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Charlemagne: Direct Descent Line

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  • Gerhard (Matfride), Graf (b. - 910)
    ODA ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952). Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[184]. Regino rec...
  • Arnulf, Emperor, King of Germany (deceased)
    ODA ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952). Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[184]. Regino rec...
  • NN Mistress of Arnulf (deceased)
    ODA ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952). Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[184]. Regino rec...
  • Zwentibold, King of Lotharingia (b. - 900)
    ODA ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952). Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[184]. Regino rec...
  • Heinrich, dux Babenberg (deceased)
    OTTO "der Erlauchte", son of Graf LIUDOLF & his wife Oda [Billung] (-30 Nov 912, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche). m HEDWIG [Hathui], daughter of HEINRICH dux [Babenberg] & his wife Engeltrudis --- ([85...

This project is to create a template to defer to for Charlemagne and his immediate descendants. I'm still working on the grandchildren section. You're invited (begged!) to come & help, & add sources that you like to use; & engage in discussion whenever you think it needs to be updated with new research. Sharon

Sources for Reference:

(Please Add)

  1. Charlemagne's marriages & heirs from Charles Cawley's 'Medieval Lands'
  2. The Making of Charlemagne's Europe: Legal documents surviving from the reign of Charlemagne
  3. Charlemagne's marriages and heirs From Wikipaedia
  4. Stewart Baldwin & Todd Farmerie's 'Henry Project'
  5. Davis, RHC. A History of Medieval Europe: From Constantine to Saint Louis. London: Longman,1957.
  6. Holland, Tom. Millenium: The End of the World and The Forging of Christendom. Great Britain: Little, Brown, 2008.
  7. Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne
  8. The Monk of Saint Gall: The Life of Charlemagne

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Ancestry:

Please see: The 14 Proved Ancestors of Charlemagne Project.

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CHARLEMAGNE'S PARENTS & SIBLINGS

PEPIN, son of CHARLES "Martel" & his first wife Chrothrudis ([715]-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis). Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[1]. He succeeded his father as maior domus jointly with his brother Carloman. They deprived their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance and defeated him after he rebelled against them. In the division of territories agreed with his brother Carloman, Pépin governed Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, Metz and Trier. The brothers were faced with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine. As a symbolic assertion of their authority, they nominated Childeric III as Merovingian king in 743. In 745, Pépin appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself. The Royal Frankish Annals record that Pepin deposed King Childeric III at Soissons in Nov 751, with approval from Pope Zacharius[2], and succeeded as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks. He was anointed king at Saint-Denis 28 Jul 754 by Pope Stephen III [II], who had come to France to seek Pépin's help against the Lombards[3]. During his expedition to Italy the following year, Pépin obliged the Lombards to accept the independence of Rome, marking the beginning of the Papal State. He recaptured Narbonne from the Muslim invaders in [759], and finally conquered Aquitaine after the death of Duke Waifar in 768. The necrology of Prüm records the death "768 VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus vir illuster"[4]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pipinus rex"[5]. The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death 768 “VIII Kal Oct” of “Pippini regis”[6]. The Annales Metenses record the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus" and his burial "in basilica beati Dionysii"[7]. His burial place is confirmed by the Annales Laurissenses which record that the body of "domna Berta regina" was transferred to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[8].

m ([743/44]) BERTRADA [Berta] "au Grand Pied", daughter of CHARIBERT Comte de Laon & his wife --- ([720]-Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne 12 Jul 783[9], bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis). The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 749 of "Bertradem cognomine Bertam, Cariberti Laudunensis comitis filiam" and "Pippinus"[10]. "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus"[11]. Pépin planned to divorce his wife, but was convinced otherwise by Pope Paul I in 762. After the death of her husband, she assumed a prominent role in government. She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her two sons, meeting with Carloman at Seltz and also travelling to Italy in 770[12]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[13]. The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 IV Id Jul" of "domna Berta regina", her burial "in Cauciaco", and the subsequent transfer of her body to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[14]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "IV Id Jul" of "Bertrada regina"[15]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

King Pépin & Bertrada had six children:

1. CHARLES ([near Aix-la-Chapelle] 2 Apr [747/48]-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" as children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[16]. On the death of his father, he received the larger part of Austrasia, Neustria and western Aquitaine, succeeding as CHARLES I Joint-King of the Franks, crowned 9 Oct 768 at Noyon. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192'''

-See below

2. CARLOMAN (751-Samoussy, near Laon 4 Dec 771, bur Reims, église de l'abbaye de Saint-Rémi). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" as children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[17]. He is named second son of King Pépin and Bertrada in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[18]. At the coronation of his father in 754, Carloman was also anointed by the Pope with his brother Charles[19]. On the death of his father, he received Burgundy, Provence, Gothia [Septimania], Alsace and Swabia, succeeding as CARLOMAN Joint King of the Franks. He refused to support his brother in suppressing a revolt in Aquitaine in Mar 769, but they were reconciled in early 770. His death is recorded in the Royal Frankish Annals[20]. Einhard records the death "II Non Dec" 771 of "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]" at "villa Salmontiaco"[21]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "II Non Dec 771 in villa Salmuntiaco" of "Karlomannus rex" and his burial "Remis"[22]. The Annalium Sancti Amandi records the death at "Salmuniaco 771 pridie Non Dec" of "Karlomannus"[23]. The Annales Xantenses record the death "II Non Dec 771" of "Karlomannus rex"[24]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "Carlomanni" was buried "iuxta urbem Remorum in basilicam beati Remigii" in 771[25]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "II Non Dec" of "Karlomannus Francorum rex"[26]. m ([769]) GERBERGA, daughter of --- (-772 or after). The Annales Laurissenses name "Girberga uxor Carlomanni" when recording that she left for Italy after her husband died[27]. She is not mentioned in any of the surviving charters of her husband[28]. The Annales Lobienses record that "uxor eius [=Karlomannus] cum duobus filiis et Otgario marchione" took refuge with "Desiderium regem, patrem suum" after the death of her husband[29], which would mean that she was Gerberga of the Lombards, daughter of Desiderius King of the Lombards. Settipani highlights that this may be incorrect, assuming that the text results from confusion with the first wife of Carloman's older brother King Charles being the daughter of King Desiderius, and the fact that Gerberga sought refuge at the Lombard court[30]. Another factor is also significant in deciding the question: numerous authorities, for example the Annales Fuldenses[31], record the visit to Italy of Queen Berta, mother of Charles and Carloman, to bring back the bride for her son Charles, but none mentions two sisters being brought back as brides for the two brothers. On the other hand, the fact that King Desiderius supported the candidacy of Gerberga's son Pépin to succeed his father could have been motivated by a close family relationship (see below). There is no direct proof of the date of Gerberga's marriage. If Gerberga was the daughter of King Desiderius, it is reasonable to suppose that the marriage would have taken place at the same time as the marriage of Carloman's brother, whose first wife was the daughter of King Desiderius, although this would leave little time for two children to have been born from the marriage before Carloman died. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192. King Carloman & his wife had two children:

a) PEPIN (770-after 774). The Annales Petaviani record the birth in 770 of "Pipini filii Karlomanni"[32]. The Annales Lobienses record his mother's departure to Italy "cum duobus filiis" after her husband's death[33]. Einhard also records that "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]…uxor eius et filii" went to Italy after Carloman died[34]. Desiderius King of the Lombards supported Pépin's claim to succeed his father, and requested Pope Adrian I to crown him. He fled King Charles I to Verona in 774 and was later confined to a monastery[35]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

b) child (-after 772). The evidence for the existence of this second child is provided by the Annales Lobienses which record his mother's departure to Italy "cum duobus filiis" after her husband died[36]. Einhard also records that "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]…uxor eius et filii" went to Italy after Carloman died[37]. Although he does not specify how many children were involved, there was presumably insufficient time between Carloman's marriage and his death for his wife to have given birth to more than two children. There is no indication of the sex of this second child. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

