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Medieval German and French Talmudists/Tosafot

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בעלי התוספות

Authors of the Tosafot, known as Tosafists ("ba'ale ha-tosafot"), lived in northern France and the German Rhineland, the centers of Ashkenazi Jewry in the medieval period. They represent the major contribution that Ashkenazi Jews made to Talmud study.
בעלי התוספות הוא כינוי למאות תלמידי חכמים (כמאתיים מהם מוזכרים בשם) שלקחו חלק בכתיבת פירושים, המכונים תוספות, על 30 ממסכתות התלמוד הבבלי, ועל פירוש רש"י לתלמוד. הם יצרו ופעלו במשך כמאתיים שנה, במאות השתים עשרה והשלוש עשרה. מרביתם מחוג תלמידי רש"י באשכנז ובצרפת ומיעוטם באנגליה ובאיטליה. ראשונים היו תלמידי רש"י, שכתבו הערות וחידושים לפירושו. במשך הזמן התרחבו וגדלו תוספות אלה, עד שהיו לתוספות לתלמוד


"The World That Was: Ashkenaz", by Rabbi Leib Scheinbaum - 536 Pages

  1. First Tosafists - French and German. P.38
  1. Legacy of Rashi and the Tosafists. P.39
  2. Baalei Tosafos - Rashi's Successors. P.39
  3. German Tosafists, P.39
  4. Second Generation of the German Tosafists. P.40
  5. Third Generation German Tosafists. P.40
  6. Fourth Generation Tosafist. P.40
  7. Fifth Generation Tosafists- Maharam of Rothenberg. P.40
  8. Closing Generation of Tosafists. P.41, P.42
  9. Tosafists Generation of TransitionP.43
  10. Culminationof the German Tosafist Period. P.44


Complete List: Add "Tosafot" in the "Search Box" The Jewish Encyclopedia (Pages 1 -7)


Short list of Tosafists / Wikipedia

  1. A (HaRA)
  1. Avigdor Cohen of Vienna
  2. Asher ben Jehiel
  3. Baruch ben Isaac
  4. Eleazar of Worms
  5. Elhanan ben Isaac Ha'Kadosh (the martyr) אלחנן בן יצחק, הקדוש son of "RI Hazaken" (1165 - 1184).
  6. Eliezer ben Joel HaLevi
  7. Eliezer b. Nathan
  8. Eliezer ben Samuel of Metz (Re'EM)
  9. Eliezer of Toul
  10. Eliezer of Touques
  11. Elijah ben Menahem
  12. Isaac ben Abraham of Dampierre (RIBA or RIZBA)
  13. Isaac b. Asher ha-Levi
  14. Isaac ben Jacob ha-Laban
  15. Isaac ben Meïr Klonimus RIVaM, of Ramerupt - יצחק בן מאיר קלונימוס, ריב'ם Rashi grandson (1090 - 1130)
  16. Isaac ben Mordecai of Regensburg (RIBaM)
  17. Isaac ben Reuben
  18. Isaac ben Samuel 'RI haZaḳen' of Dampierre (de Vitry) - יצחק בן שמואל 'רי-הזקן' מדמפייר Rashi Gt.grandson (1120 - 1189).
  19. Isaiah di Trani (RID)
  20. Israel of Bamberg
  21. J. Cohen
  22. Jacob of Chinon
  23. Jacob ben Isaac ha-Levi (Jabez)
  24. Jacob ben Meïr Rabeinu Tam רבנו תם Most prominent of French tosafists, Rashi grandson (1196 - 1171)
  25. Jehiel ben Joseph of Paris (d. 1286) Sire Vives
  26. Joseph (or Yehosef)
  27. Joseph Porat
  28. Judah b. Isaac of Paris / Sir Leon
  29. Judah Azriel ben Nathan (RIBaN) - יהודה עזריאל בר נתן - ריב'ן Son-in-law, pupil and to a great extent continuator of Rashi (1065 - 1105).
  30. Levi
  31. Meir ben Baruch von Rothenburg, MaHaRaM רבי מאיר, המהר'ם מרוטנבורג Tosaphist and liturgical poet (1215 - 1293).
  32. Meïr ben Samuel of Ramerupt
  33. Moses ben Jacob of Coucy
  34. Moses b. Meïr of Ferrara
  35. Moses of Évreux
  36. Moses Taku
  37. Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil
  38. HaRebbi R' Menachem
  39. Samson ben Abraham of Sens
  40. Samson b. Isaac of Chinon
  41. Samuel of Évreux
  42. Shmuel ben Meir Klonimus, RaSHBaM - שמואל בן מאיר קלונימוס, רשב'ם, Rashi grandson (1085 - 1153)
  43. Samuel b. Naṭronai (RaShBaṬ)
  44. Samuel ben Solomon of Falaise
  45. Simḥah ben Samuel of Speyer
  46. Yom Tov Ben Judah-RIBaN of Falaise - יום טוב בן יהודה-ריב'ן Rashi grandson (1090 - 1140).

For a Complete List of Tosafot with their Biographies Jewish Encyclopedia Add "Tosafot" in Search Box.


Tosafot of Sens

The earliest collection, compiled by Samson ben Abraham of Sens. It was one of the main sources for the Tosafot of Touques, which in turn underlies the present printed Tosafot ("Tosafot shelanu").

