Edith Matilda of Scotland (Canmore), Queen of England (1080 - 1118) MP

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Nicknames: "Eadgyth of Scotland", "Matilda the Good", "Matilda of Blessed Memory", "Eadgyth", "Maud", "Sainte Mathilde", "Matilde the Good Queen", "Queen of England", "Princess of Scotland", "Edith of Scotland", "also called Maud"
Birthplace: Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Palace of Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
Occupation: Princess of Scotland and Queen Consort of England, Queen of England, @occu00057@, Queen consort of the Enlgish, Reine, d'Angleterre, Queen Consort of the English, Drottning av England, daughter of Malcolm III of Scots, Princess of Scotland
Managed by: Terry Jackson (Switzer)
Last Updated:

About Edith Matilda of Scotland (Canmore), Queen of England

Edith Eadgyth Matilda of Scotland

Matilda, Queen Consort of England

From Medlands:

From: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm

EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).

Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[330].

Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[331]. She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage. Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100.

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[332]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[333].

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).

Her parents:

MALCOLM, son of DUNCAN II King of Scotland & his wife [Sibylla of Northumbria] (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093[241], bur Tynemouth St Albans[242], transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[243], transferred again to Escorial, Madrid). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[244]. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[245]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[246]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[247]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[248]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[249]. He suggests[250] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[251]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[252]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[253]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[254]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[255].

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) ---. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[256]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained in the document SCOTLAND. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail.

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][257], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[258]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[259]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[260]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[261]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[262].

King Malcolm III & [his first wife] had [two] children

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_Scotland===

Queen consort of the English

Reign as consort 11 November 1100 – 1 May 1118

Spouse Henry I

Issue

Matilda of England

William Adelin

House Norman dynasty (by marriage)

House of Dunkeld (by birth)

Father Malcolm III of Scotland

Mother Saint Margaret of Scotland

Born c. 1080

Dunfermline, Scotland

Died 1 May 1118 (aged 38)

Westminster Palace

Burial Westminster Abbey

Matilda of Scotland[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 – 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I.

'''Early life'''

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret. She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening — the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.

When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey, where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton, The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, and Alan Rufus, Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

Marriage

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.

Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage — William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

Queen

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster, but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106–1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot, to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret. She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent, and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

Later life

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace, she was buried at Westminster Abbey. The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy.

Legacy

After her death, she was remembered by her subjects as "Matilda the Good Queen" and "Matilda of Blessed Memory", and for a time sainthood was sought for her, though she was never canonised.

Issue

Matilda and Henry had two children:

Matilda of England, born February 1102, Holy Roman Empress consort, Countess consort of Anjou, called Lady of the English

William Adelin, born 1103, sometimes called Duke of Normandy

Notes and sources

^ She is known to have been given the name "Edith" (the Old English Eadgyth, meaning "Fortune-Battle") at birth, and was baptised under that name. She is known to have been crowned under a name favoured by the Normans, "Matilda" (from the Germanic Mahthilda, meaning "Might-Battle"), and was referred to as such throughout her husband's reign. It is unclear, however, when her name was changed, or why. Accordingly, her later name is used in this article. Historians generally refer to her as "Matilda of Scotland"; in popular usage, she is referred to equally as "Matilda" or "Edith".

References

Chibnall, Marjorie. The Empress Matilda: Queen Consort, Queen Mother, and Lady of the English, 1992

Hollister, Warren C. Henry I, 2001

Parsons, John Carmi. Medieval Mothering, 1996

Parsons, John Carmi. Medieval Queenship, 1997

Huneycutt, Lois L. "Matilda of Scotland: A Study in Medieval Queenship"." 2004.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ From:

http://www.royalist.info/execute/biog;jsessionid=C717F9BE829F9328C824C35DBA4B6A59?person=124

Family Name: Dunkeld Given Names: Matilda

Known As: Good Queen Mold

Born: 1079

Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland Died: 1 May 1118

Westminster, London, England

(Age 39, Natural Causes)

 English/Scottish Royal Blood: 100%   [?] Buried: Westminster Abbey, London, England  
 Father: Malcolm III, King of Scots (Ceann-Mor)  1031 - 13 Nov 1093  

Mother: Margaret (St. Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile) About 1045 - 16 Nov 1093