3. GISELA (757-Chelles 30 Jul 810). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[38]. Einhard names "Gisla unica soror" of King Charles, specifying that she was "a puellaribus annis religiosæ conversationi mancipata"[39]. The continuator of the Annales Petaviani record the birth in 757 of "Gislanæ"[40]. Abbess of Chelles 788. "Ghysela regis filia Pippini et Bertredane regine" donated "Villa Putialis" to Saint-Denis by charter dated 12 Jun 799[41]. "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "illustris deo sacrata Gisla…soror nostra" by charter dated 15 Jun 799 which names "domne Bertradane genitricis nostre"[42]. [43]Betrothed (765, contract broken 766) to LEON of Byzantium, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS V "Kopronymos" & his first wife Eirene [née Chichek] of the Khazars (Jan 750-8 Sep 780, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles). He succeeded in 775 as Emperor LEON IV. [m WENILO [Bishop of Laon]. Settipani discusses this possible marriage, noting that "Gisela and her husband Wenilo" are listed in the obituary of Argenteuil[44]. However, the couple's being named together in this obituary does not appear consistent with Gisela's monastic career which, as shown above, she started more than twenty years before she died.] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

4. PEPIN (759-[761/62]). The Annales Laurissenses record the birth in 759 of "Pippinus regis filius" who was named after his father, specifying that he lived two years and died in his third year[45]. His birth and death two years later are recorded in the Royal Frankish Annals[46]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

5. CHROTHAIS(-young, bur Metz, Saint Arnoul). "Rodthaid" is named daughter of King Pépin in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[47]. Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Rothaidis filiæ Pippini regis", which names "germanus…Karolus, Pippinus pater…Pippinus proavus…abavus Anschisa…[huius] pater…beatus Arnulfus"[48]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

6. ADELAIS (-young, bur Metz, Saint Arnoul). "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Pépin in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[49]. Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Adheleidis filiæ [Pippini regis]"[50]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

7. daughter . The only reference to this unnamed daughter is in the Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis which records that "Pippini regis ex filia nepos…Chunibertus" was "atrociter a dæmone vexatus" and cured after he was taken to the saint[51], assuming that "nepos" in this context is correctly translated as grandson. This contradicts Einhard who names Gisela as the only sister of Charles I King of the Franks[52]. m ---.] [One possible child:] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

a) CHUNIBERT . The Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis records that "Pippini regis ex filia nepos…Chunibertus" was "atrociter a dæmone vexatus" and cured after he was taken to the saint[53].] The Annales Murbacenses record the foundation of the monastery in 715 by "comes…Eberhardus, filius ducis Adelberti", and his donations following the death of "filio predicti comitis", with the consent of "fratris sui Leudofredi et coniugis sue Emeltrudis", and his burial in the monastery[54]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

8. daughter . The only reference to this unnamed daughter is in the Annales Murbacenses which records that "sanctus Sintpertus sive Simbertus, Caroli magni ex sorore nepos" was fifth abbot of the monastery of Murbach[55]. m ---.] [One possible child:] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

a) SINTBERT . The Annales Murbacenses name "sanctus Sintpertus sive Simbertus, Caroli magni ex sorore nepos" as fifth abbot of the monastery of Murbach[56].] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

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CHARLEMAGNE'S PARTNERS, CHILDREN & GRANDCHILDREN WIP

A1. Himiltrude

His first relationship was with Himiltrude. The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage, a legal marriage, or a Friedelehe.[35] (Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata.) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne Mistress (1): HIMILTRUD ---. "Himiltrude nobili puella" is named mother of "Pippinum" in the Gesta Mettensium.[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

The union with Himiltrude produced two children:

A1.B1 Amaudru, a daughter[36] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. Note: Charles Cawley’s MedLands has no record of this daughter

A1.B2 Pippin the Hunchback (ca. 769–811) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] PEPIN “le Bossu” ([770]-Abbey of Prüm 811). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was born before his father married Queen Hildegard[152]. He rebelled against his father in 792, allegedly due to the cruelty of Queen Fastrada[153], was judged by an assembly at Regensburg and imprisoned in the Abbey of St-Gallen. He was transferred to the Abbey of Prüm in 794[154]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A2. Desiderata

After her, his first wife was Desiderata, daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards; married in 770, annulled in 771.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desiderata,_wife_of_Charlemagne] m firstly (769, repudiated [770/early 771]) --- of the Lombards, daughter of DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards & his wife Ansa ---. Einhard calls King Charles's first wife "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum"[62]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[63]. Her husband sent her back to her father after repudiating her. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.Hildegard

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758–783), married 771, died 783. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle 771 before 30 Apr) HILDEGARD, daughter of GEROLD Graf im Kraichgau [Udalrichinger] & his wife Imma (758-Thionville, Moselle 30 Apr 783[64], bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[65]). Einhard refers to Hildegard as "de gente Suavorum"[66]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names her "Hildigardam quæ erat de cognatione Gotefridi ducis Alamannorum" and specifies that she was the daughter of Imma[67]. The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 pridie Kal Mai" of "Hildegardis regina" and her burial "iuxta urbem Mettensem in basilica apostolorum et beati Arnulfi"[68]. She died from the after effects of childbirth, according to the epitaph of her daughter Hildegard[69]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis regina"[70]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had nine children:

