Judith of Bavaria

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Judith von Bayern

Nicknames: "Judith", "Jutta", "de Bavière", "von Bayern", "van Beieren", "de Bavary", "of Bavaria", "Iudit", "von Franke", "von Altdorf", "Juditha", "von Arsengau", "Queen Roman Empress and Empress of the Franks.", "Judith Princess of Bavaria"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Altdorf (Present Weingarten), (Present Regierungsbezirk Tübingen), Bayern (Present Baden-Württemberg), Frankish Empire (within present Germany)
Death: Died in Tours, (Present département d'Indre-et-Loire), (Present région Centre), Frankish Empire (within present France)
Place of Burial: Basilique Saint Martin de Tours, Châteauneuf (Plumereau District of Tours), Département d'Indre-et-Loire, Région Centre, France
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Welf I von Altdorf, Graf in Schwaben and Hedwig - Heilwig von Sachsen, Abbess of Chelles
Wife of Emperor Louis I 'The Pious', son of Charlemagne & Hildegard
Mother of Gisela of Cysoing, daughter of Louis and Judith and Charles II "the Bald", Western Emperor
Sister of Conrad I the Elder, count of Auxerre; Raoul I, count of Ponthieu; Emma of Altdorf and Mathilda d'Andech von Altdorf

Occupation: Queen consort of the Franks, Princess of Bavaria, Kejsarinna, Holy Roman Emperess, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Princess, Empress of the Franks, Wife of Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Judith von Bayern

Sharon's Note: Alternative data from merges: Birth date: 800/806 - please check sources to verify whether this is more correct than the 795 on the MP?

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Swabian Nobility (covering her birth family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWABIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#Judithdied843

Chapter 9. GRAFEN im LINZGAU

Linzgau was situated north of Lake Constance, and east of Hegau, in southern Württemberg.

A. GRAFEN im LINZGAU, GRAFEN von ALTDORF (WELF)

The Genealogia Welforum[820], the first genealogy of the Welf family, was compiled in the mid-1120s in upper Germany and a decade later in Lüneburg. A document comprising 10 short paragraphs, it is uncertain whether the earlier parts of the family are accurately represented: in particular there is an apparent conflation of one generation.

This was followed in [1170] by the Historia Welforum, written by an anonymous Swabian cleric in the entourage of Duke Welf [VI]. This repeats the often stated Trojan origin of the Franks, with the migrants settling on the banks of the Rhine, and more specifically the descent of the Welf family from "filiam…senatoris Romani…Katilina"[821].

The name Welf was not applied to the whole dynasty until the 12th century, this unusual first name being an abbreviation of "Welfhard" or "Bernwelf" and signifying puppy[822].

Migrating into Swabia from the area of Metz, the family's territories were at first centred around the Argen and Schussen, districts north-east of Lake Constance. They expanded northwards along the Lech river, acquiring a second power-base in the Ammer and Augst districts on the border with Bavaria[823]. The reduction in the central authority of the dukes of Swabia within their duchy enabled the Welf family to increase its own power from the end-11th century, from which time they exercised the authority of dukes in their extensive territories without the ducal title.

WELF [I], son of ROTHARD Graf & his wife --- (-[824/25]).

Settipani names Welf [I] as son of Rothard[824] but does not cite the primary source on which this is based. The Annalista Saxo names "de principibus Bawarorum qui fuit binomius, name et Eticho et Welfus dicebatur" who was father of Empress Judith[825].

From the area of Metz.

Moved to Bavaria.

Graf in Swabia.

m HEILWIG, daughter of ---.

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobilissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig[826].

She was installed as Abbess of Chelles, near Paris, through the influence of her daughter Empress Judith.

Welf [I] & his wife had four children:

1. RUDOLF [I] (-15 Oct 866).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Chuonradum et Ruodolfum" as brothers of Empress Judith[827].

He was given the abbeys of Saint-Riquier and Jumièges, through the influence of his sister Empress Judith.

The Chronique de Saint Riquier records that "Rodolphe…du sang imperial…oncle du glorieux roi Charles" succeeded abbé Louis as lay abbot of Saint-Riquier[828]. The Annales Alamannicorum record "Hruodolfus frater Iudith Augustæ" among those who swore allegiance in 864[829].

Comte de Sens.

The Annales Bertiniani record the death in 866 of "Rodulfus Karoli regis avunculus"[830]. The Adonis Continuatio records the death in 866 of "avunculus quoque eius [Carolo, Ludovici filii"] Radulfus, consiliarius primusque palatii"[831]. Two contemporary Epitafia commemorate "nobilis…Rhuodulfus", the second recording his death "Idus octavo"[832].

m HRUODUN, daughter of --- (-after 867). The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.

2. CONRAD "l'Ancien" (-22 Mar [862/66]).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Chuonradum et Ruodolfum" as brothers of Empress Judith[833].

Graf von Linz- und Argengau. Dux.

Nithard records that Conrad and his brother Rudolf were forcibly tonsured in [Apr 830] by their sister's stepson, Lothar, then in revolt against his father, and sent to Aquitaine "to be held by Pepin"[834].

Comte de Paris.

The Miraculis Sancti Germani record that "Chuonradus princeps" was cured of an eye problem by the saint, and that he built the church of Saint-Germain at Auxerre in thanks[835]. An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[836]. "Ludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange between Grimald abbot of St Gallen and "quidam comis…Chuonratus" relating to property in Linzgau and Argengau, by charter dated 1 Apr 861[837].

A poem by Walahfridus Strabus records the epitaph of "Chonradum comitem"[838]. The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records the death 22 Mar of "Conradus comes"[839].

m ADELAIS [de Tours], daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] & his wife Ava ---.

The Miraculis Sancti Germani name "Adheleid" as wife of "Chuonradus princeps"[840]. A poem by Walahfridus Strabus records the epitaph of "Adelheidam"[841]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Some secondary works[842] assert that the second husband of Adelais was Robert "le Fort" [Capet]. If this is correct, Adelais must have been Comte Robert's second wife as his known children were already born by the time Adelais's husband Conrad died. Settipani[843] states that the only basis for the assertion is a 12th century interpolation in the Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, which is of little historical value. Nevertheless, he suggests that it is likely that the wife of Comte Robert was a close relation of Adelais, although the basis for this is not known.

Comte Conrad & his wife had [five] children.

---

3. JUDITH ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobilissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Louis, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[856].

The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the marriage of "Iudith filiam Welponis…comitis" and Emperor Louis I[857]. The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[858].

Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with his sons by his first marriage.

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[859].

Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[860].

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[861]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[862].

m (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) as his second wife, Emperor LOUIS I, son of Emperor CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegardis (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).

---

4. EMMA [Hemma] (-31 Jan 876, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).

The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 827 of "Ludewicus rex" and "sororem Iudith imperatricis" but does not name her[863]. This appears to be the only source in which her origin is given. "Ludowicus…rex" made a donation to St Felix & Regula in Zurich naming "filia nostra Bertha…[et] coniugis nostræ Hemmæ" by charter dated 29 Oct 863[864]. The Gesta Francorum records that "Hemma quoque regina" became paralysed in 874, died at Regensburg in 876 and was buried in the church of St Emmeran[865].

The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina hic sepulta"[866]. The necrology of Augia Divis records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina"[867]. The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "2 Kal Jan" of "Hemma imperatrix sor na"[868].

m (827) LOUIS King of Bavaria and Carinthia, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengardis [de Hesbaye] ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch). He was installed in 843 as LUDWIG II "le Germanique" King of the East Franks.

