal act of freeing from slavery; "he believed in the manumission of the slaves"



The annual Jamaica Almanacs, which were published throughout the 19th century, detail the numbers of slaves and stock held by each plantation owner. sw


Alcohol and slavery
English slave trader John Atkins (cited in Craton, Walvin, and Wright 1976:28)
sixteenth century, Portuguese traveler Valentim Fernandes (1506-1510:16-18) described the availability of numerous types of locally made wine in the Senegal region, including wine made from honey, grains, and palm sap. According to Fernandes, the Wolofs, a partially Muslim group from the Senegal region, "are drunkards who derive great pleasure from our wine." Slave trader William Bosman's guidelines for the Dutch West India Company included regulations that the ship's captain make daily presentations of brandy to the King and the principal traders (cited in Postma 1990:365). The Dutch may have been to blame for what many traders considered a "disagreeable and burdensome custom." According to slave trader John Barbot, Dashee, dassy, and bizy became standard terms along the African coasts for gifts of alcohol dispensed prior to trading (Atkins 1735 cited in Craton, Walvin, and Wright 1976:32; Barbot 1746:142; Rodney 1970:180). According to Atkins (1735 cited in Craton, Walvin, and Wright 1976:32) the African trader "never cares to treat with dry Lips." Bosman (1705:404) reported that the Africans at Whydah were great lovers of strong liquors, Rum was an essential part of the cargo of the slave ship, particularly the colonial American slave ship. No slave trader could afford to dispense with a cargo of rum. It was profitable to spread the taste for liquor on the coast. The Negro dealers were plied with it, were induced to drink till they lost their reason, and then the bargain was struck. (Williams 1944:78)

African historian Lynn Pan (1975:7) .

Other Plantations

  • Barnett Estate Plantation
  • Barrett House
  • Belvedere Estate
  • Bryan Edwards, plantation ower and author of Maroon Negroes.
  • Cossley Hall
  • two sugar plantations, Hyde Hall and Etingdon in Trelawny, sold to Mrs. Shirley for only 6,000 pounds.
  • thomas Cussan--
  • Sold Holland Estate in St. Thomas-in-the-East parish, was sold by Thomas Cussans to Simon Taylor about 1770 for a reputed 100,000 pounds.
  • David Innes - Mount Grace Plantation (sw). John Potter Innes c1798 was living there as shown on all census records. He was "a free person of colour". The plantation owner was a David Innes Esq, who we presume to be his father as there were several slaves bearing the surname Innes. He was listed as the owner of Mount Grace in the 1811 Hanover almanac,and on other census returns.

David Innes was shown as deceased on 28th June 1817 on the slave returns.

* Thomas Thistlewood (1721-1786), an English immigrant slave keeper and plantation owner in Jamaica.

* Plantation of Mrs. Carrie Carmicheal

  • Matthew Gregory Lewis, Cornwall Estate
  • William Helyar, Begbrook Plantation
  • Robert Dukinfield, owned Duckinfield Hall
  • John Pinney was born in 1740 and died in 1818. He was a rich sugar plantation owner and slave owner from Bristol. In 1762 he inherited, from his cousin John Frederick Pinney, MP for Bridport in Dorset, land in the West Country.
  • Monk Lewis
  • Capt. Limbrey, London merchant and Jamaican planter.
  • William Swymmer and brother Anthony. plantation owners
  • William Ewbank (1744-1800), of Bradfield Pen and Albion Plantations, St. Ann, Jamaica, came to Jamaica from England in 1769. He was married in 1771 to Ann Tracey Goulburn Cole, whose family owned Windsor, Liberty Hill and several other plantations in St. Ann. They had no sons, but they had three daughters, two of whom married two brothers, Col. Thomas Ashmeade and Dr. Henry Ashmeade, and the third daughter married Col. Charles Steer of Trafalgar plantation, St. Ann. However, William Ewbank (1744-1800) does seem to have had a cousin or nephew also named William Ewbank, who owned Hammon Hall plantation in Clarendon in 1810. This William Ewbank died between 1810 and 1815 and his widow and son later owned Mountain Spring plantation in Clarendon. The Ewbank plantations in St. Ann were just a few miles across the border from the Ewbank plantations in Clarendon and the two families definitely seem to have been related.
  • William Frogg purchased a 90 acre plantation in Clarendon Parish, Jamaica.
  • Greenwood Great House. Built in 1790 for wealthy Barrett family.