A3.B1 Charles the Younger (ca. 772–4 December 811) , Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. CHARLES ([772/73]-in Bavaria 4 Dec 811[91]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' first son[92]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[93]. King Charles ordered an embargo on trade imports from England as a result[94]. His father associated Charles in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790[95]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "rex Carolus" installed "primogenitum filium suum Carolum" in "ultra Sequaname…ducatum Cenomannicum" but that this reverted to his father in the summer of the same year[96]. From this time Charles used the title king, and was crowned King of the Franks at Rome 25 Dec 800. Einhard records that "Karolum filium suum [Karoli imperatoris]" invaded "terram Sclavorum…Sorabi" in 806 as far as "super Albium fluvium" and that "Miliduoch Sclavorum dux" was killed during the campaign[97]. At the partition agreed at Thionville in 806, Charles was designated sovereign of Francia (Austrasia and Neustria), northern Burgundy, northern Alemannia, Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the Bavarian Nordgau[98]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[99]. Einhard's Annales also record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karlus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[100]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperator qui maior natu erat"[101]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B2 Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. ADELAIS (in Italy [Sep 773/Jun 774]-in Italy [Jul/Aug] 774, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). She was born during the siege of Pavia, but died during the return journey to France[102]. "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[103]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Adeleidis filia Karoli regis" specifying that she was born in Italy[104]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B3 Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775–6 June 810) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. CHROTHRUDIS [Rotrud] ([775]-6 Jun 810[105]). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[106]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[107]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla …Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[108]. The betrothal of "Hruodrudem…quæ filiarum eius primogenita" with "Constantino, Græcorum imperatore" is recorded by Einhard[109]. Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent ambassadors to "Carolum Francorum rege" to negotiate the betrothal of "filiæ eius Erythrus" and "filio suo Constantino", dated to 781, in a later passage recording that the empress terminating the treaty "cum Francis" (dated to 787)[110]. The Annales Fuldenses record the betrothal of "Hruodtrudis filia regis" and "Constantino imperator" in 787[111]. She was given the name ERYTHRO in Greek[112]. Her father kept her and her sisters at court refusing them permission to marry[113]. Her relationship with Rorico [I] is proved by the Annales Bertiniani which record the death "867 V Id Ian" of "Hludowicus abbas monasterii et nepos Karoli imperatoris ex filia maiori natu Rohtrude"[114], read together with an earlier part of the same source in which her son Louis is named "Ludowicum abbatem monasterii Sancti Dyonisii cum fratre ipsius Gauzleno"[115]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "810 VIII Id Iun" of "Hruoddrud filia imperatoris quæ natu maior erat"[116]. Einhard records the death "VIII Id Iun 810" of "Hruodtrud filia imperatories"[117]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Jun" of "Rotrudis filia Karoli imperatoris"[118]. Betrothed (781, contract broken 787[119]) to Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI, son of Emperor LEON IV & his wife Eirene (14 Jan 771-Prinkipo Island [15 Aug 797/before 806][120], bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne). Mistress: ([800]) of RORICO [I], son of GAUZLIN & his wife Adeltrudis --- (-after 1 Mar 839 [840], bur Abbaye de Saint-Maur de Glanfeuil, Anjou). He lived at the court of Charlemagne. Comte de Rennes 819. Comte du Maine [832]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B3.C1 Louis ([800]-9 Jan 867). Abbot of Saint-Denis Oct 840. Arch-Chancellor (Protonotar) of Charles II “le Chauve” King of the Franks from 840 until his death[58]. His parentage is confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which record that "Ludowicum abbatem monasterii Sancti Dyonisii cum fratre ipsius Gauzleno" captured a Viking force in 858[59]. The Annales Bertiniani record the death "867 V Id Ian" of "Hludowicus abbas monasterii et nepos Karoli imperatoris ex filia maiori natu Rohtrude"[60].http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MAINE.htm#_Toc480124608

A3.B4 Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 777–8 July 810)], King of Italy [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. CARLOMAN [Pepin] (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore). "Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[121]. He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[122] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified. Crowned PEPIN I King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome. He was crowned PEPIN King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome[618], named King of the Lombards and installed at Pavia, ruling under the regency of Adalhard. He invaded the duchy of Benevento in early 793. The 796 victory of "rex Pippinus" against the Avars led by "Cacanus rex" (which reflects the title "Khagan" not his name) is commemorated in a contemporary poem[619]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericum ducem Foroiuliensem, deinde…Pippinum filium regis" captured the camp of "Hunorum…Hringum" in 796, specifying that "Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum" were killed by their own people[620]. At the partition of the empire agreed at Thionville in 806, Pepin was designated sovereign of Italy, Bavaria, Carinthia (except Nordgau) and Alemannia south of the River Danube. He subjugated Istria, the towns of Dalmatia, and Venice in [810][621]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "810 VIII Id Iul" of "Pippinum filius eius regem Italiæ"[622]. The Annales Sancti Emmerammi record the death "810 Id Iul" of "Pippinus"[623].

Mistress (1): (from [795]) --- . Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Pepin's son Bernard was born "…ex concubina"[624]. However, other sources do not refer to the fact that he was illegitimate. The question is not beyond doubt. Assuming that he was illegitimate, the name of King Pepin's mistress is not known. Settipani quotes a name list in the Liber confraternitatum augiensis which reads "Karolus maior domus, Pippin rex, Karlomannus maior domus, Karolus imperator, Karolus rex, Pippin rex, Bernardus rex, Ruadtrud, Ruadheid, Svanahild regina, Bertha regina, Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina, Ruadheid, Hirminkar regina"[625]. He makes the obvious links between "Karolus maior domus…Svanahild regina", "Pippin rex…Bertha regina" and "Karolus imperator…Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina", deducing that the last named "Ruadheid" must be linked logically to "Pippin rex". However, this link is not inevitable. It is based on three assumptions: firstly that the second "Pippin rex" was Pepin King of Italy (he is the most likely candidate, but it could also be Pepin King of Aquitaine, son of Emperor Louis I); secondly that there are no female names linked either to "Karolus rex" or to "Bernardus rex", which cannot be proved; and thirdly, that all the females listed were partners of the males listed, which is certainly not the case in view of the absence of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" who is assumed to be the husband of "Hirminkar regina". Rösch suggests Bertha as the possible name of King Pepin's wife, citing Stromeyer[626]. Settipani suggests that she was a close relative of Adalhard Abbé de Corbie and his half-brother Wala to explain the appointment of the former as regent for her son Bernard King of Italy in 813. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB King Pepin had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

A3.B4.C1 Bernard ([797]-Milan 17 Aug 818, bur Milan, San Ambrosio). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina"[627]. He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as BERNARD I King of Italy. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

- see Bernard's Descent Line Project WIP

King Pepin had five [illegitimate] children by [Mistress (1)]. Einhard, who names these daughters, makes no mention of whether they were legitimate or not. If they were illegitimate, it is not known whether they were full sisters of Bernard. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

A3.B4.C2. Adelais ([798]-after 810). "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[628]. She was taken from Italy to the imperial court in 807[629]. same person as…? AEDA . The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[630]. Her precise origin is mentioned in the charter dated 885 by which "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, although the accuracy of this document is not known[631]. m Billung, son of ---. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItaly Billung & his wife had one child:

A3.B4.C2.D1 Oda (-17 May 913). The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[202]. "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[203]. "Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[204]. "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[205]. m LIUDOLF, son of [BRUN[HART & his wife ---] (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen). http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#BillungMAeda. LIUDOLF, son of BRUNO & his wife --- (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen). Brun was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[126], but no earlier source has so far been found which confirms the relationship. The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that Liudolf founded the abbey of Gandersheim in 852, first at Brunshausen[127]. Widukind records that "Liudulfus" transferred relics of Pope Innocent to Rome[128]. The Annales Alamannicorum record "Ludolfus dux Saxoniæ avus Heinrici" among those who swore allegiance in 864[129]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Liudolfus comes a septentrione"[130]. m ODA, daughter of BILLUNG princeps & his wife Aeda (-17 May 913). The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[131]. "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[132]. "Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[133]. "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[134]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B Liudolf & his wife had [twelve] children:

A3.B4.C2.D1.E1. Bruno (-killed in battle in Saxony 2 Feb 880). The Annalista Saxo records "Brunonis ducis" as brother of "Otto filius Liudolfi ducis"[135]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[136]. The Annales Fuldenses name "Brun ducem et fratrem reginæ, Wicmannum, Bardonem, alterum Bardonem et tertium Bardonem, Thiotherium, Gerrichum, Liutolfum, Folcwartum, Avan, Thiotricum, Liutharium" as those killed in battle in 880 in Saxony against "Nordmannis"[137]. The Gesta Francorum lists "Brun ducem et fratrem reginæ" as one of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[138]. Thietmar records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes[139]. The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[140], "Bardone" presumably being an error for "Brunone", although this version appears to conflate two battles (one at the river Scheldt and one in Saxony) which are reported separately in the Annales Fuldenses. The Gesta Francorum lists "Bardonum…alterum Bardonum [et] tertium Bardonum" as three of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[141]. The other two counts named "Bardo" or "Bruno" have not been identified. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2. Otto "der Erlauchte" (-30 Nov 912[142], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche). The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[143]. Graf im Südthüringau. Graf im Eichsfeld 888. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B. Son of Graf LIUDOLF & his wife Oda [Billung] (-30 Nov 912, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche). The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[163]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[164]. Graf im Südthüringau. "Hludowicus…rex" donated property "Tennisteti et Heriki in pago Suththuringa in comitatu Ottonis" to Kloster Gandersheim by charter dated 26 Jan 877[165]. "Rihdahc" denoted property to Kloster St Maria an der Rosel, in the castle of Coblenz, by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated [981/89], subscribed by "domini Ottonis Liutolfi filius…"[166]. Graf im Eichsfeld. Emperor Arnulf confirmed an exchange including property "in pago Eichesfelden in comitatu Ottonis" between the abbot of Fulda and "Chunrado comite" on the intervention of "Ottonis…marchionis" by charter dated 28 Jan 897[167]. Lay Abbot of Hersfeld 908. He was chosen to succeed Ludwig "das Kind" [Carolingian] as king of Germany in 911, but declined on the grounds of his advanced age and recommended the election of Konrad ex-Duke of the Franconians[168]. "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Murbach by charter dated 12 Mar 913 with the consent of "fidelium nostrorum Hathonis, Salomonis, Thiodolfi, Hildini, Einhardi, Erchangarii, Chuonradi, Hugonis, Ottonis, Heinrici, Bopponis, Udalrici, Eberhardi"[169]. Thietmar records the death of Otto on 30 Nov but does not give the year[170]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "30 Nov" of "Oddo comes pater Heinrici regis Saxonum"[171].

m Hedwig [Hathui], daughter of HEINRICH dux [Babenberg] & his wife Engeltrudis --- ([850/55]-24 Dec 903). "Hathwiga" is named as wife of Otto in the Annalista Saxo, which in an earlier passage records that the mother of Heinrich was the son of the sister of Adalbert [Babenberg][172]. Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her third son in 876. The necrology of Fulda records the death in 903 of "Hadwih com"[173]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Dec" of "Hathuui mater Heinrici regis"[174]. Graf Otto & his wife had [seven] children:

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F1). [daughter ([865/70][175]-). "Wundilgartam Henrici regis de filia neptim" is named in the Chronicle of St Gall, which also names her husband[176]. The commentary in the printed text interprets this as "granddaughter of Heinrich I King of Germany", but this is chronologically impossible assuming that the approximate death date of Wundelgart's husband is correct. If there is any truth in the text, it is more likely that Wundelgart was the niece of King Heinrich by his sister, although this is far from certain considering the broad range of interpretation possible for the word "neptis". However, the chronology is tight even for this interpretation, as shown by the estimated birth date range of this daughter, which must mean that she was one of her parents' older children. Another possibility is that she was illegitimate. The same source in a later passage names "Ekkehardo…diacono et Purchardo puero post abate consobrinis suis"[177]. As Wundelgart was the mother of abbot Burkhard, this gives the essential clue about the name of this daughter's husband, who in the same source is named as the father of the sisters who were mothers of the younger Ekkehard and abbot Burkhard. m as his first wife, EKKEHARD [I], son of ---.]

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F2). Thankmar (-before 30 Nov 912). "Thancmarus et Liudolfus", sons of Otto & Hathwiga, died before their father according to the Annalista Saxo, which implies they were older than their brother Heinrich who "ecce fratribus defunctis, tota hereditas in ipsum iam ducem derivatur"[178].

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F3). Liudolf (-before 30 Nov 912). "Thancmarus et Liudolfus", sons of Otto & Hathwiga, died before their father according to the Annalista Saxo, which implies they were older than their brother Heinrich who "ecce fratribus defunctis, tota hereditas in ipsum iam ducem derivatur"[179]. m ---. The name of Liudolf's wife is not known. Liudolf & his wife had one child:

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F3.G1) Ekkehard (-killed in battle 25 Sep 936). Widukind names "Ekkardus filius Liudulfi", when recording his death[180]. m ---. The name of Ekkehard's wife is not known. Ekkehard & his wife had [one possible child]:

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F3.G1.H1) Ekkehard (-[30 Aug 954] or 4 Sep 954). The descent of Ekkehard from an older brother of Heinrich I King of Germany is proposed by Hlawitschka[181]. see MEISSEN.]

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F4). Heinrich ([876]-Memleben 2 Jul 936, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche). Thietmar records that Heinrich was "born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig"[182]. According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage[183]. He was elected as HEINRICH I King of Germany at Fritzlar 6 May 919.

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F5). Oda ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952). Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[184]. Regino records the marriage in 897 of "Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam" and King Zwentibold[185]. Regino records that "Gerhard comes" married "Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis" after killing her first husband in battle in 900[186]. "Otto…rex" confirmed the donation of property " in loco Dauindre…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Vuigmanni" to St Moritz at Magdeburg by "nostra amita…Uota" by charter dated 30 Dec 952[187]. Jackman speculates[188] that Graf Eberhard married Oda as her third husband, Oda von Sachsen, for onomastic reasons as the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter (her affiliation also being based only on his own separate onomastic hypothesis) was that of Oda's maternal grandmother. This is an interesting theory but it accumulates one onomastic hypothesis on another and must be considered highly speculative. m firstly ([Worms] [27 Mar/13 Jun] 897) ZWENTIBOLD King of Lotharingia [Carolingian], illegitimate son of Emperor ARNULF King of Germany & his mistress --- ([870/71]-killed in battle 13 Aug 900, bur [Süsteren or Echternach]). m secondly (900) Graf GERHARD [Matfride], son of --- (-killed in battle 22 Jun 910). [m thirdly (after Jun 910) EBERHARD Graf im Oberlahngau Pfalzgraf, son of KONRAD Graf in der Wetterau und im Wormsgau [Konradiner] & his wife Glismod --- (-killed in battle near Andernach 23 Oct 939).] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#OttoErlauchtedied912

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F6). Liutgard [Dodica] (-21 Jan 923). Europäische Stammtafeln[189] names Liutgard as daughter of Otto & his wife, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. Abbess of Gandersheim 919/923.