References:

[820] Genealogica Welforum, MGH SS XIII, p. 733.

[821] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 1 and 2, MGH SS XXI, pp. 457-8.

[822] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 2.

[823] Jordan (1986), p. 3.

[824] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, p. 254 footnote 433.

[825] Annalista Saxo 1126.

[826] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596.

[827] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.

[828] Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Riquier, III.IX, p. 122.

[829] Annales Alamannicorum continuation Sangallensis prima 864, MGH SS I, p. 50, alternative text quoted in footnote 1.

[830] Annales Bertiniani III 866.

[831] Adonis Continuatio Prima, Auctore Anonymo 866, MGH SS II, p. 324.

[832] Carmina Centulensia CXLI and CXLII, MGH Poetæ latini ævi Carolini III, pp. 352 and 353.

[833] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.

[834] Nithard I.3, p. 131.

[835] Ex Heirici Miraculis S. Germani 3, MGH SS XIII, p. 401.

[836] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469.

[837] D LD 103, p. 149.

[838] Walahfridi Strabi Carmen, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 387.

[839] L'abbé Lebeuf (1855) Mémoires concernant l'histoire civile et ecclésiastique d'Auxerre et de son ancient diocese (Auxerre) (“Histoire d´Auxerre”), IV, p. 11.

[840] Ex Heirici Miraculis S. Germani 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 401, footnote 1 citing v. Dümmler Ostfr. Reich I, p. 422, as stating her origin.

[841] Walahfridi Strabi Carmen, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 391.

[842] Including ES II 10.

[843] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 400.

[856] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596.

[857] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624.

[858] Annales Xantenses 819, MGH SS II, p. 224.

[859] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.

[860] Settipani (1993), pp. 254-5.

[861] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 315.

[862] Annales Xantenses 843, MGH SS II, p. 227.

[863] Annales Xantenses 827, MGH SS II, p. 224.

[864] D LD 110, p. 158.

[865] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 874 and 876, MGH SS I, pp. 388 and 389.

[866] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301.

[867] Necrologium Augiæ Divitis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 272.

[868] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Erentrudis Nonnbergensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 61.

--------------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Carolingians (covering her married family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

LOUIS I 814-840


LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[178]).

He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[179].

Crowned King of the Aquitainians in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian I. His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[180].

At the partition of territories agreed at Thionville in 806, he was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy. His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[181].

On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, and was crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. He did not use the titles king of the Franks or king of Italy so as to emphasise the unity of the empire[182].

He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817, which established his eldest son as his heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was eventually to lead to civil war between his sons. His nephew Bernard King of Italy, ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii, rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed. After his death, Italy was placed under the direct rule of the emperor.

Emperor Louis crowned his son Lothaire as joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle in Jul 817, his primary status over his brothers being confirmed once more at the Assembly of Nijmegen 1 May 821. In Nov 824, Emperor Louis placed Pope Eugene II under his protection, effectively subordinating the papal role to that of the emperor.

The birth of his son Charles by his second marriage in 823 worsened relations with his sons by his first marriage, the tension being further increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest son Lothaire to Italy. His older sons revolted in Mar 830 and captured their father at Compiègne, forcing him to revert to the 817 constitutional arrangements.

However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, depriving Lothaire of the imperial title and relegating him once more to Italy. A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.

His eldest son Lothaire declared himself sole emperor but was soon overthrown by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835. He proposed yet another partition of territories in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, setting aside the claims of his sons Pepin and Louis. This naturally led to revolts by Pepin in Aquitaine and Louis in Germany, which their father was in the process of suppressing when he died[183].

The Annales Fuldenses record the death "in insulam quondam Rheni fluminis prope Ingilenheim XII Kal Iul 840" of Emperor Louis and his burial "Mettis civitatem…in basilica sancti Arnulfi"[184]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "840 12 Kal Iul" of "Ludvicus imperator"[185]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Hludowicus imperator in insula Rheni quiæ est sita iuxta palatium Ingelheim"[186]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[187]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[188].

m firstly ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[189], bur Angers).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Ludwig "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[190]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[191]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[192].

m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin).

Mistress (1): ---. The name of Emperor Lothar's mistress or mistresses is not known.

Emperor Louis I & his first wife had six children:

1. LOTHAIRE [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[200].

He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I, jointly with his father, in Jul 817 at Aix-la-Chapelle.

2. PEPIN ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[201].

Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became PEPIN I King of Aquitaine.

3. HROTRUD [Rotrude] ([800]-).

The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[202].

4. BERTA .

Settipani cites charters which name Berta as the daughter of Emperor Louis[203].

5. HILDEGARD ([802/04]-857, or maybe after [23 Aug 860]).

The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[204]. Hildegard is named as sister of Charles by Nithard[205].

Abbess of Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon.

She supported her brother Lothaire against her half-brother Charles and, in Oct 841, imprisoned Adalgar at Laon. After Laon was besieged, she surrendered Adalgar but was herself released by her half-brother205.

The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 857 of "Hildegard, Lothawici regis filia"[206], corroborated in the Annales Alemannici[207].

6. LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I and his wife Ermengardis[208].

Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became King of Bavaria and Carinthia. Under the partition of territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "le Germanique/der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.

---

Emperor Louis I & his second wife had [three] children:

7. GISELA ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).

The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[209]. Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[210].

She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[211]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis”[212]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][213].

m ([836]) EBERHARD Marchese di Friulia, son of UNRUOCH Comte [en Ternois] & his wife Engeltrude (-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).

8. CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[214]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[215].

Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks.

9. [daughter .

The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records that "rex Francorum qui et imperator Romanorum" (which appears to indicate Charles II "le Chauve") gave his sister in marriage to "vir nobilissimo genere decoratus", that the couple had two sons to whom their uncle gave "in Alemannia loca…Potamum et Brigantium, Ubirlingin et Buochorn, Ahihusin et Turingen atque Heistirgou, Wintirture…et in Retia Curiensi Mesouch", and that one of the sons returned to France while the other "Oudalricus" retained all the property in Alamannia[216]. The editor of the MGH SS compilation dates this source to the mid-12th century[217]. The information has not been corroborated in any earlier primary source, although it is not known what prior documentation may have been available to the compiler of the Casus.

There are several other difficulties with this marriage which suggest that the report in the Casus should be treated with caution. If the information is accurate, it is likely that the bride was a full sister of King Charles, although if this is correct her absence from contemporary documentation is surprising. If she had been Charles's half-sister, it is difficult to see how Charles would have had much influence on her marriage, which would have been arranged by one of her full brothers.

In any case, it is unlikely that Emperor Louis's first wife would have had further children after [812/15] at the latest, given the birth of her eldest son in 795. If that estimated birth date is correct, then it is more likely that this daughter's marriage would have been arranged by her father Emperor Louis before his death in 840.

Another problem is the potential consanguinity between the parties. Although the precise relationship between the couple's son Udalrich [III] and the earlier Udalrichinger cannot be established from available documentation, it is probable that he was closely related to Hildegard, first wife of Emperor Charles I, who was the paternal grandmother of Emperor Louis's children.

Lastly, Udalrich [III] is recorded in charters dated 847 and 854, suggesting a birth date in the 820s assuming that he was adult at the time, which is inconsistent with Charles II "le Chauve" (born in 823) having arranged his parents' marriage.

m --- [Udalrichinger].]

---

Emperor Louis I had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

10. [ALPAIS ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]).

Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[218]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[219].

Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[220]. If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816. However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the age of these children when their father died. The question of Alpais's paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the possible daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard. No indication has been found of the name of Alpais's mother.

If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of Bego's estimated birth date.

After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817]. She was still there 29 May 852.

m ([806]) [as his second wife,] BEGO, son of [GERARD [I] Comte de Paris & his wife Rotrud] ([755/60]-28 Oct 816).

He governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania in 806. Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.]

11. ARNOUL ([794]-after [Mar/Apr] 841).

The Chronicon Moissacense names "quartum…filium [Ludovici]…ex concubina…Arnulfum" recording that his father gave him the county of Sens[221].

Comte de Sens 817.

He was a supporter of his half-brother Emperor Lothaire in [Mar/Apr] 841[222].

References:

[178] Nithard I.8, p. 140.

[179] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265.

[180] Settipani (1993), p. 250.

[181] RFA 813, p. 95.

[182] Settipani (1993), p. 252.

[183] Settipani (1993), pp. 252-3.

[184] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 840, MGH SS I, p. 362.

[185] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219.

[186] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462.

[187] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 227.

[188] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 320.

[189] RFA 818, p. 104.

[190] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591.

[191] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 818, MGH SS I, p. 356.

[192] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 31, MGH SS II, p. 623.

[193] Annales Xantenses 819, MGH SS II, p. 224.

[194] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596.

[195] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 206.

[196] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.

[197] Settipani (1993), pp. 254-5.

[198] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 315.

[199] Annales Xantenses 843, MGH SS II, p. 227.

[200] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591.

[201] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591.

[202] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.

[203] Settipani (1993), p. 255 footnote 446, citing MGH Dipl Carol, no. 48, p. 143, 101, 241, 197, p. 353, spur. 34, p. 441.

[204] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.

[205] Nithard III.4, p. 160.

[206] Annales Formoselenses 857, MGH SS V, p. 35.

[207] Annales Alemannici 857, MGH SS I, p. 50 "Hludovici regis filia Hiltikart", footnote 1 referring to "Necrolog S Galli" recording "X Kal Dec".

[208] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591.

[209] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.

[210] Coussemaker, I. de (ed.) (1886) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dépendances (Lille) ("Cysoing"), V, p. 10.

[211] Cysoing III, p. 7.

[212] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, pp. 878 and 879, and Cysoing IV and V, pp. 8 and 10.

[213] Cysoing VI, p. 11.

[214] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824, MGH SS V, p. 39.

[215] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597.

[216] Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis I.2, MGH SS XX, p. 628.

[217] MGH SS XX, pp. 622-25.

[218] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448.

[219] Annales Hildesheimenses 815, MGH SS III, p. 42.

[220] Settipani (1993), pp. 200-02.

[221] Chronicon Moissacense 817, MGH SS I, p. 312.

[222] Settipani (1993), p. 255.

--------------------------

Louis I The Pious m Judith second

2. Judith m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin). The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[193]. Thegan names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobolissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[194]. Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis chose "Huelpi comitis filiam…Judith" as his wife in 819 after "inspectis plerisque nobelium filiabus"[195]. Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with the emperor's sons by his first marriage. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[196]. Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[197]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[198]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[199]. His second wife was, Judith of Bavaria:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

With her had three children/ a daughter and a son: :[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

2.1 Gisela (c819-c874) GISELA ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[209]. Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[210]. She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[211]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis”[212]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][213]. 'm ([836) EBERHARD Marchese di Friulia, son of UNRUOCH Comte [en Ternois] & his wife Engeltrude (-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). Gisela, married Eberhard I of Friuli:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

2.2 Charles (823-877) CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[214]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[215]. Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks. Charles the Bald, king of West Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

2.3? Daughter [daughter . The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records that "rex Francorum qui et imperator Romanorum" (which appears to indicate Charles II "le Chauve") gave his sister in marriage to "vir nobilissimo genere decoratus", that the couple had two sons to whom their uncle gave "in Alemannia loca…Potamum et Brigantium, Ubirlingin et Buochorn, Ahihusin et Turingen atque Heistirgou, Wintirture…et in Retia Curiensi Mesouch", and that one of the sons returned to France while the other "Oudalricus" retained all the property in Alamannia[216]. The editor of the MGH SS compilation dates this source to the mid-12th century[217]. The information has not been corroborated in any earlier primary source, although it is not known what prior documentation may have been available to the compiler of the Casus. There are several other difficulties with this marriage which suggest that the report in the Casus should be treated with caution. If the information is accurate, it is likely that the bride was a full sister of King Charles, although if this is correct her absence from contemporary documentation is surprising. If she had been Charles's half-sister, it is difficult to see how Charles would have had much influence on her marriage, which would have been arranged by one of her full brothers. In any case, it is unlikely that Emperor Louis's first wife would have had further children after [812/15] at the latest, given the birth of her eldest son in 795. If that estimated birth date is correct, then it is more likely that this daughter's marriage would have been arranged by her father Emperor Louis before his death in 840. Another problem is the potential consanguinity between the parties. Although the precise relationship between the couple's son Udalrich [III] and the earlier Udalrichinger cannot be established from available documentation, it is probable that he was closely related to Hildegard, first wife of Emperor Charles I, who was the paternal grandmother of Emperor Louis's children. Lastly, Udalrich [III] is recorded in charters dated 847 and 854, suggesting a birth date in the 820s assuming that he was adult at the time, which is inconsistent with Charles II "le Chauve" (born in 823) having arranged his parents' marriage. m --- [Udalrichinger.] [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192 Note: Wikipaedia doesn’t record this daughter.

----------------------------

From the German Wikipedia page on Judith (Kaiserin):

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_(Kaiserin)

Judith (* 795; † 19. April 843) war seit Februar 819 zweite Gemahlin Ludwigs des Frommen. Judith war die Tochter des Grafen Welf I., des Stammvaters der Dynastie der Welfen, und der edlen Sächsin Heilwig. Sie war die Schwester von Hemma, der Gemahlin Ludwigs des Deutschen, und von Rudolf und Konrad, die Grafen im Bodenseeraum und im Zürichgau waren.

Judith wurde im Februar 819 bei einer Brautschau unter fränkischen Adelstöchtern von Ludwig dem Frommen zu seiner zweiten Ehefrau auserkoren. Sie soll willensstark und sehr schön gewesen sein. Bei ihrer Vermählung erhielt sie das Kloster San Salvatore in Brescia als Lehen (beneficium). Judith gewann starken Einfluss auf Ludwig und konnte dadurch dem Geschlecht der Welfen zu großer Macht verhelfen. Sie war darauf bedacht, ihrem im Jahre 823 geborenen Sohn Karl dem Kahlen einen Anteil am Erbe Ludwigs des Frommen zu sichern, nachdem bereits seit 817 ein Plan für die Aufteilung des Fränkischen Reiches unter Ludwigs anderen drei Söhnen aus erster Ehe existierte, den Prinzen Lothar, Pippin von Aquitanien und Ludwig von Bayern.

Judith zog den Hass des Adels auf sich. Sie wurde des Ehebruchs mit Bernhard von Septimanien bezichtigt und 830 in ein Kloster bei Poitiers geschickt, von wo Ludwig sie nach der Reichsversammlung von Nimwegen zurückholen konnte. Nach den Geschehnissen auf dem „Lügenfeld“ zu Colmar wurde sie nach Tortona (Italien) verbannt. Nach der erneuten Machtübernahme Ludwigs des Frommen kehrte sie an seine Seite nach Aachen zurück.