Great Houses (Plantation Houses)

The Great House was the seat of authority on an estate. It was the home of planters, or attorneys who acted for the absentee owner. The size and profitability of the property and the wealth of the owner determined the size of the house. These houses were usually two story buildings with a base of brick, cut stone and mortar. The top floor was usually made of wood.

Variations of this archetype included one-story buildings constructed of wood, cut stone or Spanish walling or wattle and daub; or two-story building made of brick, wood or cut stone.

The owner's former place of residence, which in many instances was England, was reflected in the architectural style of the Great House. Consequently, Georgian Period (1720-1760) inspired the designs, from which the Jamaican Georgian (1760-1830) evolved. Important architectural features of the Great Houses included wide wrap-around verandas, jalousies, and sash windows to accommodate the Caribbean climate. Many Great Houses reflected the opulence of the planters; however, when the profits to be gained from the sugar began to decline they found it difficult to maintain them.

The Great House is arguably the most prominent and tangible symbol of the plantation era. The Jamaica National Heritage Trust has declared several of these houses National Monuments, as they serve to highlight the importance of the plantation era by their contribution to Jamaica's history.
Plantations & Great Houses Here are a list of some:

BARNETT ESTATE Granville Main Road 876-952-2382, fax 876-952-6342 Open daily Admission charged

After a short time here, you'll soon notice how often you hear the name "Barnett" and "Jarrett" on the island. Still among Jamaica's most powerful families, the Barnetts and Jarretts were plantation owners and have owned land for many generations. Today, a visit to the Barnett Estate offers you a look back at the past to the days when this land grew everything from sugarcane to coconuts. You can take a one-hour horseback tour of the estate or a guided tour by a costumed docent. This plantation tour is one of the island's best.

BELFIELD GREAT HOUSE 876-952-1709 Hours: daily, 10-5 Admission charged

This restored historic house is open to visitors, with guided tours available before or after dinner. Located on the 3,000-acre Barnett Estate near Montego Bay, the site is also home to the Belfield 1797 restaurant, operated by Elegant Resorts International.

BELVEDERE ESTATE Chester Castle 876-956-7310 in Montego Bay 876-957-4171 in Negril Hours: 10-4, Monday-Saturday Admission charged

Belvedere was one of the first estates to be burned during the 1831 Christmas Rebellion, so today most of the sites on the plantation are ruins or reconstructed. The uprising brought about the end of slavery in 1838.

Look at the ruins of the great house, dating back to the early 1800s, the ruins of a sugar factory, a horse-drawn sugar mill and herb garden. Belvedere is staffed by many craftspeople in period costume. Visitors can watch a blacksmith at work, see a bakery using a clay oven, talk with an herbalist in a wattle and daub house and see a canoe-maker carving the trunk of a cottonwood tree. Also on site is the Trash House Restaurant and Bar (where the sugarcane trash was once stored).

CROYDON IN THE MOUNTAINS Located 20 miles into the interior near the town of Catadupa in St. James (take B6 out of town) Hours: 8:30-5:30 daily; tours from 10:30-3:30 876-979-8267 Admission charged

This 132-acre working pineapple and coffee plantation offers half-day estate tours. The property was the birthplace of Samuel Sharpe, a national hero on this island. Sharpe led a slave rebellion in 1831 that helped bring about the abolition of slavery. You can learn about the preparation of coffee, honey, pineapples and more.

GREENWOOD GREAT HOUSE North Coast Hwy., 15 miles east of Montego Bay 876-953-1077 Hours: 9-6 daily Admission charged

This was once the home of the Barrett family (as in Elizabeth Barrett Browning). Tours include a look at the finery enjoyed by the plantation families. Like Rose Hall (below), Greenwood is a reminder of the turbulent period in Jamaica's history when wealthy plantation owners lived in luxury thanks to the profits of the slave labor used to power sugar plantations.