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F7). Irminburg (-before 936). Europäische Stammtafeln[190] names Irminburg as daughter of Otto & his wife, and records her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. m as his first wife, SIEGFRIED, son of THIETMAR [Ostmark] & his wife --- (-[3 Dec 936/941]).]http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#OttoErlauchtedied912

Mistress (1): ---. The name of Otto's mistress is not known. Graf Otto had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

A3.B4.C2.D1.E2F8). daughter. 932. Widukind names "sorore regis quæ nupserat Widoni Thuringo…ex concubina nata"[191]. m WIDO, from Thuringia. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#OttoErlauchtedied912



A3.B4.C2.D1.E3. Thankmar. Europäische Stammtafeln[144] names Thankmar as a son of Liudolf & his wife but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. [Abbot of Corvey 877/79]. “Ludolphus comes” donated property “in Daelhem et in Adonhusen” to Corvey monastery “pro filio suo Tancmaro”[145]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E4. Liutgard (-17 or 30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg). Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[146]. "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[147]. The necrology of Fulda records the death in 885 of "Liutgart regina"[148]. The death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[149]. m (before 29 Nov 874) LUDWIG, son of LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks & his wife Emma [Welf] ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch). He succeeded his father in 876 as LUDWIG III "der Jüngere" King of the East Franks, Saxony and ½ Lotharingia. King of Bavaria 879. King of Lotharingia 880. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E5. Enda . Europäische Stammtafeln[150] names Enda as a daughter of Liudolf & his wife, and her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. m ---. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E6. Hathumod 840-29 Sep 874, bur Brunnshausen). The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Hathamodam eius ducis [Liudolfi] filiam" was was installed as first abbess of Gandersheim in 852, and that she died 18 years later[151]. Her life and death are recounted in the Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ[152]. Her death is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[153]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E7. Gerberga (-5 Sep [896/97]). The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Gerbergam sororem [Hathamodæ]" succeeded her sister as second abbess of Gandersheim[154]. "Gerburgis" is named sister of "Hathumod"[155], whom she succeeded as Abbess of Gandersheim in 874[156]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostril fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[157]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E8. Christina (-1 Apr [919/20], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche). Thankmar records that "Sororem autem eius [=Gerburgis [et] Hathumod] Cristinam" entered Gandersheim, specifying that they were all daughters of "Oda"[158]. Abbess of Gandersheim 897-897. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E9. daughter (-young). Europäische Stammtafeln[159] refers to an unnamed daughter of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E10. son (-young). Europäische Stammtafeln[160] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E11. son (-young). Europäische Stammtafeln[161] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C2.D1.E12. [son (-young). Europäische Stammtafeln[162] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

A3.B4.C3 Adula ([800/810]-after 810). "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[632]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

A3.B4.C4 Guntrada ([800/810]-after 810). "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[633]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

A3.B4.C5 Bertraide ([800/810]-after 810). "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[634]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

A3.B4.C6 Theodrada ([800/810-after 810)]. "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[635]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814. [According to Winkhaus[636], one of the last four daughters married Lambert I Comte de Nantes, son of WIDO Comte et Marquis de Nantes & his wife --- (-Ticino 30 Dec 836), but the source on which this is based has not been identified.] [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B5 Louis (778–20 June 840), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. HLUDOWIC [Louis] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[123]. (See also excellent summary on the MP Overview). His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[181]. At the partition of territories agreed at Thionville in 806, he was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy. His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[182]. On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, and was crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. He did not use the titles king of the Franks or king of Italy so as to emphasise the unity of the empire[183]. He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817, which established his eldest son as his heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was eventually to lead to civil war between his sons. His nephew Bernard King of Italy, ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii, rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed. After his death, Italy was placed under the direct rule of the emperor. Emperor Louis crowned his son Lothaire as joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle in Jul 817, his primary status over his brothers being confirmed once more at the assembly of Nijmegen 1 May 821. In Nov 824, Emperor Louis placed Pope Eugene II under his protection, effectively subordinating the papal role to that of the emperor. The birth of his son Charles by his second marriage in 823 worsened relations with his sons by his first marriage, the tension being further increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest son Lothaire to Italy. His older sons revolted in Mar 830 and captured their father at Compiègne, forcing him to revert to the 817 constitutional arrangements. However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, depriving Lothaire of the imperial title and relegating him once more to Italy. A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons. His eldest son Lothaire declared himself sole emperor but was soon overthrown by his brothers Pépin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835. He proposed yet another partition of territories in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, setting aside the claims of his sons Pépin and Louis. This naturally led to revolts by Pépin in Aquitaine and Louis in Germany, which their father was in the process of suppressing when he died[184]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "in insulam quondam Rheni fluminis prope Ingilenheim XII Kal Iul 840" of Emperor Louis and his burial "Mettis civitatem…in basilica sancti Arnulfi"[185]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "840 12 Kal Iul" of "Ludvicus imperator"[186]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Hludowicus imperator in insula Rheni quiæ est sita iuxta palatium Ingelheim"[187]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[188]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[189].

m firstly ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[189], bur Angers). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Ludwig "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[190]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[191]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[192]. With her he had six children three sons and three daughters:

A3.B5.C1. Lothaire(795-855) [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[200]. He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I, jointly with his father, in Jul 817 at Aix-la-Chapelle. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] ,king of Middle Francia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]  His father sent him to govern Bavaria in [Aug] 814[9].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father.  He was sent to Italy in 822, where he established his court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan.  The Annales Xantenses record that "Ludewicus imperator" gave "filio suo Lothario regnum Langobardorum" in 822[10].  Einhard's Annales record that the emperor sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum"[11].  He was again crowned Emperor, at Rome 5 Apr 823 by Pope Pascal I.  The rivalry with his father and brothers was exacerbated by the unexpected birth of his half-brother Charles in 823.  Tension was increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing Lothaire's territory to Italy.  Lothaire and his brothers rebelled in Mar 830, captured their father at Compiègne, and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817.  However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, and deprived Lothaire of the imperial title and relegated him once more to Italy.  A further revolt of the brothers followed.  Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833.  He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.  Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 Jun 833, but was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father.  Emperor Louis was restored 1 Mar 834, crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835.  Lothaire captured Chalon-sur-Saône, but was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy.  His father pardoned him and sent him back to Italy as king.  Emperor Louis proposed yet another partition in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aachen in 837, which was implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, the former taking all land east of the River Meuse, the latter everything to the west, and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin.  Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor on his father’s death 20 Jun 840.  He sought to extend his power base northwards from Italy across the Alps, and deprive his half-brother Charles.  The latter allied himself with his half-brother Louis, and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841.  After retreating to Aachen, Lothaire was forced out to Lyon in Apr 842 by his brothers, who declared him incapable of governing the empire.  Preliminary peace proposals signed on an island in the Saône, near Mâcon 15 Jun 842 led to the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, under which the territory of the empire was divided between the three brothers.  Lothaire retained the imperial title and was also installed as LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, the new country being named after him.  He established his seat of government at Aachen, and installed his son Louis as King of Italy.  Over the following ten years, a series of meetings aimed to maintain peace between the three brothers, with varying success.  After a serious illness, Emperor Lothaire abdicated in Sep 855 at Kloster Schüller, near Prüm, and divided his territories between his sons Louis II, Lothaire II and Charles.  The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire entered "monasterium Proneæ in Arduenna", was tonsured, died "IV Kal Oct" and was buried in the monastery[12].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "855 III Kal Oct" of "Lotharius imperator"[13]. m (Thionville, Moselle mid-Oct 821) ERMENGARDE, daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] [Etichonen] & his wife Ava --- (-20 Mar 851, bur Kloster Erstein, near Strasbourg).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris refers to the wife of Emperor Lothaire as "filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih" and in the following paragraph names her "Irmingarda"[14].  The Annales Xantensesrecord the marriage in 821 of "Ludewicus imperator…filio suo Lothario" and "Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum"[15].  She founded Kloster Erstein in Alsace in 849.  The Annales Xantensesrecord the death in 851 of "imperatrix…Irmingard, coniunx Lotharii imperatoris"[16].  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 851 of "Irmingard regina"[17]. 