Während der dreißiger Jahre blieb die Ausstattung ihres Sohnes Karl mit einem angemessenen Erbteil ihr oberstes Ziel, das sie durch wechselnde Koalitionen mit ihren Stiefsöhnen Ludwig dem Deutschen und Kaiser Lothar I. zu erreichen suchte. Als beim Tod ihres Gatten Ludwigs des Frommen im Jahr 840 jedoch noch keine tragfähige Erbregelung gefunden war und unter dessen Söhnen sogleich ein Krieg um das Erbe entstand, besaß Karl im Vergleich zu seinen Halbbrüdern die ungünstigste Ausgangsposition. Vor allem der tatkräftigen Unterstützung durch Judith verdankte es Karl, dass er am Ende des Kriegs, das im Vertrag von Verdun 843 besiegelt wurde, ein großes Reich im Westen erhielt. Seine Mutter hatte zuvor erfolgreich Anhänger für ihn geworben und ihm Truppen zugeführt.

Das Bild Judiths in den zeitgenössischen Quellen könnte zwiespältiger kaum sein. Dem Hof nahe stehende Autoren wie Walahfrid Strabo und Hrabanus Maurus verehrten sie geradezu, während ihre Gegner, wie Agobard von Lyon und Wala von Corbie sie als Ursache allen Übels bezeichneten. Auch in der historischen Forschung wird sie sehr uneinheitlich bewertet. Während ältere Forschungen aus dem 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert ihr eine große Mitschuld am Verfall des Karolingerreichs zuschreiben, wurde das Bild Judiths in jüngeren Arbeiten deutlich relativiert. Dabei wird ihr Streben nach Ausstattung ihres Sohnes Karl und nach ihrer eigenen Absicherung für den Fall der Verwitwung als durchaus legitim bewertet und ihre Rolle wird wesentlich stärker im Kontext der allgemeinen Verfallserscheinungen im Reich jener Zeit gesehen.

Judith starb 843 und wurde in St. Martin in Tours bestattet.

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In English:

Judith (b. c.795, d. 19 April 843) was married in February 819 as the second wife of Louis the Pious. Judith was the daughter of Graf Welf I (the progenitor of the House of Guelphs), and a Saxon noble's daughter Heilwig. She was the sister of Hemma, wife of Louis the German, and of Rudolf and Conrad, Grafs near Lake Constance based in the Zürichgau.

Judith married in February 819 to Frankish noble Louis the Pious as his second wife. She is said to have been very beautiful and strong-willed. With her marriage, she received the monastery of San Salvatore in Brescia as a fief (beneficium). Judith exerted strong influence on Louis, and she helped to bring the House of Guelph to great power. She intended that her son, born in 823 as Charles the Bald, receive a share under the 817 plan for the division of the Frankish Empire under Louis' first three sons (by his first marriage): Prince Lothar, Pepin of Aquitaine, and Louis of Bavaria.

Judith drew the hatred of the aristocracy upon herself. She accused Bernard of Septimania of forcing himself on her, and was exiled in 830 to a monastery at Poitiers. Ludwig (Louis) had her released after the national assembly in Nijmegen restored his rule. After the events on the "Lügenfeld" in Colmar, she was exiled to Tortona, Italy. After the restoration of Louis the Pious, she returned to his side in Aachen.

During her thirties, she fought to gain a reasonable inheritance for her son Charles, which she sought to achieve by switching over to the coalition of her stepsons Louis the German and Lothar I. At the death of her husband, Louis the Pious, in 840, however, no agreement had been reached on the inheritance and Louis' sons immediately began a war, with Charles inheriting the worst starting position.

Charles owed his success greatly to the energetic support of Judith, the results of which were sealed in the Treaty of Verdun in 843 in the creation of a great empire in the western part of the empire. His mother had successfully recruited followers for him and fed his troops. The image of Judith in contemporary sources could hardly have been more ambiguous. The closest authors, such as Strabo Walahfrid and Hrbanaus Maurus, regarded their opponents, such as Agobard of Lyon and Wala of Corbie, as the root of all evil. With regard to historical research, their writing is regarded as very uneven. When earlier research from the 19th and early 20th century attributed Judith's efforts as greatly assisting the decline of the Carolingian Empire. Her desire for her son Charles, in an effort to protect herself in case of widowhood, to have a legitimate and valued role in the context of the general decay of the empire at that time is now seen as a more valid explanation.

Judith died in 843 and was buried at the Basilica of St. Martin in Tours.

---

Literatur

Sachbücher

Friedrich von Bezold: Kaiserin Judith und ihr Dichter Walahfrid Strabo. In: Historische Zeitschrift Bd. 130 (1924), S. 377–439.

Armin Koch: Kaiserin Judith. Eine politische Biographie. Matthiesen, Husum 2005, ISBN 3-7868-1486-4 (zugl. Dissertation, Universität Konstanz 2004)

Elizabeth Ward: Caesar's Wife. The Career of the Empress Judith 819–829. In: Peter Goodman, Roger Collins (Hrsg.): Charlemagne's Heir. New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (8114–40). Clarendon, Oxford 1990, ISBN 0-19-821994-6, S. 205–227.

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

Genealogie Mittelalter: Mittelalterliche Genealogie

im Deutschen Reich bis zum Ende der Staufer (genealogie-mittelalter.de)

http://www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/welfen/welfen_aeltere_linie/judith_fraenkische_koenigin_843/judith_fraenkische_koenigin_+_843.html

--------------------------

From the Genealogie Mittelalter page on Judith:

http://www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/welfen/welfen_aeltere_linie/judith_fraenkische_koenigin_843/judith_fraenkische_koenigin_+_843.html

Judith

Fränkische Königin

Römische Kaiserin

795 - Altdorf

19.4.843 - Tours

Begraben St. Martin

Tochter des schwäbischen Grafen Welf und der Sächsin Eigilwicha (Heilwich)

---

Lexikon des Mittelalters: Band V Spalte 797

Judith, Kaiserin

+ 19. April 843

Begraben St. Martin

Tochter des Grafen Welf und der edlen Sächsin Eigilwi/Heilwig

Zweite Gemahlin Kaiser LUDWIGS DES FROMMEN

Erste Erwähnung Februar 819 anläßlich der Brautschau LUDWIGS unter den fränkischen Adelstöchtern und der folgenden Heirat in Aachen. Willensstark und sehr schön (Thegan 26: "pulchra valde"), gewann sie bald großen Einfluß auf LUDWIG, dem sie nach der Tochter Gisela (819/22) den Sohn KARL (DEN KAHLEN) schenkte. Darauf bedacht, ihrem Sohn nebst seinen Brüdern aus 1. Ehe des Kaisers einen Reichsteil zu verschaffen, stieß LUDWIG auf ihr Betreiben seine ordinatio imperii (817) um, indem er statt der Drei- eine Vierteilung des Reiches vornahm und KARL 829 Schwaben, Elsaß und Teile Burgunds übertrug; er löste damit heftige innere Kämpfe aus, in denen die Söhne sich in wechselnden Allianzen gegen ihn und Judith erhoben. Besonders an Judith schieden sich die Geister: Bewunderern wie Walahfrid Strabo standen scharfe Gegner wie Wala von Corbie gegenüber, die unter der Anschuldigung des Ehebruchs mit dem Grafen Bernhard von Barcelona zeitweise sogar ihre Verbannung vom Hof bewirkten. Nach der Rückkehr setzte Judith die Bemühungen fort, KARL einen noch größeren Reichsteil zu verschaffen - mit dem Ergebnis, dass er schließlich 839 W-Franzien erhielt. Durch Judith war LUDWIG DER FROMME vom Verfechter der Reichseinheit zum Vorkämpfer der Reichsteilung geworden und das Geschlecht der WELFEN in die Spitzengruppe des großfränkischen Adels aufgerückt.