ROSE HALL North Coast Highway 876-953-2323 Hours: 9-6 daily Admission charged

Rose Hall is the best-known great house in the country and is an easy afternoon visit from Montego Bay. This was once the home of the notorious Annie Palmer, better known as the White Witch. Guided tours take you to the ballroom, dining room, and Annie's bedroom and grave.


As the story goes, Annie was born in 1802 in England to an English mother and Irish father. At the age of 10, her family moved to Haiti, and soon her parents died of yellow fever. Annie was adopted by a Haitian voodoo priestess and became skilled in the practice of voodoo. Annie moved to Jamaica, married, and built Rose Hall, an enormous plantation spanning 6,600 acres with over 2,000 slaves. According to legend, Annie murdered several of her husbands and her slave lovers.sw

  • Bryan Edwards was a Jamaican planter and politician

List of Great Houses (Plantation Houses) Heritage Sites (SW)

  • Belmont Great House
  • Bellevue Great House
  • Admiral Mountain Great House
  • Cherry Garden Great House
  • Mona Great House
  • Bloomfield Great House
  • Marlborough Great House
  • Stokes Hall Great House
  • Good Hope Great House
  • Greenwood Great House
  • Rose Hall Great House
  • Marshall's Pen Great House
  • Highgate House
  • Seville Great House
  • Mount Plenty Great House
  • Roaring River Great House
  • William Beckford of Somerly was a very wealthy Sugar Planter who owned three sugar plantations in Westmoreland parish, Jamaica. These were Roaring River, Fort William and Williamsfield. He commissioned George Robertson to paint these plantations and many other landscapes in Jamaica. Later six of these paintings were engraved and published as a set by John Boydell in London in 1778. Each engraving bears the Beckford Coat-of-Arms and a dedication to William Beckford, Esq. I have four of them hanging in my Dining Room.
  • Thetford Great House
  • Tryall Great House
  • Halse Hall Great House
  • Quebec Great House
  • Brimmer Hall Great House
  • Bromley Great house
  • Green Park Great House
  • Prospect Great House
  • Ramble Great House
  • Cardiff Hall Great House
  • York Castle Great House
  • Seaman's Valley

1840Trelawny Land owners Possible Plantations some names correspond with known plantation owners.

Loyalists who fled to Jamaica.

  • Atherton, Edward, heirs of , Green Park, 1315
  • Atkins, John, Forest, 1288
  • Brown, Hamilton, receiver, 482
  • Burke, Robert, heirs of , Phoenix, 1690
  • Barrett, Samuel, heirs of, Schawfield, 834
  • Barrett, Edward B. M., Oxford, 2881
  • Barrett, Edward B. M., Cambridge, 2691
  • Baynes, Elizabeth C., 10
  • Bailey, George, 250
  • Bernard, William, 37
  • Bodden, Jane J., 16
  • Bright, Richard, Garradu, 1345
  • Bullock, Eliza S., Mount Carfax, 400
  • Bullock, Richard, 355
  • Burnett, Judith, 36
  • Burnett, Christian, 14
  • Cunningham, James, Hopewell, 912

. . .Same, Beddiford, 1444

  • Cunningham, George, Greenside, 1266

. . .Same, Manchester, 585

  • Cunningham, Samuel, Roslin Castle, 1262

. . .Same, Mason Gang, 1340

  • Colville, Andrew, Fontabelle, 1863
  • Campbell, Charles, Florence Hall, 1103
  • Coore, Frederick, heirs of, Pembroke, 1900
  • Clarke, Edward, heirs of, Hyde, 3077
  • Clarke, Sir Simon H. heirs of, Long Pond, 2347