A3.B5.C2. PEPIN ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[214]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became PEPIN I King of Aquitaine. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C3 HROTRUD [Rotrude] ([800]-). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[215]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C4 BERTA . Settipani cites charters which name Berta as the daughter of Emperor Louis[216]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C5 HILDEGARD ([802/04]-857, or maybe after [23 Aug 860]). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[217]. Hildegard is named as sister of Charles by Nithard[218]. Abbess of Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon. She supported her brother Lothaire against her half-brother Charles and, in Oct 841, imprisoned Adalgar at Laon. After Laon was besieged, she surrendered Adalgar but was herself released by her half-brother206. The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 857 of "Hildegard, Lothawici regis filia"[219], corroborated in the Annales Alemannici[220]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C6 LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I and his wife Ermengardis[221]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became King of Bavaria and Carinthia. Under the partition of territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "le Germanique/der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin). The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[205]. Thegan names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobolissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[206]. Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis chose "Huelpi comitis filiam…Judith" as his wife in 819 after "inspectis plerisque nobelium filiabus"[207]. Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with the emperor's sons by his first marriage. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[208]. Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[209]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[210]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[211]. The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death 843 “XIII Kal Mai” of “Judidh imperatricis”[212]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB Emperor Louis I & his second wife had [three] children:

A3.B5.C7. GISELA ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[222]. Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[223]. She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[224]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis”[225]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][226]. m ([836]) EBERHARD Marchese di Friulia, son of UNRUOCH Comte [en Ternois] & his wife Engeltrude (-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C8. CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[227]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[228]. Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorBhttp://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

A3.B5.C9. Unknown mother of Udalrich III (820/25 - 896/900) [daughter . The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records that "rex Francorum qui et imperator Romanorum" (which appears to indicate Charles II "le Chauve") gave his sister in marriage to "vir nobilissimo genere decoratus", that the couple had two sons to whom their uncle gave "in Alemannia loca…Potamum et Brigantium, Ubirlingin et Buochorn, Ahihusin et Turingen atque Heistirgou, Wintirture…et in Retia Curiensi Mesouch", and that one of the sons returned to France while the other "Oudalricus" retained all the property in Alamannia[229]. The editor of the MGH SS compilation dates this source to the mid-12th century[230]. The information has not been corroborated in any earlier primary source, although it is not known what prior documentation may have been available to the compiler of the Casus. There are several other difficulties with this marriage which suggest that the report in the Casus should be treated with caution. If the information is accurate, it is likely that the bride was a full sister of King Charles, although if this is correct her absence from contemporary documentation is surprising. If she had been Charles's half-sister, it is difficult to see how Charles would have had much influence on her marriage, which would have been arranged by one of her full brothers. In any case, it is unlikely that Emperor Louis's first wife would have had further children after [812/15] at the latest, given the birth of her eldest son in 795. If that estimated birth date is correct, then it is more likely that this daughter's marriage would have been arranged by her father Emperor Louis before his death in 840. Another problem is the potential consanguinity between the parties. Although the precise relationship between the couple's son Udalrich [III] and the earlier Udalrichinger cannot be established from available documentation, it is probable that he was closely related to Hildegard, first wife of Emperor Charles I, who was the paternal grandmother of Emperor Louis's children. Lastly, Udalrich [III] is recorded in charters dated 847 and 854, suggesting a birth date in the 820s assuming that he was adult at the time, which is inconsistent with Charles II "le Chauve" (born in 823) having arranged his parents' marriage. m --- [Udalrichinger].] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB

Unknown mistress/es of Louis I Two Children:

A3.B5.C10. ALPAIS ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]). Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[231]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[232]. Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[233]. If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816. However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the age of these children when their father died. The question of Alpais's paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the possible daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard. No indication has been found of the name of Alpais's mother. If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of Bego's estimated birth date. After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817]. She was still there 29 May 852. m ([806]) [as his second wife,] BEGO, son of --- (-28 Oct 816). He governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania in 806. Comte de Paris [815].] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

A3.B5.C11. ARNOUL ([794]-after [Mar/Apr] 841). The Chronicon Moissacense names "quartum…filium [Ludovici]…ex concubina…Arnulfum" recording that his father gave him the county of Sens[234]. Comte de Sens 817. He was a supporter of his half-brother Emperor Lothaire in [Mar/Apr] 841[235]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192

A3.B6 Lothair (778–6 February 779/780), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[37] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. CHLOTHAR [Lothar] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-[779/780]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' fourth son "qui biennis occubuit", born a twin with Hludowic[124]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Chlodarii pueri regis" naming "Karolus…rex genitorque tuus, genitrix regina…Hildigarda" and specifying that he was a twin[125]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B7 Bertha (779-826) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. BERTRADA [Berta] ([779/80]-11 Mar, 824 or after). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[126]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[127]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[128]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[129]. Her father kept her and her sisters at the court of Aix-la-Chapelle refusing them permission to marry, but she was banished from court by her brother Emperor Louis I on his accession[130]. The Vita Angilberti records the relationship between "Berta filia [rex de regina Hildigarda]" and "domnus Angilbertus"[131]. The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” married “regis filiam Bertam” and that they had “duos filios Harnidum et Nithardum”[132]. Nithard names Bertha, daughter of King Charles, as his mother[133]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Mar" of "Berta filia Karoli imperatoris qui dedit superiorem Curtem"[134]. Mistress: (from [795]) of ANGILBERT "the Saint", son of [NITHARD & his wife Richarda] ([750]-18 Feb 814, bur Saint-Riquier, église du Saint-Sauveur et de Saint-Richard). :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B8 Gisela (781-808) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. GISELA (781 before May-after 800, maybe after 814). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[135]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[136]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[137]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "filia eius [Karoli regis] domna Gisla" was baptised by "archiepiscopo…Thoma" in 781[138]. She was baptised in Milan in [May] 781[139]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B9 Hildegarde (782-783) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. HILDEGARD (Thionville [Mar/Apr] 783-[1/8] Jun 783, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). "Hildigard" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[140]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis filiæ [Karoli regis]" specifying that she lived 40 days[141]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A4. Gersuinda

His first known concubine was Gersuinda.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Mistress (4): GERSWINDA ---. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis",[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

A4.B1 Adaltrude (b.774) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. ADALTRUD . Einhard names "Adaltrud" daughter of King Charles by his concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A5. Madelgard

