Legion of Honour, officially National Order of the Legion of Honour, French Ordre national de la Légion d’honneur, Legion of Honour - premier order of the French republic, created by Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul, on May 19, 1802, as a general military and civil order of merit conferred without regard to birth or religion provided that anyone admitted swears to uphold liberty and equality.
Napoleon’s ideas for this order, which finally prevailed, aroused a certain amount of opposition, particularly from those who felt the Legion should have purely military qualifications. During the Restoration, the Legion became a royal order, ranked below the restored military and religious orders of the ancien régime. Upon the downfall of the monarchy, the Legion once again became the highest-ranking order and decoration in France.
There are five classes in the Legion of Honour :
- Chevalier (Knight): minimum 20 years of public service or 25 years of professional activity with "eminent merits"
- Officier (Officer): minimum 8 years in the rank of Chevalier
- Commandeur (Commander): minimum 5 years in the rank of Officier
- Grand Officier (Grand Officer): minimum 3 years in the rank of Commandeur
- Grand Croix (Grand Cross): minimum 3 years in the rank of Grand Officier
- Ivo Andrić (1892-1975) Legion of Honour 1937
- Ivan Bielovucic (1889-1949) Legion of Honour 1915
- Angelo Marino Calafati (1765 -1822) Legion of Honour 1810
- Vjekoslav Lujo Cukela (1888-1956) Legion of Honour
- Biserka Cvejic (1923-) Legion of Honor 2001
- Mirko Drazen Grmek (1924-2000) Legion of Honour 1966
- Prvislav Grisogono (1879-1969) Legion of Honour
- Petar Guberina (1913-2005) Legion of Honour 1968, 1989
- Ivan Meštrović (1883-1962) Legion of Honour 1940
- Jacques-Augustin Normand (1839-1906); Officier: 1891
- Jean-Baptiste Phelut (1850-?) chevalier: 1904.
- Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2008 (b. 1947) Officer: 2006; Commander: 2009; Grand Officer: 2013.
- Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2008 (b. 1932). Knight: 1984; Officer: 1990; Commander: 1993; Grand Officer: 2009.
- General Moshe Dayan (1915-1981) 4th Chief of Staff, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs - of Israel. Grand Officier Légion d'honneur:
- Shimon Peres (b.1923) 9th President of the State of Israel. Officier Légion d'honneur.
- Michael Sela (b. 1924) Israeli Immunologist. Officier Légion d'honneur: 1987
- Aharon Barak, (b. 1936) Israel Chief Justice. Chevalier Légion d'honneur:
- Amos Oz (b. 1939), Israeli writer, journalist. Chevalier Légion d'honneur: 1997.
- Claude Meyer, Chevalier Légion d'honneur: 2014
- Aharon Nahmias, .10–11 Knesset mamber, Deputy Speaker of the Knesset & Mayor of Zefat (b. ) Chevalier Légion d'honneur: 1989.