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University of Toronto

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The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1827 by a royal charter as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada. King's College was controlled by the Church of England until 1850, when the institution became secular and assumed its present name.

The University of Toronto is a decentralized institution, with governing authority shared among its central administration, academic faculties and colleges. Unlike most North American institutions, the U of T is a collegiate university that comprises twelve colleges that differ in character and history, each retaining substantial autonomy over financial and institutional affairs.

Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for the Toronto School, a school of thought in communication theory and literary criticism. where the first practical electron microscope was built. The infrared chemiluminescence technique was developed at U of T. Toronto astronomers provided the first observational evidence of black holes. Medical inventions include insulin and stem cell research, the gycemic index, infant cereal Pablum, and use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery. The first artificial cardiac pacemaker, the first successful single lung transplant and the first nerve transplant were performed in Toronto. Researchers also discovered the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division and the T-cell receptor which triggers immune system responses. Gel electrophoresis was developed in Toronto at the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities located outside of the United States.

The University of Toronto consistently ranks highly in global rankings. The U of T has educated two Governors General, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court and ten Nobel Laureates either studied or taught there.

The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university. The first documented North American football game was played at University of Toronto on November 9, 1861. The Blues played their first intercollegiate football game against the University of Michigan in 1877, resulting in a scoreless draw. The Blues went on to win four Grey Cup, two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cup championships. The team has hit a rough patch in recent years. From 2001 to 2008 the Blues suffered the longest losing streak in Canadian collegiate history, with 49 consecutive losing games. Established in 1897, the University of Toronto Rowing Club is the oldest collegiate rowing club in Canada.

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