His second known concubine was Madelgard. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. Note: Wikipedia seems possibly to conflate what Charles Cawley sees as 2 mistresses and their respective daughters Ruodhaid / Chrothias / Rotaide / Ruodhaidem / Rothildis / Rouhaut, in a manner that seems worth considering. Although Cawley designates an unknown Mistress 2 before Madelgard - who he sees as Mistress 3, he lists the daughters of both mistresses as being born in 784. Despite this, he specifies that Madelgard’s daughter was Abess of Faremoutiers, - although Wikipedia sees her as being born in 775. The Wikipedia sources for this date weren’t apparent, but Cawley’s use of Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege naming the daughters (supposedly in order) provides another form of data: "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" [156] As both Wikipedia & Cawley agree that Gisela was born 781, Hiltrude in 787 & Theodrata 785 (so much for correct order), this places one Rothaide - between 781 & 787, so I am deferring to Cawley on the date, but going with Wikipedia in conflating the women whose children he has born in the same year, with names that are sufficiently similar as to be synonymous. Compare: Cawley: NN Mistress 2's daughter: 784. Ruodhaidem CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde].Cawley: Madelgard, Mistress 3's daughter: 784. ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut]. Abbess.Wikipedia: Madelgard's daughter:775.Ruodhaid. Abbess. Mistress (3): [MADELGARD] ---. Settipani names Madelgardis as the mistress of King Charles, and mother of Rothildis abbess of Faremoutiers[86]. However, he cites no primary source on which this is based, apart from a reference to an early 9th century list of nuns at Faremoutiers which includes the name. No reference has been found to her in any of the sources so far consulted. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Mistress (2):Einhard refers to "Ruodhaidem" as the daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine[85]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

A5.B1 Ruodhaid (775–810), Abbess of Faremoutiers [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut] ([784]-24 Mar 852). Abbess at Faremoutiers from before Oct 840[157]. Her parentage is proved by the necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés which records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[158]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[159]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde] ([784]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Ruodhaidem" is named daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine by Einhard[155]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[156]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6. Fastrada

His third wife was Fastrada, married 784, died 794. m thirdly (Worms Oct 783[71) FASTRADA, daughter of RADULF Graf & his wife --- (-Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Oct 794, bur Mainz, St Alban[72]). The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 783 at Worms of King Charles and "domne Fastradæ regina"[73]. Einhard's Annals record the king's marriage in 783 to "filiam Radolfi comitis natione Francam, nomine Fastradam"[74]. Fastrada, wife of King Charles, is referred to as "de Orientalium Francorum, Germanorum videlicet" by Einhard[75]. Her cruelty triggered the revolt of her husband's illegitimate son Pépin "le Bossu" in 792[76]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in Frankfurt in 794 of "Fastrada regina"[77]. Einhard records the death in 794 of "Fastrada regina" at Frankfurt and her burial "Mogontiaci apud sanctum Albanum"[78]. Theodulf wrote the epitaph of "Fastradæ reginæ"[79]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

A6.B1 Theodrada (b.784)], abbess of Argenteuil [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. THEODRADA ([785]-[9 Jan 844/853]). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[142]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[143]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[144]. Named as abbess of Notre-Dame d'Argenteuil, near Paris by her father before 814, until 828. "Ludowicus…rex" names "Theodrada amita nostra filia…avi nostri" in a charter dated 9 Jan 844 which confirms her life interest in the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main, donated to the church of Würzburg, previously belonging to "Blutendæ filiæ Folkberti quondam comitis"[145]. Theodrada arranged for the church of Würzburg to recognise her great niece Hildegard, daughter of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks as her successor. This must have taken place before 853, at which date Hildegard was abbess of Zürich[146]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6.B2 Hiltrude (b.787) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. HILTRUD ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son: [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6.B2.C1 [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained above.] :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Note: Wikipedia thinks Richbod is more likely to be Charlemagne’s son through his last concubine Ethilind – who Cawley calls Adelindis

A7. Luitgard

His fourth wife was Luitgard, married 794, died childless. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] m fourthly ([794/autumn 796]) LIUTGARD, daughter of --- (-Tours 4 Jun 800, bur Tours, église Saint-Martin[80]). Einhard names "Liudgardam Alamannam" as King Charles's fourth wife, specifying that she died childless[81]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names "Liutgardis" as the wife of King Charles[82]. The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records the death "II Non Iun 800" at Tours of "domnæ Liutgardæ coniugis" and her burial at Tours[83]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A8. Amaltrude

His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne


By her he had:

A8.B1 Alpaida (b.794) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. NOTE: It seems worth mentioning that this is the Wikipedia version Jan 2011, and Cawley's Medlands don't mention an Alpaida or an Amaltrude. A possible reason is that the Wikipedia concubine, Amaltrud is the NN concubine of Cawley, whose daughter - Ruodhaid/Rotaide (784) actually looks like the same person as the concubine Madelgard's daughter Rothildis, who Cawley gives as born in the same year (784), and which Wikipedia doesn't duplicate.

A9. Regina

His fourth known concubine was Regina. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Mistress (5): REGINA ---. 800. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Reginam", and her sons "Drogonem et Hugum"[88]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

A9.B1 Drogo (801–855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. DROGO [Dreux] (17 Jun 801-drowned Himeriacum, Bourgogne 8 Dec 855, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[161]. The Annales Weissemburgenses record the birth "802 aut 803 15 Kal Iul" of Drogo[162]. He and his brother Hugues, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[163]. Abbé de Luxeuil 820. Emperor Louis installed "Druagoni fratri suo" as Bishop of Metz in 823[164]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840[165]. He became Vicar of the Pope in France in Jun 844. He died after falling into the River Oignon in which he was fishing[166]. A list of bishops of Metz records "domnus Drogo archiepiscopus et sacri palate summus capellanus, filius Karoli imperatoris" as 40th bishop, holding the position for 32 years, 5 months and 7 days, his death "VI Id Dec in Burgundia, prædio sancti Petri Mimeriaco" and his burial in "urbem Medimmatricorum…in ecclesia beati Iohannis apostoli"[167]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A9.B2 Hugh (802–844), archchancellor of the Empire[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. HUGO [Hugues] "l´Abbé" ([802/06]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844, bur Abbaye de Charroux). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[168]. He is named "Hugo venerabilis filius Karoli regis magni" in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[169]. He and his brother Drogo, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[170]. Monk at Charroux 818. Abbé de Saint-Quentin 822/23, Abbé de Lobbes. Abbé de Saint-Bertin 836[171]. Abbé de Noaillé. Arch-chancellor of Emperor Louis I 834-840. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Hugonem fratrem suum sed et Adalgarium comitem" visited the emperor [in 836][172]. He joined Charles "le Chauve" in Sep 841 after the battle of Fontenoy, becoming his Arch-chaplain[173]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hugo abbas, patruus Karoli et Rihboto abbas, Rhaban quoque signifer" were killed "844 VII Id Jun" in the battle in which "Pippini duces" defeated the army of Charles II " le Chauve" King of the Franks[174]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A10. Ethelind

His fifth known concubine was Ethelind. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. Mistress (6): ADELINDIS ---. 806. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Adallindem", and her son "Theodricum"[89]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

A10.B1 Richbod (805–844) , Abbott of Saint-Riquier[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. Note: Cawley thinks Richbod MAY actually have been Charlemagne’s grandson through Fastrada’s daughter, Hiltrude: [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained below.] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Hiltrud ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son:

A10.B2 Theodoric (b. 807) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Note: Cawley thinks Theoderic was the only son, and Richbod was actually a grandson of Charlemagne through Fastrada’s daughter, Himiltrud. THEODERIC [Thierry] (807-after 818). Einhard names "Theodricum" as son of King Charles by his concubine "Adallindem"[175]. The birth of "imperatori filius nomine Theodericus" is recorded in 807[176]. He and his half-brothers Drogo and Hugues were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[177]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

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AREAS OF AMBIGUITY:

The Problem of Count Begue's 2 possible wives: Alpaïs & Alpaida


Alpaida's ancestry is in doubt. She was either the daughter of Charlemagne, or the daughter of Louis the Pious:

Two Sources from the time name Beggo's wife as the emperor's daughter, Alpais:

Biego de amici regis, qui et filiam imperatoris nomine Elpheid duxit uxorem, eo tempore defunctus est. (Beggo, of the king's friends, and who took to wife a daughter of the emperor named Alpais), died at this time (815). [http://www.dmgh.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb00000870_00051.html?sor... Annales Hildesheimenses (815)]

"Picco, primus de amicis regis, qui et filiam imperatoris duxit uxorem, defunctus est." [ nomine Elpheid ] Ann. Hildesh. (Beggo, first among the king's friends, and who took to wife a daughter of the emperor, died). [Ann. Laur. Min (Cod Fuldensis)]

According to the 10th Century source, Flodard:

Alpaïs, filia imperatoris, d. after 29 May 852, on a 23 September, m. Bego, d. 816, count of Paris. ["Picco, primus de amicis regis, qui et filiam imperatoris [nomine Elpheid] duxit uxorem, defunctus est." Annales Laurissenses Minores, s.a. 816, MGH SS 1: 122; see also Werner (1967), 429-441; "... Quod monasterium Ludowicus imperator Alpheidi, filiae suae, uxori Begonis comitis, dono dedit, ..." Flodoard, iv, 46, MGH SS 13: 595]

Although it is clear that the imperator who was the father of Alpaïs was either Charlemagne or Louis the Pious, there is no general agreement as to which man was her father. -While the testimony of Flodoard would make Louis the father (the imperator in 816 was Louis the Pious), Flodoard was writing a century later, and the 'tighness' of the chronology is a factor for making her a daughter of Charlemagne instead.But the chronological impediment to Louis being the father may have been overstated: If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before 793/94, given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had two or three children by her husband before his death in 816, but not impossible: It makes her 23yrs old when he dies. Charlemagne’s wife Hildegard had had 9 children by the time she died at 23 or 24yrs. Unfortunately, no indication has been found in primary sources of the ages of these children when their father died.

So, she is either:

  • Alpaida (b.794) - Charlemagne's daughter by his concubine Amaltrud of Vienne - favoured as the wife of Count Beggue by Christian Settipani (1993. La préhistoire des Capétiens pp. 200-02) a text that is rather inaccessible online. [Sharon's NOTE: It seems worth pointing out that Cawley's Medlands doesn't mention an Alpaida or an Amaltrude. A possible reason is that the Wikipedia concubine, Amaltrud, is the NN concubine of Cawley, whose daughter - Ruodhaid/Rotaide (784) actually looks like the same person as the concubine Madelgard's daughter Rothildis, who Cawley gives as born in the same year (784), and which Wikipedia doesn't duplicate.- Sharon (I have discussed on those profiles the arguments for and against both attributions)]

or she is:

Cawley's Medlands: [ALPAIS ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]). Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[219]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[220]. Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[221]. If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816.[Sharon’s Note: Not really – it makes her 23yrs old when he dies. Charlemagne’s wife Hildegard had had 9 children by the time she died at 23 or 24yrs] However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the age of these children when their father died. The question of Alpais's paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the possible daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard. No indication has been found of the name of Alpais's mother. If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of Bego's estimated birth date. After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817]. She was still there 29 May 852. m ([806]) [as his second wife,] BEGO, son of [GERARD [I] Comte de Paris & his wife Rotrud] ([755/60]-28 Oct 816). He governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania in 806. Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.] (Medlands, Carolingians.)

[BEGO ([755/60]-28 Oct 816). The primary source which establishes that Bego was the son of Gerard has not so far been identified. Marquis de Septimanie: Bego governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania from 806. He was chambrier, equivalent to viceroy, for Louis King of Aquitaine (son of Emperor Charlemagne)[65]. Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus. He founded the Abbey of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés near Paris. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "V Kal Nov" of "Begoni comitis"[66].

[m firstly ---. There is no proof of this possible first marriage of Bego. However, as noted below, if his wife Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, there would have been a considerable age difference between her and Bego, which suggests the possibility of an earlier marriage.]

m [secondly] ([806]) ALPAIS, illegitimate daughter of [Emperor LOUIS I & his mistress ---] ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]).

Bego & his [second] wife had three children:

i) LIUTHARD . Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[70].

ii) EBERHARD . Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[71].

iii) SUSANNA ([805/10]-). The primary source which establishes that Susanna was the daughter of Bego has not so far been identified. "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino" by charter dated 2 Nov 889[72]. m ([825/30]) VULFHARD, son of ---.

References:

[65] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 201.

[66] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 276.

[67] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448.

[68] Annales Hildesheimenses 815, MGH SS III, p. 42.

[69] Settipani (1993), pp. 200-02.

[70] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448.

[71] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448.

[72] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85.

[218] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448.

[219] Annales Hildesheimenses 815, MGH SS III, p. 42.

[220] Settipani (1993), pp. 200-02.

[221] Chronicon Moissacense 817, MGH SS I, p. 312.

[222] Settipani (1993), p. 255.

Bibliography

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So many Pepins! Disambiguation Template for discussion & editing

From youngest/ most chronologically recent:

Pepin d810, King of Italy, originally called Carloman, son of Charlemagne & Hildegarde

Pepin The Hunchback d811 , eldest, but 'illegitimate' son of Charlemagne & Himiltrude

Pepin III d768, '”le Bref” The Short', Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, King of the Franks, father Charlemagne - son of Charles Martel & Rotrude

Pepin II d714, 'The Younger' or 'The Middle' 'of Heristal', Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Neustria & Burgundy, paternal grandfather of Pepin III d768 through Charles Martel - son of Begga & Ansegis

Pepin I d639, 'The Elder' 'of Landen', Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia m Itta,; maternal grandfather of Pepin II d714 , through Begga

Pepin, the Grandfather of Pepin I - Does he exist? (Input here, please – Sharon) - http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette/gazxs/gazxs46.html has NN parents for Pepin I, with a Pepin as one of their parents. But http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_I] names his father as Carloman and NN for his mother, & no grandparents. On our tree, Pepin I's mother is Gertrudis (whose father is Garibald, not Pepin), & his father is Carloman (whose father is Charles, not Pepin) MY DECISION WOULD BE TO REMOVE PEPIN, GRANDFATHER OF PEPIN I , because the source for this: http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette/gazxs/gazxs46.htm] also gets the Heristal/Landen Pepins wrong, so I feel I shouldn’t trust it. THAT MEANS WE’RE GOING WITH THE WIKIPAEDIA VERSION OF THE FATHER AS CARLOMAN,;BUT THAT DOESN’T GET AS FAR BACK AS THE GRANDPARENTS – A LTHOUGH OUR TREE DOES.

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