Marriage: King Henry I (Beauclerc) Sep 1068 - 1 Dec 1135

Date: 11 Nov 1100 His Age: 32 Her Age: 22 
 Place:  Westminster Abbey, London, England  
 Offspring:  

+0 Euphemia (daughter of King Henry I) Jul 1101 - About Jul 1101

+3 Matilda (Empress Matilda) 7 Feb 1102 - 10 Sep 1167

+0 William, Duke of Normandy (The Atheling) Before 5 Aug 1103 - 25 Nov 1120

+0 Richard (son of King Henry I) ? - 25 Nov 1120

   

Notes:

Changed her name from Edith to Matilda, in honour of her mother-in-law, William I's queen.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Matilda (var. Edith) OF SCOTLAND

[*Dunfermline, Scotland: c. 1080 - † Westminster Palace: 01.05.1118]

Primera esposa y Reina consorte (desde el 11.11.1100 hasta su muerte) del rey Henry I of England, era descendiente de la casa escocesa de Dunkeld al ser la segunda hija del rey Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland y de su esposa, Santa Margaret Ætheling of Scotland.

Habría nacido alrededor del año 1080 en la localidad escocesa de Dunfermline [gaélico escocés: Dùn Phàrlain], Fife. Allí, al parecer, se realiza su bautismo católico, recibiendo el nombre de Edith (del anglosajón EADGYTH, que significa "Fortuna-Batalla") . Fue su padrino el duque y pretendiente del trono inglés, Robert II Curthose de Normandie, hijo mayor de Guillermo el conquistador. Aparentemente, la madre de Robert Curthose, la reina Matilda de Flandes, sería su madrina.

A los 6 años de edad (1086), ella y su hermana María fueron enviadas al monasterio de Ramsey, donde fueron educadas por su tía materna, Cristina Ætheling, que era la abadesa de ese lugar. Durante su estadía en el monasterio recibió las ofertas de matrimonio Guillermo de Warenne, 2do conde de Surrey, y de Alan Rufus, señor de Richmond, pero rechaza ambas peticiones. Hermann de Tournai agrega a la lista de pretendientes al propio William II Rufus of England, tercer hijo de Guillermo el conquistador.

Edith deja el monasterio antes de 1093, cuando Anselm, arzobispo de Canterbury, escribió al obispo de Salisbury pidiendo que la hija del rey de Escocia vuelva al monasterio.

Con la muerte de William II Rufus, en agosto de 1100, su hermano Henry asciende al trono inglés y encuentra en Edith la candidata ideal para ser su reina, esto, por ser descendiente, por línea materna, de Edmund Ironside, Alfred the Great y de toda la línea de los antiguos reyes anglo-sajones de Inglaterra (reyes de Wessex); así, los eventuales hijos de esta unión tendrían en sus venas sangre normanda y anglo-sajona, con lo que se unificarían ambos linajes. Otra ventaja de esta unión era el lograr la cercanía política entre Escocia e Inglaterra, situación que se instauraría, inusualmente, durante este periodo

Como Edith había pasado la mayor parte de su vida en un convento, se levanta la controversia de si había o no profesado como monja, cuestión que la invalidaría para la realización de la unión matrimonial. Henry buscó en el arzobispo Anselm de Canterbury la aprobación para el matrimonio, pero éste se declara poco dispuesto a decidir en tan pesada decisión, por lo que llamó a un consejo de obispos para determinar la legalidad de la unión propuesta. Edith atestiguó ante el arzobispo y a los obispos del reino, expresando que ella nunca había tomado los santos votos e insistiendo en que ella y su hermana habían sido enviadas a Ramsey por propósitos educativos, y que su tía Cristina Ætheling había accedido a ello para proteger a sus parientas "de la lujuria de los normandos". Además, agregó que si en algún momento llegó a usar el velo, fue por orden de su tía Cristina, pero de inmediato lo rechazó y arrojó al piso, siendo fuertemente reprendida por su la abadesa. El consejo reunido concluyó finalmente que Matilda nunca había sido monja y que sus padres nunca pensaron en que ella tomara los votos, por lo tanto, Anselm de Canterbury dio su permiso para la unión.

Se especula que Edith y Henry se conocían antes de estos eventos. Esto, ya que William of Malmesbury expresa que Henry “estaba hace mucho tiempo ligado“ a ella. Orderic Vitalis agrega que Henry “adoraba” grandemente la persona de Edith.