. . .Same, Hampshire, 1560

. . .Same, Mahogany Hall, 1914

  • Carter, William, Troy, 2600
  • Campbell, Emily D., Alps, 551
  • Clarke, Ann T., 30
  • Carry, Joseph, 328
  • Campbell, Henrietta, 11
  • Cragg, George, 220
  • Coveny, Thomas, 16
  • Campbell, Ann, 189
  • Cooper, Wilkin, 15
  • Cooper, John, 10
  • Campbell, Ann, Spring Vale, 39
  • Cadenhead, Robert, 50
  • Carvalho, Moses D'C., 35
  • Curtin, Eleanor, 56
  • Cross, Ann, 49
  • Clarke, George, heirs of, Swanswick, 1504
  • Campbell, John, heirs of, Gibraltar, 863
  • Codling, Edward, 98
  • Doig, Paul, 50
  • David, Rodger, 48
  • Dexter, William, 287
  • Dalrymple, William, 13

. . .Same, 31

  • Donaldson, Ann, heirs of, Brampton Bryan, 1631

. . .Same, Bryan Castle, 1638

  • Deffell, John, Henry, 3229
  • Dunn and Kenyon, Chester, 1066
  • Dawson, William, 815
  • Douglas, Robert, 90
  • Dowan, Nicholas, heirs of, Green Vale, 1050
  • Davis, John, 574
  • Easson, James, Barron Hall, 655
  • Elliott, James, 158
  • Earl, John, 14
  • Earl, Archibald, 19
  • Earl, Robert, 19
  • Earl, Frederick, 19
  • Earl, Elizabeth, 19
  • Earl, Edward, 20
  • Earl, Mary, 38
  • Earnshaw, Milbro' G., Dry River, 335
  • Fowler, James, Grange, 565

. . .Same, Lottery, 822

. . .Same, Friendship, 935

  • Frater, William, Ulster Spring, 1550

. . .Same, 864

  • Ferguson, Catherine, 193
  • Ferguson, Eliz. and heirs of Charles, 222
  • Ferguson, John, 222
  • Frampton, Robert, 19
  • Flash, William, 36
  • Gordon, Charles, Braco, 1800

. . .Same, Williamsfield, 450

  • Gordon, Thomas, Georgia, 1389
  • Green, Edmund Francis, Unity, 1863
  • Gale, E. G. M., York and Gale's Valley, 3147
  • Graves, James, Gravesend, 96
  • Gerrard, James, 231
  • Graves, Samuel, heirs of, Colches, 996
  • Gibb, Sidney, 70
  • Hall, Henry J. trustee, 334

. . .Same, assignee, 1682

  • Hawkins, Peter, Stoney Hill, 70
  • Hine, Sarah, 16
  • Hine, Judith S., 34
  • Hardy, Joseph, 47
  • Hardy, Mary L. and Jane S., 220
  • Hankey & Co., 2846
  • Hine, William, Hampshire, 278
  • Hine, Wm. exor. of Yatman, 15
  • Hine, Martha G., 32
  • Holder, William, 24
  • Hewen, Richard, 314
  • Hanlon, Thomas, 12
  • Irving, James, heirs of, Irving Town, 900 conected somehow--