Tosafot of Évreux

Moses of Évreux, one of the most prolific tosafists, furnished glosses to the whole Talmud; they form a distinct group known as the Tosafot of Évreux. I

Tosafot of Touques

Eliezer of Touques, of the second half of the thirteenth century, made a compendium of the Tosafot of Sens and of Évreux; this compendium is called the Tosafot of Touques, and forms the basis of the edited tosafot. Eliezer's own glosses, written on the margin, are known as the Tosafot Gillayon or Gilyon Tosafot.

Tosafot of Perez ben Elijah's Pupils

Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil was one of the most active of the later tosafists. Besides supplying tosafot to several treatises, which are quoted by many old authorities and are included among the edited tosafot (and many of which were seen in manuscript by Azulai), he revised those of his predecessors.

French Tosafot

Mentioned in the novellae on Tamid ascribed to Abraham b. David. Zunz ("Z.G." p. 57) thinks that the Tosafot of Sens may be referred to under this title; but the fact that Abraham b. David was much earlier than Samson of Sens leads to the supposition that the glosses indicated are those of previous tosafists, as Jacob Tam, Isaac b. Asher ha-Levi, and Isaac b. Samuel ha-Zaḳen and his son.

Pisḳe Tosafot ("Decisions of the Tosafot")

Collection of halakic decisions gathered from the edited tosafot to thirty-six treatises—Nazir and Me'ilah being excepted—and generally printed in the margin of the Tosafot; in the later editions of the Talmud, after the text.

Spanish Tosafot

This term is used by Joseph Colon (Responsa, No. 72) and by Jacob Baruch Landau ("Agur," § 327), and may apply to Talmudic novellae by Spanish authors. Jeshuah b. Joseph ha-Levi, for instance ("Halikhot 'Olam," § 327), applies the term "tosafot" to the novellae of Isaac ben Sheshet.

The Edited Tosafot (called also Our Tosafot)

The tosafot which have been published with the text of the Talmud ever since its earliest edition (see Talmud, Editions of). They extend to thirty-eight treatises of the Babylonian Talmud. Most of the treatises are covered by the Tosafot of Touques, some by the Tosafot of Sens.

Tosafot Alfasi

Quoted by Joseph Colon (Responsa, Nos. 5, 31) and Judah Minz (Responsa, No. 10). The term may designate either the tosafot of Samuel b. Meïr and Moses of Évreux, or glosses to Alfasi's Halakot.

Tosafot of Gornish

Mentioned by Joseph Solomon Delmedigo (Nobelot Ḥokmah, Preface) and Solomon Algazi (Gufe Halakot, No. 195), the latter quoting these tosafot to Baba ḳamma. But as the same quotation is made by Bezaleel Ashkenazi (Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet, to Baba Ḳamma) and ascribed to a pupil of Perez ben Elijah, Azulai (Shem ha-Gedolim, ii.) concludes that these tosafot originated in Perez b. Elijah's school.
Still, Mordecai b. Hillel (Mordekai, B. B. on No. 886) mentions a R. Judah of Gornish, and Abraham ibn Akra (Meharere Nemerim, Venice, 1599) reproduces Talmudic novellae by "M. of Gornish" (Embden gives "Meïr of Gornish" in the Latin translation of the catalogue of the Oppenheim Library, No. 667).
Manuscript No. 7 of the Günzburg collection bears the superscription "Tosafot of Gornish to Yebamot," and in these tosafot French and German rabbis are quoted. Manuscript No. 603 of the same collection contains also the Tosafot of Gornish and novellae by Judah Minz, and fragments of Gornish tosafot are found in manuscripts in other libraries.

Tosafot Ḥiẓoniyyot ("Exterior" or "Uncanonical Tosafot")

Tosafot which are neither of Sens nor of Touques. They are so called by Bezaleel Ashkenazi; he included many fragments of them in his Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet, to Baba Meẓi'a, Nazir, etc.

Tosafot Shiṭṭah (or Shiṭṭah)

Name sometimes applied to the recensions of Perez b. Elijah or to the tosafot of Jehiel of Paris (Bezaleel Ashkenazi, l.c.; notes to "Sha'are Dura," § 57; and many other authorities).

Tosafot Yeshanim ("Tosafot of the Ancients")

This group comprises four smaller ones:

  • (1) the general tosafot of Sens, including those appearing among the edited tosafot;
  • (2) the earlier unedited tosafot (for example, those to Ḳiddushin by Isaac b. Samuel ha-Zaḳen of Dampierre, and those to 'Abodah Zarah by his son Elhanan b. Isaac); these sometimes appear separately under the title of Tosafot ha-Ri;
  • (3) a collection of old tosafot published by Joseph Jessel b. Wolf ha-Levi in "Sugyot ha-Shas" (Berlin, 1736);
  • (4) various tosafot found in ancient manuscripts, as the tosafot to Ḥullin written in 1360, the manuscript of which is in the Munich Library (No. 236). In the collection published by Joseph Jessel b. Wolf ha-Levi (No. 3), besides the old tosafot to Yoma by Moses of Coucy (comp., however, Israel Isserlein, "Terumat ha-Deshen," No. 94, who declares they belong to the Tosafot of Sens).

Tosafot ha-Rid

By Rabbi Isaiah di Trani.

Tosafot Hachmei Anglia

A small collection of tosafot composed by rabbis from England.

Tosafot ha-Rosh

A commentary in tosafot style, and largely dependent on the earlier tosafot collections, composed by Asher ben Jehiel. These, together with the Hiddushim of Nahmanides and others, were studied by the Sephardi Jews instead of the normal Tosafot.

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