Henry I y Edith se casaron en la abadía de Westminster, el 11 de noviembre de 1100, siendo el arzobispo Anselmo el que efectúa el enlace. Posteriormente Edith es coronada reina de Inglaterra con el nombre normando de Matilde.

Acompaña a su esposo en su recorrido por toda Inglaterra, entre 1106 y 1107, y también visita con él su ducado de Normandía.

Se cuenta que su corte, establecida en Westminster, estuvo rodeada de poetas y músicos, por lo que era conocida como patrona de las artes, especialmente de la música. Su popularidad se acrecentó, además, porque ella era una reina muy activa y una ferviente católica, como su madre, inclinándose por ello a ayudar a los más necesitados. El cronista Guillermo de Malmesbury la describe lavando los pies de los menesterosos y besando las manos de los enfermos en la iglesia de Lent.

En esa línea, la reina Matilda encarga a un monje, posiblemente a Turgot, que escriba una biografía de su madre, Santa Margarita.

Murió en el palacio de Westminster, el 1 de mayo de 1118, a los 38 años de edad, siendo sepultada en la abadía de igual nombre. Después de su muerte, es recordada con apelativos como "Matilde la Buena Reina" (Matilda the Good Queen) o "Matilde de Bendita Memoria" (Matilda of Blessed Memory). Por un tiempo se buscó que la iglesia la santificara, pero nunca se logró su canonización.

Matilda y Henry tuvieron dos hijos:

1. Matilda OF ENGLAND [* 02.1102], Emperatriz consorte del Screo Impreio Romano-Germánico, Condesa consorte de Anjou; llamada “la señora de los Ingleses”.

2. William Adelin [* 1103], a veces es nombrado como Duque de Normandía. Su muerte temprana y la imposibilidad de su padre de tener herederos de su segundo matrimonio, hunde a Inglaterra en un angustioso periodo de anarquía política en busca de la sucesión dinástica.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  1. ID: I26885
  2. Name: Matilda of Scotland Atheling
  3. Surname: Atheling
  4. Given Name: Matilda of Scotland
  5. Prefix: Queen
  6. Nickname: Edith
  7. _AKA: Eadgyth of /Scotland/
  8. Sex: F
  9. Birth: ABT 1082 in Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
  10. Death: 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, England
  11. Burial: AFT 1 May 1118 Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England
  12. Ancestral File #: 8XJ0-JL
  13. _UID: 67127E2AC774014B9B2E61500AC2A932C963
  14. Occupation: 6 Aug 1100 Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England
  15. Note:
   Matilda of Scotland spent a part of her youth in a convent. In later
   years her husband's nephew King Stephen attempted to have her daughter
   declared illegitimate on the grounds that Matilda of Scotland had been a
   professed nun before marrying Henry I.
   Justin Swanstrom (2006).

1

  1. Change Date: 1 Jun 2008 at 17:39:57

Father: Malcolm III of Scotland Canmore b: ABT 1033 in of Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland

Mother: Margaret of Scotland Atheling b: ABT 1042/1045 in of Wessex, , England

Marriage 1 Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England b: Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England c: 5 Aug 1100 in , Selby, Yorkshire, England

   * Married: 11 Nov 1100 in Dunkeld, Tayside, Scotland
   * Married: 6 Aug 1100 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England

Children

  1. Has No Children of England b: Jul 1101 in England
  2. Has No Children Mathilde, Duchesse de Normandie b: 7 Feb 1102 in Winchester, Hampshire, England
  3. Has No Children Guillaume IV, Duc de Normandie b: BEF 5 Aug 1103 in Winchester, Hampshire, England
  4. Has No Children Elizabeth of England b: ABT 1095
  5. Has Children Matilda Plantagenet Empress of Germany b: 5 Aug 1102 in Winchester, Hampshire, England c: 7 Apr 1141 in England - Lady Of The English
  6. Has No Children William (Atheling) of England b: 5 Aug 1103
  7. Has No Children Richard of England b: 1105

Sources:

  1. Title: #719 

--------------------

King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:

1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[307]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[308]. [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[309]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[310]. It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".] The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[311]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[312]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[313]. He suggests[314] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[315]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[316]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[317]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[318]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[319]. Cawley’s Medlands