Jarrett, Herbert N., Orange Valley, 2338

. . .Same, Hacton, 436

Jarrett, John, heirs of, Golden Grove, 1350

. . .Same, Kent, 1008

. . .Same, Silver Grove, 1049

Jackson, John G., 17

Jackson, Kemble, 10

Jennings, George S., 69

King, Paul, 20

Kelcher, Henry R., 15

Kennedy, Thomas, 132

Kerr, Alexander, 530

Lyon, Davis, Holland, 756

. . .Same, Barnstaple, 985

Lawson, James S., Steelfield, 1177

Lawrence, George, 1610

Linton, Joseph, heirs of, Linton Park, 2428

Lewis, Charles, Mount Pleasant, 374

Lemonius, William, 330

. . .Same, 189

Lorimer, William, 50

Miles & Kington, 1289

. . .Same, 604

. . .Same, 570

Mitchell, William, heirs of, George's Valley, 1577

Mitchell, R. W. and S., Stewarton, 1371

Minto, James, Water Valley, 1526

. . .Same, Dry Valley, 562

. . .Same, Jock's Lodge, 519

Montague, Ann, Acton, 468

Maguire, Mary C., 28

Mowatt, William E., 200

Marshall, Elizabeth W., 19

Muir, James, estate of, 20

Morris, Ann, 32

Marrett, George, 67

Mitchell, Mathew, 11

Morison, John, heirs of, 82

Miller, William, 46

Marlow, Elizabeth, 28

Meats, William, 60

Mott, Richard, 42

McKenzie, Charles, 69

. . .Same, 30

McDaniel, William, Prospect Hill, 71

McLimont, John, Tyre, 2350

McConnell, Sarah Jane, 14

McDonald, Donald, 40

Nesbitt, George, 387

Nesbitt, Joseph, 51

Norris, William, 132

Oakley, Sir Charles, trustees, Bunker's Hill, 1679

O'Conner, Richard, heirs of, Carrick Foyle, 432

Paterson, Thomas, heirs of, Downe Castle, 190

Parkinson, John, 19

Peters, Elizabeth, 80

Reynolds, Charles, heirs of, Clermont 423

Reid, James, 815

Reid, George, heirs of, Friendship, 1423

Reid, Mary H., Wakefield, 1421

Russell, John, Spring Hill, 25

Russell, Elizabeth, 28

Robertson, James, heirs of, 16300

Sutton and Swaby, 3166

Stothart, William, heirs of, Dundee, 1461

Scarlett, James, heirs of, Peru, 1550

Simpson, John, Tileston, 2197

Shedden, Robert, heirs of, Stewart Castle, 1918

Scott, George, Kinloss, 1499

Shirley, Henry, Hyde Hall, Etingdon, and Glamorgan, 4622

. . .Same, 220

Scarlett, Elizabeth, 39

Samuels, John R., 196

Steele, Adam, 50

Simpson, Alexander, 48

Stoney, Robert, 150

Smith, George, 493

Sawers, John, Stirling Castle, 582

Thompson, Samuel, 75

Turnbull, Mark, heirs of, Spring Garden, 466

Travers, Joseph, Harmony Hall, 1496

Thompson, Thos, P. heirs of, Vale Royal, 612

. . .Same, Lancaster, 1257

Tharp, John, heirs of, 22409

Tenison, Thomas, 28

Thompson, James, 70

Thompson, Robert, 263

Underhill, Mary Ann, 25

Underhill, Thomas, 68

Virgo, Rebecca. C. G. heirs of, Belmont, 854

Vermont, Thomas R., 13

Vernon, John, 38

Willis, Thomas, 30

Walker, Mary, 60

Wilson, Richard, 14

Webb, Thomas, estate of, 44

Walcott, John L., 1255

. . .Same, 420

Warren, John, 12


Working plantations

The Croydon Pineapple and Coffee Plantation is very popular, and is located in Catadupa.

Prospect Plantation, Sir Harold Mitchell bought it in 1936 had 2 previous owners
Sir Harold Paton Mitchell, 1st Baronet

Sun Valley Plantation--

Blagrove Plantation SW


1840 owners maybe some duplicat Place

Size (Acres) and Owner in 1840 jamaica alminac

Cocoa Nut Grove place 200 here

Mount Faraway, Port Royal

Westphalia, Port Royal Mountains

Mahogany Vale, Port Royal Mounts

Hall’s Delight, Port Royal

Happy Retreat, Port Royal

Belmont, St Andrew (west)

Belcour Lodge, St Andrew (east)

Bassford Hill, St Andrew

Collins Green Pen, St Andrew

Cottage Pen, St Andrew

Devonshire Lodge, St Andrew

Grecian Regale, St Andrew

Mango Ridge, St Andrew (west)

Monaltrie, St Andrew

Mount Pleasant, St Andrew (west)

Ropley, St Andrew

Sabina Park Pen, St Andrew

Sans Souci, St Andrew (west)