Literatur:

E. Dümmler, Gesch. des Ostfrk. Reiches, 3 Bde, 1887-1888 - Fr. v. Bezold, Ksn. Judith und ihr Dichter Walahfried Strabo, HZ 130, 1924.

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Werner Karl Ferdinand: Seite 444

"Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)"

II. Generation

6 c

Zur Familie Judiths ("Welfen", fränkisches Adelshaus im Metzer Raum) siehe J. Fleckenstein, in: Tellenbach, St. und V 7ff.

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Rappmann Roland/Zettler Alfons: Seite 429

"Die Reichenauer Mönchsgemeinschaft und ihr Totengedenken im frühen Mittelalter"

JUDITH

+ 19.4.843

Necr. A/B 19.4. "Iudit regina", Gemahlin LUDWIGS DES FROMMEN

Literatur:

AdB 14 Seite 655; Fleckenstein, Über die Herkunft, bes. Seite 95ff.;

Werner, Nachkommen Tafel Nr. II/6 c; NDB 10 Seite 639f. (dort fälschlicherweise der 13.4. als Todestag); Biograph. Wörterbuch 2 Spalte 1357f.; Konecny, Die Frauen Seite 89-94 und Seite 97-102; Lexikon des Mittelalters 5 Spalte 797; Ward, Caesars's wife. Zum Todestag: Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches 1 Seite 188 Anmerkung 2.

Judith, die Tochter des Grafen Welf und Schwester der Gemahlin Ludwigs des Deutschen, Hemma, war seit 819 mit LUDWIG DEM FROMMEN verheiratet (BM² 683a). Ihre Brüder Rudolf und Konrad waren Grafen im Bodenseeraum bzw. im Zürichgau; vgl. neuerdings Borgolte, Grafen Seite 165ff. und Seite 226ff.

Über Walahfrid, der ab 829 für längere Zeit am kaiserlichen Hof weilte und der Kaiserin mehrere Gedichte widmete, kam es zu engeren Beziehungen zur Reichanau. Er gilt sogar als Erzieher von Judiths Sohn KARL DEM KAHLEN; vgl. Beyerle, Von der Gründung Seite 92f., Seite 97ff., BM² 863a, Bergmann, Dichtung Seite 732ff., Önnerfors, Walahfrid Strabo Seite 101, Bezold, Kaiserin Judith Seite 377ff. und Haubrichs, Nekrologische Notizen Seite 15 mit Anmerkung.

Wahrscheinlich hat LUDWIG DER FROMME im Jahre 838 versucht, Walahfrid als Abt auf der Reichenau einzusetzen; vgl. oben Seite 296f. und Beyerle, Von der Gründung Seite 99ff.

Zu Gedenkbucheinträgen mit Judith in den Verbrüderungsbüchern von Reichenau; Pfäfers und St. Gallen vgl. Tellenbach, Welfen Seite 335ff., Beyerle, Das Reichenauer Verbrüderungsbuch Seite 114f. und vorläufig Libri confrat. Seite 546.

Judith entstammte einer ursprünglich fränkischen, nun vornehmlich in Alemannien und Bayern begüterter Familie. Sie wurde Anfang 819 wegen ihrer Schönheit die zweite Gemahlin LUDWIGS I. DES FROMMEN, wobei sie bei einer "Besichtigung" der Töchter vornehmer Häuser durch den Kaiser als Siegerin hervorging. Judith, die als schön und ehrgeizig überliefert wurde, erhielt bei ihrer Vermählung das Kloster San Salvatore in Brescia als Beneficium. Da sie bemüht war, ihren 823 geborenen Sohn KARL einen Anteil an dem bereits 817 unter die anderen Söhne LUDWIGS DES FROMMEN verteilten Reiches zu verschaffen suchte, richtete sich der Haß des Adels gegen sie und ihren Anhang und sie gab damit Anlaß zum Ausbruch der Bürgerkriege, die erst durch den Vertrag von Verdun 843 beendet wurden. Seit 829 mit verschiedenen Buhlen des Ehebruchs verdächtigt, wurde sie 830 von den Aufständischen ins Kloster bei Poitiers gesteckt. Doch bereits im Oktober 830 konnte ihr Gatte LUDWIG auf der Reichsversammlung in Nimwegen ihre Rückkehr an seine Seite durchsetzen. Nachdem das Heer ihres Gatten auf dem "Lügenfeld" zu Colmar zu dessen Söhnen übergegangen war, wurde sie unter LOTHARSVerantwortung gestellt, der sie nach Tortona (Italien) verbannte. Wenige Wochen, nachdem LUDWIG die Macht zurückgewonnen hatte, gelang ihr die Flucht und sie kehrte nach Aachen zurück.

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Schieffer Rudolf:

"Die Karolinger"

Unter den durch Heirat in Königsnähe gerückten Geschlechtern gewannen vorerst die WELFEN den größten Einfluß, was kaum zu Unrecht dem energischen Ehrgeiz der neuen Kaiserin Judith zugeschrieben wird. Jedenfalls muß auffallen, dass ihre Mutter Heilwig die Leitung der vornehmen Königsabtei Chelles erhielt, der eine Bruder Rudolf sich die Verfügung über die Klöster Saint-Riquier und Jumiges sicherte und der andere, Konrad, zum wichtigen Machthaber in Alemannien wurde, überdies verheiratet mit Adelheid, einer weiteren Tochter Hugos von Tours und damit Schwägerin LOTHARS I.

Nach der am 13.6.823 erfolgten Geburt KARLS DES KAHLEN war Judith klug genug, gerade LOTHAR die Patenschaft anzutragen und ihm eine nicht weiter konkretisierte Zusage für ein künftiges Erbteil KARL zu entlocken.

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Diwald Hellmut: Seite 102

"Heinrich der Erste"

Judith vergaß niemals ihre Abkunft. Dazu kam noch der gewaltige Einfluß, den sie auf LUDWIG DEN FROMMEN hatte. Der Kaiser war ihr derart verfallen, dass seine mönchischen Versuchungen keinerlei Einfluß mehr auf seine Entschlüsse ausübten, nicht zuletzt deshalb, weil Judiths politische Vorstellungen kaum weniger deutlich ausgeprägt waren als ihr physischen Reize. Die Kaiserin förderte und umsorgte die sächsischen Reichsabteien, als wären es ihre eigenen Schöpfungen. Noch sieben Jahrhunderte später war ein kostbares Kreuz, das sie Corvey geschenkt hatte, im Kloster vorhanden. Ebenso wurde dort bis zur Säkularisation im Jahr 1803 jährlich das Judithenbrot gespendet, eine reichhaltige Armenspeisung.