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[320]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). William of Malmesbury names Duncan as illegitimate son of King Malcolm, when recording that he was knighted by William II King of England[327]. There is no indication of the identity of Duncan's mother, as explained above. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a child when given as a hostage in 1072, which precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate, although there is no indication that he was thereby excluded from succession to the throne. "Dunecanus fili regii Malcolum constans hereditarie rex Scotie" donated property to the monks of St Cuthbert for the souls of his father, "fratri mei, uxore mea et infans mei" (all unnamed), by charter dated 1093, witnessed by "Eadgari, [Etheread], Aceard, Ulf, Malcolub[328], Hormer, Heming, Ælfric, Teodbold, Earnulf"[329]. The copy in Early Scottish Charters lists the witnesses in a different order, and adds "Grentonis…Vinget"[330]. He was given as a hostage to William I King of England at Abernethy in 1072 to guarantee his father's good behaviour[331]. The Annals of Ulster record that the "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage" in 1072[332], which presumably refers to Duncan as any of his half-brothers (if then born) would have been infants at the time. He was kept in Normandy. Florence of Worcester records that Robert III "Curthose" Duke of Normandy released "Ulfam Haroldi quondam regis Anglorum filium, Dunechaldumque regis Scottorum Malcolmi filium" from custody after his father's death in Sep 1087, knighted them and allowed them to leave Normandy[333]. He joined William II King of England and remained at his court in England[334]. Florence of Worcester records that Duncan served in the army of King William II, who supported his bid to depose his uncle, and to whom Duncan swore fealty before leaving for Scotland[335]. He deposed his uncle in 1094 and proclaimed himself DUNCAN II King of Scotland[336]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[337]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[338]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond" in 1094[339]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan was "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald"[340]. Florence of Worcester records that "Scotti regem…Dunechan" was killed in [1094][341]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donechat mac Malcolm" was killed "a Malpeder Mackcolm comite de Merns in Monacheden" through the treachery of "Donald mac Donehat"[342]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys…Malpetri, in Scottish, Malpedir, through the wiles of his uncle Donald" as was buried "in the island of Iona"[343]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua”[344]. The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded her nephew “Alanus filius Waldevi”[345]. It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda´s first husband and Waltheof her second husband. She married secondly Waltheof. Cawley’s Medlands

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]). His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[346]. That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei". As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder. "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[347]. Lord of Skipton and Craven, by right of his [second] wife. Cawley’s Medlands

2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085). There is no indication of the name of Donald's mother. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was an adult when killed, and old enough to have had a son himself at that time, but this precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate. The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland…ended [his] life unhappily" in 1085[348]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.

Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116). The Annals of Ulster record that "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray"[349]. It is not known with certainty to whom this refers, but a son of Donald, son of King Malcolm, is the most likely possibility.] Cawley’s Medlands

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD Ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][321], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[322]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[323]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[324]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[325]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[326]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children[350]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans). Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[351]. He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him first of the sons[352]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[353]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", "Edmund…was privy to his brother Duncan´s death, having…bargained with his uncle [Donald] for half the kingdom" but was captured and "kept in fetters for ever"[354]. He died from wounds received at the battle of Alnwick during a raid on England led by his father. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[355]. Matthew Paris reports that the remains of "regis Scotorum Malcolmi et Edwardi filii sui" were found at Tynemouth, commenting that both had been killed fighting "Robertus de Mumbrai"[356]. Cawley’s Medlands

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him second of the sons[357]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Edmund "was buried at Montacute in England"[358]. He succeeded in 1094 as EDMUND joint King of Scotland, jointly with his uncle King Donald III "Bane", ruling south of the Forth/Clyde. He was deposed in 1097 by his brother Edgar, and became a monk at Montacute Abbey. Edmund is not mentioned either by Orderic Vitalis in his brief account of the usurpation of King Donald "Bane"[359], or by Florence of Worcester in his account of the deposition of King Donald in 1097[360]. If Edmund was older than his brother Edgar, it is not clear why their uncle Edgar Ætheling, who led the English army which deposed their uncle, would have supported the accession of Edgar in place of Edmund. The Annals of Ulster record that he was involved in the killing of his half-brother King Duncan[361]. William of Malmesbury records that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret", that he "[partook] in his uncle Donald's crime and…had been accessory to his brother's death", was "doomed to perpetual imprisonment", and "on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains"[362]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records that "Edmundus" was buried "apud Montem Acutum in…cella Cluniacensi"[363]. Cawley’s Medlands