Trevennion Pen, St Andrew

Up Park Villa, St Andrew

Vinyard Pen, St Andrew

Villa de Medici, St Andrew

Marlborough Castle, St George

Llanrumney Estate, St Mary

Belgar, St Thomas in the Vale

Bybrook, St Thomas in the Vale

Hopewell, St Thomas in the Vale

Knollis Estate, St Thomas in the Vale

Ultimatum, St Thomas in the Vale

Wallens Est, St Thomas in the Vale

Walton, St Ann


200 Charles Mackglashan

842 Alexander Jack

270 William Titley

300 Joseph Jackson


80 John H Hall

60 Christopher Maddix


30 Alexander Jacob Lindo

9 William M Anderson


10 James Black

9 ½ Peter M Terrelonge


60 William Fitzgerald, 10 William Hemsley, or 72 Abraham Lazarus


30 Robert Fairweather

36 Dr George P M Downer


39 William Douglas

256 James W Smith


540 James Cockburn

1040 G R Taylor

666 est of Lieut. Col. John Campbell

4580 estate of Robert Ross

802 estate of Robert William Harris,

or 73 James Sadler

1587 estate of John Fuller


1760 Henry Lowndes


genealogy quest--

Not sure if now

Good Hope EstateFormerly a sugar plantation, the main crops are now papaya, ackee, citrus and anthuriums sw


British Regiments in Canada (and Jamaica)

Jamaica National Heritage


Jamaica Plantership (Paperback) by Benjamin M'mahon
Publisher: Bibliolife (Apr 2009)

Slavery Today-- that-links-slavery-to-black-family-values/

Note move to?

maybe some duplicate check and clear

discussion on slavery' Sea-Venture' to VA 1610

Book online on notes of slavery--


The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501;[70] by 1517, the natives had been "virtually annihilated" by the settlers.[71] By 1650 the Dutch had the pre-eminent slave trade in Europe.[73] They were overtaken by Britain around 1700. Historians agree that in all the Dutch shipped about 550,000 African slaves across the Atlantic, about 75,000 of whom died on board before reaching their destinations. From 1596-1829, the Dutch traders sold 250,000 slaves in the Dutch Guianas, 142,000 in the Dutch Caribbean islands, and 28,000 in Dutch Brazil.[74] In addition, tens of thousands of slaves, mostly from India and some from Africa, were carried to the Dutch East Indies.[75] Between 1808 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[85] Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[86]

In 1811, Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of a slave in the British West Indies.[87] He was not, however, as some have claimed, the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave.[88][89]

80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of''' Zanzibar.[164][165][166][167] Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port,''' and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.[168]

African Authors

The writings of

James Albert-(aka) Ukawsaw Gronniosaw ,

Ignatius Sancho-


three finger jack-

Ottobah Cugoano-
Olaudah Equiano -aka gustavus vassa

were among the first to attempt to present the western world with a view of the African continent that was not coloured by racial prejudice or avarice. Thus it can be argued that the origins of the

The Middle Passage, the crossing of the Atlantic to the Americas, endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships, was only one element of the well-known triangular trade engaged in by Portuguese, Dutch, French and British. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbean ports would take on sugar, indigo, raw cotton, and later coffee, and make for Liverpool, Nantes, Lisbon or Amsterdam. Ships leaving European ports for West Africa would carry printed cotton textiles, some originally from India, copper utensils and bangles, pewter plates and pots, iron bars more valued than gold, hats, trinkets, gunpowder and firearms and alcohol

18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, '''such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba), Kong Empire, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Fouta Djallon, Kingdom of Fouta Tooro, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Khasso, Kingdom of Kaabu, Fante Confederacy, Ashanti Confederacy, Aro Confederacy and the kingdom of Dahomey'''.[172][173

The Africans that participated in the slave trade would sell their captive or prisoners of war to European buyers.[174] Selling captives or prisoners was common practice amongst Africans and Arabs during that era. The prisoners and captives that were sold were usually from neighboring or enemy ethnic groups.[175] These captive slaves were not considered as part of the ethnic group or 'tribe' and kings held not particular loyalty to them. At times, kings and chiefs would sell the criminals in their society to the buyers so that they could no longer commit crimes in that area. Most other slaves were obtained from kidnappings, or through raids that occurred at gunpoint through joint ventures with the Europeans.[174] Some African kings refused to sell any of their captives or criminals. King Jaja of Opobo, a former slave himself, refused to do business with the slavers completeley.[175] Ashanti King Agyeman Prempeh (Ashanti king, b. 1872) also sacrificed his own freedom so that his people would not face collective slavery.[175]

The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast".

"Merchant Networks" Jamaican Planters, Esquires