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Schmid Karl: Seite 425

"Welfisches Selbstverständnis"

Judith, die Tochter Welfs und Heilwigs, Gemahlin Kaiser LUDWIGS DES FROMMEN und Mutter KARLS DES KAHLEN, stand im Brennpunkt der karolingischen Bruderkämpfe um das Reich. Sie war die Mittlerin kaiserlicher Gunst für ihre Brüder und Verwandten. Diesen kam nun die Nähe zur Stirps regia, die Teilhabe am Königsgeblüt, zu. Der persönlichen Bindung an den kaiserlich-karolingischen Hof verdankten sie es, dass sie im ganzen Reich neuen Besitz und hohe Stellungen königlichen Dienstes erhielten. Wechselreich wirkten sie in Alemannien, Bayern, Rätien, Burgund und Lotharingien und vor allem im Reich KARLS DES KAHLEN, im Reich von Judiths Sohn. Hemma, die Schwester der Kaiserin, wurde die Gemahlin Ludwigs des Deutschen. Hugo, mit dem Beinamen Abbas, vereinigte in seiner Hand die reichsten und bedeutendsten Königsklöster im W-Frankenreich, während Konrad der Ältere und sein Sohn Konrad wie auch der ältere Rudolf versuchten, in Auxerre und Sens, in St. Maurice d'Agaune, in Jumieges, St. Riquier, Valenciennes und anderswo ihrem Streben nach Herrschaft Rückhalt zu geben und Positionen des politischen Einflusses aufzubauen. Sosehr jedoch die Quellenzeugnisse diese Großen nach der Vermählung Judiths mit Kaiser LUDWIG DEM FROMMEN aus der Breite des Adels herausheben, bald sollte dies nicht mehr der Fall sein. Die Nachfahren der Brüder der Kaiserin Judith nämlich gingen vom ausgehenden 9. Jahrhundert an wieder in der Weite der adeligen Geschlechter unter, als sich die KAROLINGER-Herrschaft auflöste. Nur Rudolf, der Großneffe der Kaiserin Judith, vermochte es, da er in Hoch-Burgund im Jahre 888 das Königtum erlangte, eine geschichtliche Tradition seiner Familie über mehrere Generationen hinweg zu begründen.

---

Ennen, Edith: Seite 58-593

"Frauen im Mittelalter"

LUDWIG heiratet in zweiter Ehe die junge schöne Judith, eine WELFIN, eine sehr gebildete Dame; ja, ihre Verbindung zur Welt der Gelehrten und Dichter war enger als die ihres Gemahls. Sie suchte vor allem die Zukunft ihres Sohnes KARL zu sichern, der 823 geboren wurde, also viel jünger als LUDWIGS Söhne erster Ehe: LOTHAR geboren 795, Pippin geboren um 803 und Ludwig geboren um 806. Auf die Teilungspläne des Reiches, die Anlaß vieler Wirren boten, in die Judith sich einmischte, haben wir hier nicht näher einzugehen; wir bemerken nur, daß KARL DER GROSSE 806 eine Teilung des Reiches unter seine Söhne vorsah, die nur unterblieb, weil zwei von ihnen vor dem Vater starben. LUDWIG DER FROMME wollte unter kirchlichem Einfluß 817 in der vielberedeten Ordinatio Imperii den fränkischen Brauch der Reichsteilung insofern abändern, als er LOTHAR die Kaiserwürde, den beiden jüngeren Brüdern nur Unterkönigreiche zugestand, hat sich aber 829/30, als er wieder stärker unter den Einfluß weltlicher Großer geriet, erneut dem Teilungsbrauch zugewandt.

Judith ging es um ihren Sohn. Sie setzte zunächst auf den Paten ihres Sohnes LOTHAR. Ihr engster Vertrauter wurde Bernhard von Septimanien, dessen Berufung an den Hof sie bewirkte. Sie geriet in den Verdacht eines Verhältnisses mit ihm und auch in den Verdacht der Zauberei. In dem großen Aufstand von 830 gegen LUDWIG mußte Bernhard nach Barcelona fliehen, Judith wurde in das Radegundiskloster nach Poitiers gebracht und hart bedrängt, LUDWIG zur Abdankung zu bewegen. Es kam aber zu einem Umschwung, Judith wurde 831 in Aachen rehabilitiert. Bei dem gemeinsamen Aufstand der Söhne gegen LUDWIG 833/34 wurde sie anch Tortona in Italien verbannt, fand aber Wege, Botschaften über die Alpen zu bringen; noch einmal konne LUDWIG sich durchsetzen, aber die Ausstattung von Judiths Sohn KARL blieb eine offene Frage. Erst Pippins Tod machte den Weg frei für die von Judith angestrebte Lösung. Bevor sie Wirklichkeit wurde, starb LUDWIG. Judith half ihrem Sohn nach bestem Vermögen im Kampf um sein Erbe und führte ihm ein Heer zum Entscheidungskampf bei Fontanetum (Fontenay sw. Auxerre) zu.. Es kam dann aber zu einer Entfremdung zwischen Mutter und Sohn; vor dem Abschluß des Vertrages von Verdun (im August 843), der das Reich KARLS DES GROSSEN unter die Enkel aufteilte, eine Teilung, die nicht mehr rückgängig gemacht werden sollte, ist Judith am 11. April 843 gestorben.

819

oo 2. LUDWIG I. DER FROMME

16.4.778-20.6.843

Kinder:

1. Gisela 819- nach 1.7.874

836, oo Eberhard Markgraf von Friaul (um 810-866)

2. KARL II. DER KAHLE 13.6.823-6.10.877

Literatur:

Ay, Karl-Ludwig/Maier, Lorenz/Jahn Joachim: Die Welfen. Landesgeschichtliche Aspekte ihrer Herrschaft. Universitätsverlag Konstanz GmbH 1998 Seite 9,25,29,35,53,58,62-65,67,93,98

Borgolte Michael: Die Grafen Alemanniens in merowingischer und karolingischer Zeit. Eine Prosopographie. Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen 1986, Seite 155,166,169,227,288

Borgolte Michael: Geschichte der Grafschaften Alemanniens in fränkischer Zeit.Vorträge und Forschungen Sonderband 31 Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen 1984, Seite 92,193,202,229,254

Boshof Egon: Ludwig der Fromme. Primus Verlag Darmstadt 1996 Seite 5,9,10,15,152,153,158,159,167,178,179, 182,283,184,186,188,191,196,198-199,203,204,205,206,211,227,229,230,233,236,240,244,245,246, 248,249,261,263,268

Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs vom sogenannten Astronomus. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band V Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1974 Seite 308,320,334,344,346,352,358,366,368,372,374,378

Deutsche Geschichte Band 1 Von den Anfängen bis zur Ausbildung des Feudalismus Mitte des 11. Jahrhunderts. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften Berlin 1982, Seite 328

Die Reichsannalen mit Zusätzen aus den sogenannten Einhardsannalen. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band V Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1974 Seite 118,138

Diwald Helmut: Heinrich der Erste. Die Gründung des Deutschen Reiches. Gustav Lübbe Verlag GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach 1987 Seite 102,275

Dümmler Ernst: Die Chronik des Abtes Regino von Prüm. Verlag der Dykschen Buchhandlung Leipzig Seite 9

Dümmler Ernst: Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches. Verlag von Duncker und Humblot Berlin 1865 Band I Seite 28,43-46,56,59,63,67,71,80,83,95,109,111,117,119,128,134,148,150,181, 260,421,446

Ennen, Edith: Frauen im Mittelalter. Verlag C.H. Beck München 1994, Seite 58-63

Fleckenstein Josef: Über die Herkunft der Welfen und ihre Anfänge in Süddeutschland. in: Studien und Vorarbeiten zur Geschichte des Großfränkischen und frühdeutschen Adels Eberhard Albert Verlag Freiburg im Breisgau 1957, Seite 71-136

Glocker Winfrid: Die Verwandten der Ottonen und ihre Bedeutung in der Politik. Böhlau Verlag Köln Wien 1989, Seite 90