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him third of the sons[364]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[365]. He succeeded in 1097 as EDGAR King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[366]. The reign of Edgar is ignored by Orderic Vitalis, who says that Alexander succeeded when King Donald was deposed[367]. "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi" by charter dated 30 Aug 1095, subscribed by "Egeri regis, Alexandri fratri eius, Manyanium, Agulfi, filii Doncani, Eyluerti, filii Eghe Omani, Uhtredi, filii Magdufe, Constantini, Rodberti de humet, Ætele, A. gulfi, Alimoldi filii sui, David"[368]. The precise dating of this charter and the unusual list of subscribers suggest that it may be spurious. "Edgarus…Rex Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "Malcolmi patris nostri et Margaretæ matris nostræ…ac Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum" by charter dated 1095[369]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1107 of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[370]. Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Jan" in [1107] of "Eadgarus rex Scottorum"[371]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Edgar mac Malcolm" reigned for 9 years, died "in Dunedin", and was buried "in Dumferline"[372]. Cawley’s Medlands

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[373]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[374]. Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[375]. He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "Alexanderfrater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][376]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[377]. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15], witnessed by "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna"[378]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[379].

m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay). William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[380], which appears to imply mental retardation. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15][381]. Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[382]. Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095]. The Complete Peerage[383] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[384], and "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[385]. However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view. William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187. If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named. In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland. Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). This means that he could only have been Sibyl´s half-brother if she had been a young girl at the time of her marriage. On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to late in the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). If Robert Corbet was Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time. The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1122 "apud Lochtay cellam canonicorum de Scona" of "Sibilla…regine Scocie uxor regis Alexandri, filia Henrici Beuclerk regis Anglie"[386]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158). Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[387]. Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[388]. same person as …? MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[389]). Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[390]. He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157. Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[391]. Cawley’s Medlands

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fifth of the sons[392]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Ethelred "as some assert…lies buried in St Andrew´s church at Kilremont"[393]. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven by undated charter, witnessed by "duo fratres Hedelradi…David et Alexander…Constantini comitis de Fyf et Nesse et Cormac filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis"[394]. Cawley’s Medlands


8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[395]. Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[396]. She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage. Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "MatildisAnglorum regina"[397]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[398].

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). Cawley’s Medlands

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[399]. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Mary and her sister Eadgyth to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[400]. Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "Mariam reginæ sororem" and "Eustatio Bononensium comiti" in [1102][401]. Her marriage is also recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her daughter[402]. The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" married "Mariam filiam regis Scotiæ"[403]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records the death "II Kal Jun" in 1116 of "Maria…comitissa" and her burial "apud Bermundseiam"[404]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Mary countess of Bouillon" died in "the third year before her sister´s death"[405].

m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125). Cawley’s Medlands

-------------------- http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/3/18310.htm -------------------- Matilda of Scotland

 

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Matilda of Scotland

Matylda zena.jpg

Queen consort of England


Tenure 11 November 1100 – 1 May 1118

Coronation 11 November 1100


Spouse Henry I of England

Issue

Matilda, Holy Roman Empress William of England

House House of Dunkeld

Father Malcolm III of Scotland

Mother Saint Margaret of Scotland

Born c. 1080 Dunfermline, Scotland

Died 1 May 1118 (aged 38) Westminster Palace

Burial Westminster Abbey

Matilda of Scotland[1] (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), born Edith, was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I.

Contents

 [hide] 1 Early life

2 Marriage 3 Queen 3.1 Works

4 Death 5 Legacy 6 Issue 7 Appearance and Character 8 Notes and sources 9 References 10 External links


[edit] Early life

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret. She was christened (baptised) Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at the ceremony. Queen Matilda, the consort of William the Conqueror, was also present at the baptismal font and served as her godmother. Baby Matilda pulled at Queen Matilda's headdress, which was seen as an omen that the younger Matilda would be queen one day.[2]

The Life Of St Margaret, Queen Of Scotland was later written for Matilda possibly by Turgot of Durham. It refers to Matilda's childhood and her relationship with her mother. In it, Margaret is described as a strict but loving mother. She did not spare the rod when it came to raising her children in virtue, which the author presupposed was the reason for the good behaviour Matilda and her siblings displayed, and Margaret also stressed the importance of piety.[3]