Hartmann, Wilfried: Ludwig der Deutsche. Primus Verlag 2002 Seite 29,64

Hlawitschka Eduard: Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen. Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und des Reiches im 9., 10. und 11. Jahrhundert. Kommissionsverlag: Minerva-Verlag Thinnes Nolte OHG Saarbrücken 1969, Seite 157

Hlawitschka Eduard: Lotharingien und das Reich an der Schwelle der deutschen Geschichte. Anton Hiersemann Stuttgart 1968, Seite 10

Hlawitschka Eduard: Studien zur Äbtissinnenreihe von Remiremont. Buchdruckerei und Verlag Karl Funk, Saarbrücken 1963, Seite 36

Jahrbücher von Fulda. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band VII Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1969 Seite 18,22

Jahrbücher von St. Bertin. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band VI Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1972 Seite 12,14,18,20,24, 30,48,50

Konecny Silvia: Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert. Dissertation der Universität Wien 1976, Seite 89-94,97-102

Lebe Reinhard: Ein Königreich als Mitgift. Heiratspolitik in der Geschichte. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt Stuttgart 1998, Seite 34,37,39

Mitterauer Michael: Karolingische Markgrafen im Südosten. Archiv für österreichische Geschichte Band 123. Hermann Böhlaus Nachf./Graz-Wien-Köln 1963, Seite 241,243,245

Mühlbacher Engelbert: Deutsche Geschichte unter den Karolingern. Phaidon Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion

Nithard, Vier Bücher Geschichten. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band V Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1974 Seite 388-394,406,408,414,420,430

Rappmann Roland/Zettler Alfons: Die Reichenauer Mönchsgemeinschaft und ihr Totengedenken im frühen Mittelalter. Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen 1998, Seite 408,419,424,426,429,434,436,517

Regino Chronik. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band VII Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1969 Seite 184

Riche Pierre: Die Karolinger. Eine Familie formt Europa. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, München 1991 Seite 183,185,191,196,201,208,354

Schieffer Rudolf: Die Karolinger. W. Kohlhammer GmbH Stuttgart Berlin Köln 1992, Seite 119, 125-129,131,136-138,146,158

Schmid, Karl: Gebetsgedenken und adliges Selbstverständnis im Mittelalter. Ausgewählte Beiträge, Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen 1983, Seite 403,425-453

Schneidmüller Bernd: Die Welfen. Herrschaft und Erinnerung. W. Kohlhammer GmbH Stuttgart Berlin Köln 2000, Seite 17,23,24,30,31,43,45-59,61,62,112,114,117

Schneidmüller Bernd/ Weinfurter Stefan: Otto III. Heinrich II. Eine Wende? Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen 1997, Seite 277A

Schnith Karl Rudolf: Mittelalterliche Herrscher in Lebensbildern. Von den Karolingern zu den Staufern. Verlag Styria Graz Wien Köln 1990, Seite 45,50-56,60,79

Tellenbach Gerd: Exkurs Über die ältesten Welfen im West- und Ostfrankenreich. in: Studien und Vorarbeiten zur Geschichte des Großfränkischen und frühdeutschen Adels Eberhard Albert Verlag Freiburg im Breisgau 1957, Seite 335-340

Thegan: Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band V Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1974 Seite 232-238,246,252

Treffer Gerd: Die französischen Königinnen. Von Bertrada bis Marie Antoinette (8.-18. Jahrhundert) Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg 1996 Seite 45-46

Weinfurter Stefan: Heinrich II. Herrscher am Ende der Zeiten. Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg 1999, Seite 201

Werner Karl Ferdinand: Die Ursprünge Frankreichs bis zum Jahr 1000. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, München 1995, Seite 426, 429,444

Wies Ernst W.: Otto der Große. Kämpfer und Beter. Bechtle Verlag Esslingen 1989, Seite 24

Xantener Jahrbücher. Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte Band VI Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1972 Seite 340,342,344,346,356

--------------------------

From the English Wikipedia article on Judith of Bavaria:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_of_Bavaria_(795-843)

Queen Judith or Iudit (805 - April 19 or 23, 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780 - 826). She became Queen consort of the Franks.

Marriage and issue

She became the second wife of Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks; they married in Aachen in 819 and had the following children:

1. Gisela (820 - July 5, 874), married Eberhard of Friuli

2. Charles the Bald

Impact on the Frankish kingdom

Judith ensured that her son Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona.

Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German, a son of Louis the Pious from his first marriage, in 827. Judith was buried at the basilica of St. Martin in Tours.

References

The Royal Ancestry Bible Royal Ancestors of 300 Colonial American Families by Michel L. Call (chart 2022) ISBN 1-933193-22-7

(Ben M. Angel notes: Secondary source, possible source of error in calling her husband "Holy Roman Emperor".)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Judith of Bavaria (795-843)

FMG on Judith of Welf

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWABIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#Judithdied843

Empress of the Holy Roman Empire 819–840

Preceded by Ermengarde of Hesbaye

Succeeded by Ermengard of Tours (also Queen in Middle Francia)

Queen of the Franks 819–840

Succeeded by Emma of Altdorf in East Francia and Ermentrude of Orléans in West Francia

--------------------

From Darryl Lundy's Peerage page on Judith von Bayern (Forrás / Source):

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10320.htm#i103198

Judith von Bayern

F, #103198, b. circa 800, d. 19 April 843

Last Edited=20 Aug 2005

Judith von Bayern was born circa 800 at Altdorf, Bayern, Germany. (2) She was the daughter of Guelph I Herzog von Bayern and Hedwig (?). (1), (2)

She married Louis I, Roi de France, son of Charlemagne, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Hildegard of Vinzgau, in February 819 in a Aix-la-Chapelle, France marriage. (2)

She died on 19 April 843 at Tours, France. (2)

Children of Judith von Bayern and Louis I, Roi de France

-1. Gisela d'Aquitaine+ b. c 819, d. c 1874

-2. Charles I, Roi de France+ b. 13 Jun 823, d. 6 Oct 877

Citations

1. [S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 63. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.

2. [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.

--------------------

Unattributed information in Norwegian:

Född: 800

Äktenskap : Ludvig I "Le Pieux "eller" Le Débonaire " tysk-romerske kejsaren ( 814-8 i 819

Död : 843 i åldern 43

Judith gifte sig med Ludvig I " Le Pieux "eller" Le Débonaire " tysk-romersk kejsare ( 814-8 , son till Karl den store romerske kejsaren ( 800-814 ) och Hildegarde VON VINZGAU i 819 . ( Ludvig I " Le Pieux "eller" Le Débonaire " tysk-romersk kejsare ( 814-8 föddes i augusti 778 i Casseuil -Sur- Garonne , död den 20 jun 840 i Ingelheim och begravdes i St Arnold (Tyskland). )

--------------------

Ben M. Angel public service announcement: She was not associated with the Holy Roman Empire. The entity that became the Holy Roman Empire did not exist until 2 February 962. Please review:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_roman_empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I_the_Great

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Emperor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Holy_Roman_Empresses

Or in Norwegian:

http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tysk-romerske_rike

And remember, friends do not let friends become "Holy Roman Empire (HRE) monkeys"

--------------------

From the NationMaster encyclopedia site:

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Judith-(died-843)

Queen Judith or Iudit (died 19 April 843) was the second wife of Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks.

Judith was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Eigilwi. She married King Louis in Aachen in 819, and the couple had a daughter, Gisela, and a son, Charles the Bald. Judith ensured that Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the Convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona. Judith was buried in St. Martin in Tours.

Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish Kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German, a son of Louis the Pious' from his first marriage, in 827.

Results from FactBites:

	

rea genealogy - pafg106 - Generated by Personal Ancestral File (634 words)

Judith, Princess of France [Parents] was born in 844 in France.

Judith, Princess of France was born in 844.

Judith of Bavaria, Princess of Bavaria was born in 800 in Bavaria.

(No sources)

--------------------

Sepultada: na abadia (?) de Saint-Martin-de-Tours.

--------------------

Our Folks: Genealogical research on Charlemagne's family by Albert D. Hart:

http://www.renderplus.com/hartgen/htm/charlemagne.htm

----- Second Generation -----

2. Emperor Louis I "The Pious" of Roman Empire - was born Aug 0778 in Casseneuil, France and died on 20 Jun 0840 in Mainz, Germany . He was the son of Emporer Charles Charlemagne and Empress Hildegard of Savoy.

Emperor Louis married Ermengarde de Hesbaye in 0795. Ermengarde was born about 0778, lived in Hesbaye,Liege,Belgium. She was the daughter of Duke Ingeramme de Hesbaye. She died on 3 Oct 0818 .

Ermengarde - Empress of the West.

Then Emperor Louis married Princess Judith of Bavaria Feb 0818/0819. Princess Judith was born about 0800, lived in Altdorf, Bavaria. She was the daughter of Duke Welf of Bavaria I and Duchess Hedwig of Bavaria. She died on 19 Apr 0843 in Tours, Neustria .

Emperor Louis - was the King of Acquitaine, King of the Franks and the Emperor of the Romans. He was called "the Fair" , "the Pious" and "the Debonaire" depending on what source you read about him in. He was married twice. He had three sons by his first wife. He married Judith as his second wife and had son Charles. As he redivided his land to include his second son Charles, there grew a large dissension between he and his step brothers. Their bitter struggle continued until Louis I died in 840.

Children with Ermengarde de Hesbaye

i. King Pepin of Aquitaine I was born about 0803 in France and died on 13 Dec 0835 .

ii. Princess Adelahide of Tours was born about 0800, lived in Tours, France and died after 0866 . Princess Adelahide married Duke Robert "Fortis - the Strong" of France IV about 0846 in France. Duke Robert was born about 0820, lived in France. He was the son of Rutpert (Robert) III of Wormsgau and Wiltrud of Orleans. He died on 25 Aug 0866 in Anjou, France .

iii. Emperor Lothaire I of Roman Empire was born in 0795, lived in Altdorf, Bavaria and died on 29 Sep 0855 in Pruem, Rheinland, Prussia .

Children with Princess Judith of Bavaria

iv. Emperor Charles II "The Bald" of Roman Empire was born on 13 Jun 0823 in Frankfurt, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia and died on 6 Oct 0877 in Brides Les Bains, Bourgogne, France .

v. Princess Gisela of Roman Empire was born about 0820, lived in Frankfort, Hesse Nassau, Prussia and died after 1 Jul 0874 . Princess Gisela married Marchese Eberhard Di Friuli. Marchese Eberhard was born about 0800, lived in Friuli, Italy. He was the son of Conte Unroch I Di Friuli. He died in 0864/0866 .

(No sources cited)

--------------------

Unattributed summary with list of sources:

Described as young & beautiful. Judith was of the Bavarian Welf clan.

Sources:

The book, 'The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages'.

The book, 'The Dark Ages'.

Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia

--------------------

Other sources referred to in general:

Sewell Genealogy Site. Online:

http://www.robertsewell.ca/

Robert Roy's Genealogical Research:

http://www.genealogy.theroyfamily.com/

(p30217.htm no longer refers to Judith of Bavaria)

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith,_daughter_of_Welf

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_of_Bavaria_(795-843)

--------------------

Queen Judith (or Iudit) (805 – 19 or 23 April 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780–826). She became Queen consort of the Franks.

Marriage and issue

She became the second wife of Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks; they married in Aachen in 819 and had the following children:

   * Gisela (820 – 5 July 874), married Eberhard of Friuli
   * Charles the Bald

Impact on the Frankish kingdom

Judith ensured that her son Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona.

Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German, a son of Louis the Pious from his first marriage, in 827. Judith was buried at the basilica of St. Martin in Tours.

--------------------

Judith av Bayern, född 795/805, död 19 april 843, var en tysk-romersk kejsarinna och drottning av Franken; gift i februari 819 med Ludvig den fromme. Hon var dotter till greve Welf I och Hedvig av Bayern och syster till Emma av Bayern.

--------------------

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_(Kaiserin) Judith (Kaiserin)

Judith (* 795; † 19. April 843) war seit Februar 819 zweite Gemahlin Ludwigs des Frommen. Judith war die Tochter des Grafen Welf I., des Stammvaters der Dynastie der Welfen, und der edlen Sächsin Heilwig. Sie war die Schwester von Hemma, der Gemahlin Ludwigs des Deutschen, und von Rudolf und Konrad, die Grafen im Bodenseeraum und im Zürichgau waren.

--------------------

Judith Altdorf of BAVARIA Princess of Bavaria, Emperess of the HRE

--------------------

"Louis married the daughter of his Duke Weir, who was of the most noble progeny of the Bavarians. The name of the virgin was Judith, who on her mother's side -- whose name was Eigilwi [. . .] was from most noble Saxon lineage. Louis made her his queen. She was very beautiful." [Thegan, Life of Louis] In 830 she faced charges from her step-son Pépin and his party that she had been violated by Bernard of Septimania. They forced her to enter a monastery, but she was freed by her husband later the same year. She was taken by her step-sons again in 833 when they deposed their father. They sent her to Tortona in Italy, where she was held captive, although they swore "they wanted her neither to die nor to be disabled." She was restored to her husband the following year. In 844, after her death, her son Charles II had her alleged lover Bernard of Septimania put to death. -------------------- Queen Judith, also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and Saxon noblewoman, Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780–826). She was the second wife of King Louis the Pious, which garnered her the title of Empress of the Franks. Indeed, this marriage to Louis marks the beginning of her rise as an influential figure in the Carolingian court. She had two children with Louis, a daughter named Gisela and a son named Charles, more famously known as Charles the Bald. The birth of her son led to a major dispute in imperial succession, which led to tensions between her and Charles' half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. She would eventually fall from grace when Charles' wife, the new empress Ermentrude of Orléans, rose to power. She was buried in 843 in Tours.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith,_daughter_of_Welf

Leo: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 11.

view all 20

Judith of Bavaria's Timeline

805
805
Altdorf (Present Weingarten), (Present Regierungsbezirk Tübingen), Bayern (Present Baden-Württemberg), Frankish Empire (within present Germany)
819
February 819
Age 14
819
Age 14
Hessen-Nassau, Preussia
823
June 13, 823
Age 18
Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
829
829
Age 24
captured by husband's enemies & was shut up in convent of St. Radegonde-Poitiers
830
830
Age 25

Imprisoned in the convent of Poitiers on the charge of adultery during Louis the Pious' first civil war.

833
833
- 834
Age 28
Tortona, Piedmont, Italy

Exiled in Tortona, Italy.

843
April 19, 843
Age 38
Tours, (Present département d'Indre-et-Loire), (Present région Centre), Frankish Empire (within present France)
843
Age 38
Châteauneuf (Plumereau District of Tours), Département d'Indre-et-Loire, Région Centre, France
1933
December 11, 1933
Age 38