When she was about six years old, Matilda of Scotland (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey Abbey, near Southampton, where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and, some time before 1093, at Wilton Abbey, both institutions known for learning,[4] the Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; refusing proposals from William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, and Alan Rufus, Lord of Richmond. Hériman of Tournai claimed that William II Rufus considered marrying her. Her education went beyond the standard feminine pursuits. This was not surprising as her mother was a great lover of books and literate. Her daughters learned English, French, and some Latin, and were sufficiently literate to read St. Augustine and the Old and New Testaments. [5]

In 1093, her parents betrothed her to Alan Rufus, Lord of Richmond, one of her numerous suitors. However, before the marriage took place, her father entered into a dispute with William Rufus. In response, he marauded the English king's lands where he was surprised by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria and killed along with his son, Edward. Upon hearing of her husband and son's death, Margaret, already ill, died on November 16. Edith was now an orphan. She was abandoned by her betrothed who ran off with a daughter of Harold Godwinson, Gunhild of Wessex. However, he died before they could be married. [6]

She had left the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the King of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left. She did not return to Wilton and until 1100, is largely unaccounted for in chronicles. [7]

[edit] Marriage

After the mysterious death of William II in August 1100, his brother, Henry, immediately seized the royal treasury and crown. His next task was to marry and Henry's choice was Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a convent, there was some controversy over whether she was a nun and thus canonically ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm, who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the canonical legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified that she had never taken holy vows, insisting that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and her aunt Cristina had veiled her to protect her "from the lust of the Normans." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her for this act. The council concluded that Matilda was not a nun, never had been and her parents had not intended that she become one, giving their permission for the marriage.

Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage — William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" her character. It is possible that Matilda had spend some time at William Rufus's court and that the pair had met there. It is also possible Henry was introduced to his bride by his teacher Bishop Osmund. Whatever the case, it is clear that the two at least knew each other prior to their wedding. Additionally, the chronicler William of Malmesbury suggests that the new king loved his bride. [8]

Matilda's mother was the sister of Edgar the Ætheling, proclaimed but uncrowned King of England after Harold, and, through her, Matilda was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus from the royal family of Wessex, which in the 10th century had become the royal family of a united England. This was extremely important because although Henry had been born in England, he needed a bride with ties to the ancient Wessex line to increase his popularity with the English and to reconcile the Normans and Anglo-Saxons. [9] In their children, the two factions would be united, further unifying the new regime. Another benefit was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of Matilda's brothers became kings of Scotland in succession and were unusually friendly towards England during this period of unbroken peace between the two nations: Alexander married one of Henry I's illegitimate daughters and David lived at Henry's court for some time before his accession.[10]

Matilda had a small dower but it did incorporate some lordship rights. Most of her dower estates were granted from lands previously held by Edith of Wessex. Additionally, Henry made numerous grants on his wife including substantial property in London. Generosity aside, this was a political move in order to win over the unruly Londoners who were vehement supporters of the Wessex kings. [11]

[edit] Queen


The seal of Matilda

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, she was crowned as "Matilda," a hallowed Norman name. By courtiers, however, she and her husband were soon nicknamed 'Godric and Godiva'.[12] These two names were typical English names from before The Conquest and mocked their more rustic style, especially when compared to the flamboyance of William II.

She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, born in February 1102, and a son, William, called "Adelin", in November 1103. As Queen, she resided primarily at Westminster, but accompanied her husband on his travels around England, and, circa 1106–1107, probably visited Normandy with him. Matilda was the designated head of Henry's curia and acted as regent during his frequent absences.[13]

During the English investiture controversy (1103-07), she acted as intercessor between her husband and archbishop Anselm. She wrote several letters during Anselm's absence, first asking him for advice and to return, but later increasingly to mediate.[14]

view all 11

Matilda of Scotland's Timeline

1080
1080
Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
1080
1100
November 11, 1100
Age 20
London, Greater London, United Kingdom
1101
July 1101
Age 21
Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom
1102
February 7, 1102
Age 22
Nr Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England
1103
August 5, 1103
Age 23
Selby, Yorkshire, , England
1118
May 1, 1118
Age 38
Palace of Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
June 1118
Age 38
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster (Westminster Abbey), Westminster, Middlesex, England
????
????